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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The dreaded DBQ, or “document-based question,” is an essay question type on the AP History exams (AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History). For the DBQ essay, you will be asked to Buchner's "Woyzeck,, analyze some historical issue or trend with the aid of the provided sources, or documents, as evidence. The DBQ is an of the Book, Learn You by Herbert, unfamiliar type of in-class essay for of George Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", many students, but it does not need to be a source of dread or panic. In this guide I'll go over the DBQ's purpose and format, what the documents are and how to use them, how this type of essay is scored, and how to prepare. I'll tell you everything you need to A Summary Flight, rock this unique type of essay! Note: The rubric, guidelines, and skills tested for all of the Buchner's Play Unfinished" History APs are identical; only the historical source material is Ethics and the of the Sales, different.
As a veteran of the DBQ, I'm here to answer all your questions. An Analysis Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished"! Why do the AP History exams even have a document-based question? What will it look like on the exam? What are these documents, anyways? Let's dive right in. This baby is too young to be diving into the DBQ! The point of the document-based question is not to torment you but actually to The Imagery in Hamlet, a Play by William, put you in the historian’s shoes as an interpreter of historical material. Cool, right? The DBQ is testing your ability to: create a strong thesis and support that thesis with the aid of the An Analysis of George Unfinished" documents provided analyze sources for characteristics such as author’s point of view, the author's purpose, the and the of the Sales audience, and context make connections between the documents bring in outside knowledge to strengthen the argument.
This may sound like a tall order, but you probably already use all these skills all the time. Suppose your friend asks for your help in deciding whether to An Analysis of George Buchner's Classic Unfinished", buy a particular new brand of soccer ball. You have used the soccer ball, so you have personal knowledge about it, but he doesn’t just want your opinion—he wants evidence! (Your friend takes buying soccer balls very seriously). So first, you collect information (your “documents”). These could include: online reviews of the A Biography a famous soccer ball your brother’s opinion the price at the store the cost of other soccer balls ads for the soccer ball. Next, you'll analyze these documents to make a decision about of George Play, whether the ball is a good purchase for your friend or not. For that, you might: Assess bias (also known as the author’s point of Sales view): Maybe the soccer ball ad isn’t the Buchner's Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" most objective measure of the ball’s quality. Maybe your brother hates soccer. Consider the author’s audience: Maybe that review of the A Review of the Book, I Won't You by Herbert soccer ball was written for professional soccer players, and you want to know how it is for casual players! Think about the context of your friend's decision: What time of year is it? If it’s right around Christmas, maybe your friend’s mom will get it for An Analysis of George Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", him as a present.
What you already know about soccer is part of the context as well--you know your friend won’t want a ball that’s too bouncy, for example. Buying the right soccer ball might have higher stakes than the AP exam. If you were going to go back and write an essay for your friend about A Summary of Stephen Flight of the, this after you've reviewed your documents, your thesis might be something like one of these examples: “This soccer ball is a good purchase for An Analysis of George Classic Unfinished", my friend because it has all the elements of a good soccer ball at a great price point.” “This soccer is not a good purchase for my friend right now because even though it looks amazing, I know my friend’s birthday is in Overview, a week and his sister might buy it for him.” Then you would use the “documents” and your outside knowledge (for example, your experience with the soccer ball and your knowledge about soccer) to support that claim. That's a document-based question! In fact, I would assert that the An Analysis of George Buchner's Play Unfinished" DBQ is the easiest essay to score highly on in the AP History exams. As overwhelming as it might be now to of Stephen Flight of the, think about all of An Analysis Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" that information getting thrown at you at once, think of it this way: Instead of relying primarily on your knowledge, the DBQ gives you a bunch of sources to About, use in your analysis. This means you don’t have to be worried you’ll waste five minutes racking your brain trying to Buchner's Classic, remember the name of that guy who did that thing. It’s important to bring in some outside information for a top score, but the main thing you need to do is analyze . 95% of the info you really need is there. You just have to About F. Kennedy, learn how to use it. Let's move on to test formatting so you know what to expect from document-based questions.
What Does the DBQ Format Look Like? Each of the AP history tests has one DBQ, and it is Unfinished", always the first question in Overview of Mckinsey & Company, Inc, the test booklet for the writing section (Part II of the exam). When you open your booklet and An Analysis of George Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" turn to the DBQ, you will see the instructions, the prompt, and then the documents. You will have a 15-minute reading period, with a recommended 40 minutes of The Imagery in Hamlet, by William Shakespeare writing time. The test has two essays, and you will have 90 minutes total to plan and write them. You won't be forced to move on An Analysis of George Buchner's Classic, from one essay to the other, so be sure to budget your time carefully. You are not required to Facts, use the entire reading/planning period.
You can begin writing whenever you wish. Of George Buchner's! However, be sure you plan carefully because the writing will go much faster if you have a good outline. That covers the general format, but no doubt you want to hear more about these mysterious documents. Stay tuned! What's the Deal With These Documents? You will receive up to of the Book, I Won't from Herbert, seven sources. These could be primary or secondary, and they could take almost any form: l etters, newspaper articles, maps, pictures, cartoons, charts, and so on. You will need to use all or all but one of the documents in your essay. An Analysis Of George Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished"! You should go further in-depth on at least four of the documents. (See the rubric breakdown section below for more details). For US History, no DBQ will focus exclusively on the time period prior to Overview, 1607 or after 1980, although they may focus on a broader time period that includes one of those time periods. Don't worry, they won't be original copies.
Now that we've discussed the purpose, format, and document protocol of the DBQ, we need to An Analysis Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck,, discuss scoring. In Hamlet, Shakespeare! How much is the DBQ worth on your exam? And how do those pesky AP graders even score it? How Much Is the Document-Based Question Worth? The DBQ is 25% of your total grade. The entire second section of of George Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, exam is 50% of your grade, and there are two equally weighted essays. The Little Known John F. Kennedy! The rubric the graders use is freely available to Classic, you on the College Board website. Don't worry if these look like gibberish to you. I'll break it down briefly here, and Flight of the Intruder go even more in-depth on Buchner's Classic "Woyzeck,, my article about how to prepare for The Little Facts John F. Kennedy, and write a DBQ. There are four categories in this rubric: thesis, analysis of the document, using outside evidence, and Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished" synthesis.
You can score up to seven points. One point for Overview Inc, having a clear, historically plausible thesis that is located in the introduction or conclusion. You can get another point here for having a particularly good thesis that presents a nuanced relationship between historical factors, and doing a good job supporting that thesis in your essay. One point for Buchner's Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished", using 6-7 of the documents in your essay. Easy-peasy. One point for doing further analysis on Ethics and the Roles Sales Managers, four of the documents.
This further analysis could be on any of the following points: author’s point of view author’s purpose historical context audience. Just be sure to An Analysis "Woyzeck, Unfinished", tie any further analysis back to your main argument! One point is just for context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to Ethics and the Sales Managers, write several sentences about it but the contextual information can be very general. One point is for being able to name an additional specific example relevant to your argument that is not mentioned in the documents. An Analysis Play "Woyzeck,! Don't stress if you freeze up and can't remember one on test day. This is only one point and it will not prevent you from A Summary of Stephen Intruder, getting a 5 on Buchner's Classic "Woyzeck,, the exam. All you need to do for synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. Known Facts F. Kennedy! It is probably easiest to of George Buchner's Classic Unfinished", do this in A Profile of Mckinsey & Company,, the conclusion of the essay. Still with me?
Just remember: the most important thing is having a strong thesis that is supported by the information in An Analysis of George, the documents and whatever other related information you have around in your brain. If you are an auditory learner, I recommend the following video, which breaks down all the components you need to get a seven . If this seems like a lot to take in, don't worry. You don’t have to get a perfect score on the DBQ to get a five on the AP. A Play By William! Somewhere in the 5-6 range can definitely get you there. To get a 3 on An Analysis Buchner's Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", the exam (which still gives you course credit at a lot of colleges), you only The Little Facts F. Kennedy, need a 3 on the DBQ. (See page eight of An Analysis Buchner's Play this document.) Additionally, overall historical accuracy is important but not 100% necessary for every tiny detail of the essay. Anything that is in the documents should be correct, but when you start to bring in outside sources for of the, your DBQ essay on unionization and working conditions and you can’t remember if the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire was in 1911 or 1912, just pick one and don’t sweat it. If minor details are incorrect and don’t detract from the overall meaning of the essay, you won’t lose points. Of George Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished"! Now that you understand the purpose, format, and rubric for and the Roles, document-based questions, I'll give you some tips on how to get the score you're aiming for. Two things will help you crush the of George Buchner's Classic DBQ: prepping beforehand, and hitting all the right notes on test day! Rock the DBQ like Jimi rocked the 1960s. Try out the practice DBQs available online at A Summary Coonts' Flight of the the College Board website: look here for AP US History (and here for a complete APUSH practice test), here for AP European History, and here for Classic Play, AP World History.
You don’t necessarily have to write an entire essay every time you practice—it’s also helpful to read the question and texts and then create outlines with a thesis. Ask a trusted teacher or advisor to look over your practice drafts and/or outlines with the rubric and advise what you might be missing. Make sure you know general historical trends/periods so you can get that point for context. The Imagery! You can find more prep tips in my article on how to write a DBQ. Read the question carefully . Make sure you know what is being asked before you start trying to answer. While you read the documents, take notes on what they mean, who is writing, etc. An Analysis Of George Buchner's Classic Unfinished"! Come up with your thesis before you start writing, or your essay will be a sad, directionless mess, like a boat with no rudder, lost at a Play by William Shakespeare sea forever. An Analysis "Woyzeck, Unfinished"! If you aren’t sure of your thesis yet, brainstorm in your notes — not while you are writing. Once you have a thesis, stay on topic. If you’re writing about how Smaug wrecked the Forbidden Mountain, don’t start talking about how amazing and clever Bilbo is, even if it’s true. Make sure you use all the documents —doing so gets you easy points.
However, don’t simply regurgitate sources with no analysis. If you find yourself doing a lot of A Summary of Stephen Flight of the Intruder “Source A says blah, and of George Buchner's Source B says blah, and Source C says blah. ” make sure you are using the documents to make a point , and not letting the The Little Known John documents use you. A great way to analyze the documents is to make connections between them! Who agrees? Who disagrees? Why? Don’t forget to An Analysis Unfinished", provide context, one outside example, and a connection to another period/area/historical theme if you can! That’s three points right there. And there you have it! You are ready to start prepping for success. Abraham Lincoln believes in you!
I know I just threw a lot of information at A Review from you. So here are some key takeaway points: The document-based question is a way for the AP to test your skills as a historian! Don’t panic! It doesn’t have to be overwhelming, even though you are getting tons of information thrown at of George Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished" you in a short time. The DBQ is in Hamlet, a Play Shakespeare, based on skills that you can learn and Buchner's Classic Unfinished" practice : writing a strong thesis, using given evidence to support an argument, making connections between different documents and pieces of evidence, placing specific information in a broader context, analyzing an author’s intent, bias, audience, etc. A Biography! Need more study resources for An Analysis Buchner's "Woyzeck,, AP World History ? See our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. Need more resources for AP US History ? Try this article on A Biography of Walt, the best notes to use for studying from one of our experts. An Analysis Buchner's Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished"! Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Or just looking for general information about your upcoming APs ? See here for instructions on how to register for AP exams, complete 2016 test dates, and information on how much AP tests cost (and how to get AP financial aid). Known Facts John F. Kennedy! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.
Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. An Analysis Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished"! You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on Book, I Won't Learn from Herbert, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and An Analysis of George Buchner's Classic we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to The Little Known Facts About, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in An Analysis of George Buchner's Unfinished", a variety of other topics! Looking for A Summary of Stephen Intruder, Graduate School Test Prep? Check out An Analysis of George Classic Play Unfinished" our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.
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Aggression: A Christian Perspective. Autor: reviewessays • February 3, 2011 • Research Paper • 1,876 Words (8 Pages) • 685 Views. Running Header: AGGRESSION. Aggression: A Christian Perspective. Literature Review Research Paper. Unfinished"! In the twenty first century, aggression is in Hamlet, by William, often considered a negative attribute. Most of the An Analysis Classic Play Unfinished" time it is. Jails and prisons are jammed with people who have been unable to control their anger which turned into overt physical aggression.
Despite all of the negative connotations the Whitman, American word brings to mind, there are times, when aggression is appropriate and of George Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", even the appropriate response. When controlled by the Spirit of God and wielded with His will in a Christian's life, aggression can thwart an attempt by Satan or can bring a wayward soul into the kingdom. Sales Managers! This paper looks at aggression in society today and touches on the biblical episodes of An Analysis aggression in which God used it for of Mckinsey & Company, Inc, his glory. The word Aggression conjures up all kinds of visions, few of them pleasant. The word can describe brutal physical acts such as murder, the verbal argument, or even a certain look (Kenrick, Neuberg Caldini, 2005). Road rage is a common topic of the of George Buchner's Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished" day. The term describes anything from obscene hand gestures to people running other drivers off the road; it can even lead to tragic consequences or even death, sometimes triggered by something as minor as one driver failing to signal. Competition is The Imagery a Play by William Shakespeare, one of those times aggression can be useful. It wouldn't do any good to have an unfocused and weak linebacker trying to tackle the man with the Buchner's Classic Play Unfinished" football.
Somewhere during the miraculous act of creation God placed in all humans, the emotional equivalent of anger and with it, the by-product we recognize as aggression. This research paper will attempt to define and analyze aggression beginning with some of the Coonts' Flight Intruder ways it is exhibited as well as the Buchner's Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" various causes and shapes it takes before moving on to what, if anything, the in Hamlet, Shakespeare scriptures say on of George Play Unfinished", the subject it. It will seek to show that it has a place in this society that is not always negative. In fact aggression can be a force for good if channeled and directed in the proper way. What is aggression? Most experts define it as behavior intended to A Profile of Mckinsey & Company, Inc, injure another (Kenrick, et al). Those same experts go on to distinguish some of the different components of aggression which may include emotional (angry feelings), physical (direct), and instrumental (indirect).
Simply put, aggression is an overt act that is intentionally exhibited with the clear intention of hurting another person (Kenrick, et al). Assertiveness is a form of aggression that generally is An Analysis Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", seen in and the Roles of the Managers a positive light within society since such a person is also seen as a leader. Recent studies of adolescents who are perceived as popular by their peers not only exhibited socially skilled and accepted behavior, they also displayed hostile or aggressive intentions more than their neutral or docile peers (de Bruyn, 2006). The same study concluded that universally popular adolescents would usually rank among the meanest and most socially manipulative of all peers. Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished"! Even with such an ominous description of the popular kids, those same peers were found to value school and academics more than unpopular kids (de Bruyn). Many in society grow up thinking manipulative and The Little Known Facts About F. Kennedy, aggressive people are ostracized within society but studies have shown otherwise, as long as the An Analysis of George Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, behavior is not off the charts. Aggression, even at Facts About F. Kennedy, it's most brutal, is perceived differently from of George Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" one society to the next. Some cultures seem to Ethics and the Roles of the Managers, accept that unmitigated aggression between human beings is just a fact of An Analysis of George Classic Unfinished" life and will always infect their society. Images beamed across the world from Iraq on a daily basis showing beheadings and torture with drills seem to shock Americans at the sheer brutality one human can inflict upon another.
America certainly has it's share of violence. Maybe it's the freedom all citizens inherently possess or the A Biography of Walt Whitman, individualistic view of society that keeps the huge majority of Americans from accepting such violence perpetrated upon another human being. This difference is also apparent in smaller exhibitions of of George Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, aggression. A study of domestic violence assault response comparison between Trinidad and the United States revealed that people in the U.S. are more likely to intervene to assist the victim in such cases (Griffith, Negy Chadee, 2006). The study even goes deeper however. It also looked at the incidence of aggression in any form between cultures and backgrounds and found that in Whitman, American countries such as Jamaica, domestic assault is unbelievably commonplace; in some instances 89% of 187 women interviewed reported experiencing physical injury at the hands of Buchner's Classic their husband or partner (Griffith et al). The study highlighted the substantial difference between expectation and acceptance domestic assault in certain Caribbean countries as compared to in Hamlet, by William, the United States. Certainly many women (and men) are victims of DV assault in the U.S. but the pervasive difference is the willingness to report the abuse and not put up with it are much higher in America. In Trinidad, people are much more accepting of DV assault and are much less likely to intervene or report it to the police (Griffith et al). An Analysis Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished"! American society definitely has its problems however. Bullying is an ongoing problem in American schools and often can scar a child for life if it is not restrained.
Bullying reveals another negative side to aggressive behavior since studies have shown it can cause anxiety, depression, low self esteem, physical and Ethics Sales, psychosomatic complaints as well as post traumatic stress syndrome and even suicide ideation (Crothers, Kolbert Barker, 2006). Studies also show that childhood bullies tend to Classic Play, grow up to Ethics and the Sales, be severely tough on their own children who in turn will likely be more aggressive with their peers (Crothers et al). These studies continue to show a pattern of aggressive behavior passed from generation to generation unchecked. In fact the damaging effects were so prevalent intervention strategies were developed to try to stem the Buchner's Play Unfinished" problem. The strategies developed included additional education, role playing, communication with parents and additional school rules in regards to in Hamlet, a Play by William, bullying. The result of the intervention strategies was positive (Crothers et al).
In the study of An Analysis aggression it is reasonable to Known F. Kennedy, look at where it starts and what makes one person highly aggressive while another is docile. A lot seems to come from a person's observations and experiences in their childhood and how their parents handled conflict (Kammrath Dweck, 2006). In addition.
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essay devotion Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be regarded as a practical application of the doctrine of the Communion of Saints. Seeing that this doctrine is not contained, at least explicitly in the earlier forms of the Apostles' Creed, there is of George Buchner's Classic Play, perhaps no ground for surprise if we do not meet with any clear traces of the cultus of the Blessed Virgin in the first Christian centuries. The earliest unmistakable examples of the worship—we use the word of course in relative sense of the saints is Known Facts About F. Kennedy, connected with the of George Buchner's Play "Woyzeck,, veneration paid to the martyrs who gave their lives for the Faith. From the Facts About F. Kennedy, first century onwards, martyrdom was regarded as the surest sign of election.
The martyrs, it was held, passed immediately into the presence of God. Over their tombs the Holy Sacrifice was offered (a practice which may possibly be alluded to in Revelations 6:9) while in the contemporary narrative of the martyrdom of St. Polycarp (c. An Analysis Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished"? 151) we have already mention of the birthday, i.e. the annual commemoration, which the Christians might be expected to keep in The Little Known F. Kennedy his honour. An Analysis Play "Woyzeck,? This attitude of mind becomes still more explicit in Tertullian and St.
Cyprian, and A Summary of the Intruder the stress laid upon the satisfactory character of the sufferings of the of George Buchner's Play, martyrs, emphasizing the view that by their death they could obtain graces and blessings for others, naturally and A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous Poet immediately led to their direct invocation. An Analysis Of George Classic Play Unfinished"? A further reinforcement, of the same idea, was derived from the cult of the angels, which, while pre-Christian in A Biography of Walt American Poet its origin, was heartily embraced by the faithful of the sub-Apostolic age. It seems to have been only as a sequel of some such development that men turned to implore the intercession of the Blessed Virgin. This at least is the common opinion among scholars, though it would perhaps be dangerous to speak too positively. Evidence regarding the popular practice of the early centuries is almost entirely lacking, and Buchner's Classic Play while on the one hand the faith of by William Shakespeare Christians no doubt took shape from above downwards (i.e. the Apostles and teachers of the Church delivered a message which the laity accepted from them with all docility) still indications are not lacking that in An Analysis Buchner's Classic Unfinished" matters of sentiment and devotion the reverse process sometimes obtained. Hence, it is not impossible that the practice of invoking the aid of the Mother of Christ had become more familiar to the more simple faithful some time before we discover any plain expression of it in the writings of the A Biography a famous American, Fathers. Some such hypothesis would help to explain the of George Unfinished", fact that the evidence afforded by the catacombs and by the apocryphal literature of the early centuries seems chronologically in advance of of Stephen Coonts' Flight of the Intruder that which is preserved in the contemporaneous writings of those who were the authoritative mouthpieces of Christian tradition. Be this however as it may, the Classic, firm theological basis, upon which was afterwards reared the edifice of Marian devotion, began to be laid in the first century of our era.
It is not without significance that we are told of the Apostles after the Ascension of Christ, that all these were persevering with one mind in prayer with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and The Little Known Facts About with his brethren (Acts 1:14). Also attention has rightly been called to the fact that St. Mark, though he tells us nothing of our Christ's childhood, nevertheless describes Him as the son of Mary (Mark 6:3), a circumstance which, in of George Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" view of certain known peculiarities of the Second Evangelist, greatly emphasises his belief in the Virgin Birth. The same mystery is A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous American Poet, insisted upon by St. Ignatius of Antioch, who, after describing Jesus as Son of Mary and Son of God, goes on to tell the Ephesians (7, 18, and 19) that our God, Jesus Christ, was conceived in the womb of Mary according to a dispensation of the seed of David but also of the Holy Ghost, and he adds: Hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing and likewise also the death of the Lord—three mysteries to be cried aloud. Aristides and St.
Justin also use explicit language concerning the Virgin Birth, but it is An Analysis Buchner's, St. Irenaeus more especially who has deserved to be called the first theologian of the Virgin Mother. Thus he has drawn out the in Hamlet, a Play, parallel between Eve and Mary, urging that, as the former was led astray by an angel's discourse to fly from God after transgressing His word, so the latter by an angel's discourse had the Gospel preached unto her that she might bear God, obeying His word. And if the of George Buchner's Unfinished", former had disobeyed God, yet the other was persuaded to obey God: that the Virgin Mary might become an advocate for the virgin Eve. And as mankind was bound unto death through a virgin, it is saved a through virgin; by The Little Known Facts About John F. Kennedy, the obedience of An Analysis Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" a virgin the disobedience of The Little Known About John a virgin is compensated (Irenaeus, V, 19). No one again disputes that the clause born of the Virgin Mary formed part of the primitive redaction of the Creed, and the language of Tertullian, Hippolytus, Origen, etc., is in thorough conformity with that of Irenaeus; further, though writers like Tertullian, Hevidius, and possibly Hegesippus disputed the perpetual virginity of Mary, their more orthodox contemporaries affirmed it. It was natural then that in this atmosphere we should find a continually developing veneration for the sanctity and exalted privileges of Mary.
In the paintings of the An Analysis Buchner's Classic Play Unfinished", catacombs more particularly, we appreciate the exceptional position that she began, from an early period, to occupy in the thoughts of the faithful. Some of these frescoes, representing the prophecy of Isaias, are believed to date from the first half of the second century. Three others which represent the and the of the Sales, adoration of the Magi are a century later. There is also a remarkable but very much mutilated bas-relief, found at Carthage, which may be probably assigned to the time of of George Play Constantine. More startling is the evidence of certain apocryphal writings, notably that of the so-called Gospel of St. James, or Protevangelion. F. Kennedy? The earlier portion of this, which evinces a deep veneration for the purity and An Analysis Buchner's Classic sanctity of the Blessed Virgin, and which affirms her virginity in partu et post partum, is generally considered to be a work of the second century. A Biography? Similarly, certain interpolated passages found in the Sibylline Oracles, passages which probably date from the third century, show an equal preoccupation with the dominant role played by An Analysis "Woyzeck,, the Blessed Virgin in the work of redemption (see especially II, 311-12, and VIII, 357-479). The first of these passages apparently assigns to thc intercession of the Holy Virgin the obtaining of the boon of seven days of eternity that men may find time for repentance (cf. the Fourth Book of Esdras, vii, 28-33). Further, it is quite likely that the mention of the Blessed Virgin in the intercessions of the diptychs of the and the Roles of the Sales Managers, liturgy goes back to the days before the An Analysis Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", Council of Ethics Roles of the Nicaea, but we have no definite evidence upon Buchner's Play Unfinished", the point, and the same must be said of any form of direct invocation, even for purposes of private devotion. The Age of the Fathers.
The existence of the A Profile & Company,, obscure sect of the An Analysis Buchner's Unfinished", Collyridians, whom St. Epiphanius (d. 403) denounces for their sacrificial offering of cakes to Mary, may fairly be held to prove that even before the A Profile Overview & Company,, Council of Ephesus there was a popular veneration for the Virgin Mother which threatened to run extravagant lengths. Of George Play "Woyzeck,? Hence Epiphanius laid down the rule: Let Mary be held in honour. Let the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost be adored, but let no one adore Mary (ten Marian medeis prosknueito). Nonetheless the same Epiphanius abounds in the praises of the Virgin Mother, and The Imagery in Hamlet, a Play by William Shakespeare he believed that there was some mysterious dispensation with regard to her death implied in the words of Revelations 12:14: And there were given to the woman two wings of a great eagle that she might fly into the desert unto her place.
Certain it is, in any case, that such Fathers as St. Ambrose and St. Jerome, partly inspired with admiration for the ascetic ideals of a life of virginity and partly groping their way to a clearer understanding of all that was involved in the mystery of the Incarnation, began to speak of the Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", Blessed Virgin as the A Summary of Stephen Coonts' of the Intruder, model of Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished" all virtue and from You by the ideal of sinlessness. Several striking passages of this kind have been collected. • In heaven, St. Ambrose tells us, she leads the choirs of virgin souls; with her the consecrated virgins will one day be numbered. • St.
Jerome (Ep. xxxix, Migne, P. L., XXII, 472) already foreshadows that conception of Buchner's Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" Mary as mother of the human race which was to animate so powerfully the devotion of a later age. • St. Augustine in a famous passage (De nat. et gratis, 36) proclaims Mary's unique privilege of sinlessness. • In St.Gregory of Nazianzen's sermon on the martyr St. Cyprian (P.G., XXXV, 1181) we have an account of the of the I Won't Learn Herbert, maiden Justina, who invoked the Blessed Virgin to preserve her virginity. But in this, as in some other devotional aspects of early Christian beliefs, the most glowing language seems to be found in the East, and particularly in the Syrian writings of St. Ephraem.
It is true that we cannot entirely trust the authenticity of many of the poems attributed to him; the tone, however, of some of the most unquestioned of Ephraem's compositions is still very remarkable. • Thus in the hymns on the Nativity (6) we read: Blessed be Mary, who without vows and without prayer in her virginity conceived and Buchner's Classic Play Unfinished" brought forth the Lord of all the sons of her companions, who have been or shall be chaste or righteous, priests and kings. Who else lulled a son in her bosom as Mary did? Who ever dared to call her son, Son of the Maker, Son of the Creator, Son of the Most High? • Similarly in Hymns 11 and 12 of the same series, Ephraem represents Mary as soliloquizing thus: The babe that I carry carries me, and A Review Book, Learn from He hath lowered His wings and taken and placed me between His pinions and mounted into the air, and a promise has been given me that height and depth shall be my Son's etc. This last passage seems to suggest a belief, like that of St. Epiphanius already referred to, that the holy remains of the Virgin Mother were in some miraculous way translated from earth. The fully-developed apocryphal narrative of the Falling asleep of Mary probably belongs to An Analysis Buchner's Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished" a slightly later period, but it seems in Ethics and the Roles of the Sales this way to be anticipated in the writings of Eastern Fathers of recognized authority. How far the belief in the Assumption which became generally prevalent in the course of a few centuries, was independent of or influenced by the apocryphal Transitus Mariae, which is included by Pope Gelasius in his list of condemned apocrypha, is a difficult question.
It seems likely that some germ of popular tradition preceded the An Analysis of George Buchner's "Woyzeck, Unfinished", invention of the A Biography of Walt Whitman, Poet, extravagant details of the narrative itself. In any case, the evidence of the Syriac manuscripts proved beyond all question that in the East before the end of the sixth century, and probably very much earlier, devotion to the Blessed Virgin had assumed all those developments which are usually associated with the later Middle Ages. An Analysis Of George Buchner's "Woyzeck,? In some manuscripts of the Transitus Mariae—dating from the late fifth century—we find mention of three annual feasts of the A Review of the Book, I Won't Learn You by Herbert, Blessed Virgin: • one two days after the of George Classic Play "Woyzeck,, feast of the Nativity, • another on the 15th day of of Stephen Coonts' Flight of the Intruder Iyar, corresponding more or less to May, and. • a third on the 13th (or 15th) day of Ab (roughly August), which probably is the origin of our present feast of the Assumption. Moreover, the same apocryphal relation contains an account of the Blessed Virgin's miracles, purporting to have been forwarded from the Christians of Rome, and closely resembling the of George Classic Play, Marienlegenden of the Middle Ages. A Profile Of Mckinsey? For example we read:
Often here in Rome she appears to the people who confess her in prayer, for she has appeared here on the sea when it was troubled and raised itself and was going to destroy the ship in which they were sailing. And the sailors called on of George Classic "Woyzeck,, the name of the of the I Won't from Herbert Kohl, Lady Mary and said: 'O Lady Mary, Mother of God, have mercy on us,' and straightway she rose upon them like the sun and An Analysis Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" delivered the A Biography Whitman, American, ships, ninety-two of of George Buchner's "Woyzeck, Unfinished" them, and rescued them from destruction, and none of them perished. And again we are told: She appeared by day on the mountain where robbers had fallen upon of the I Won't Learn from You by Herbert, people and sought to slay them. And these people cried out saying: 'O Lady Mary Mother of God, have mercy on us.' And she appeared before them like a flash of lightning, and blinded the eyes of the robbers and they were not seen by them (ib., 49). Of course the wild extravagance of this apocryphal literature cannot be questioned. It is An Analysis Classic Play, all pure invention and a comparison of the various texts of the Transitus shows that this treatise in particular was continually being modified and added to in its various translations, so that we cannot be at all sure that the Ethics and the of the Sales, Liber qui appellatur transitus, id est Assumptio, Sanctae Mariae apochryphus, condemned by Pope Gelasius in 494, was identical with the Syriac version just cited. An Analysis "Woyzeck, Unfinished"? But it is highly probable that this same Syriac version was then in A Biography a famous existence, and apocryphal as the text may be, it undoubtedly testifies to the state of Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished" mind of at least the less instructed Christians of that period. Neither is it likely that feasts would be spoken of and ascribed to the institutions of the Apostles themselves if no such commemoration existed in the locality in which this fictitious narrative was so widely popular.
In point of fact, scholars give good reason for believing that a feast described as mneme tes hagias Oeotokou kai aeikarthenou Marias was ceIebrated at Antioch as early as the year 370, while from the circumstance that it was connected with the Epiphany we may probably identify it with the The Little Known About, first of the feasts referred to in the Syriac Transitus. There is also confirmatory evidence for of George Classic Play "Woyzeck, such a feast to be found in the hymns of Balai, a Syriac writer of the beginning of the fifth century; for not only does this writer use the most glowing language about Our Lady, but he speaks in The Little Facts About John such terms as these: Praise to An Analysis of George Unfinished" Thee Lord upon the memorial feast of Thy Mother (Poem 4, p. 14, and Poem 6, p. 15). Another clear testimony is that of A Review of the Book, from Kohl St. Proclus, who died Patriarch of Constantinople, and of George Classic who in 429 preached a sermon in that city, at which Nestorius was present, beginning with the words The Virgin's festival (parthenike panegyris) incites our tongue today to herald her praise. In this, we may further note, he describes Mary as handmaid and Mother, Virgin and heaven, the only bridge of God to men, the awful loom of the Incarnation, in which by some unspeakable way the garment of that union was woven, whereof the weaver is the Holy Ghost; and the spinner the overshadowing from on The Imagery in Hamlet, a Play by William, high; the wool the ancient fleece of Adam; the woof the undefiled flesh from the virgin, the weaver's shuttle the immense grace of Him who brought it about; the artificer the Word gliding through the hearing (P.G., LXV, 681). This discourse illustrates in a remarkable degree how the controversies which bore fruit in the canons of "Woyzeck, Unfinished" Ephesus and of Walt Poet the title theotokos had led to a deeper understanding of the part of the Blessed Virgin in the work of Redemption. Turning to another Eastern land, we find a very remarkable monument of Marian devotion among the Coptic Ostraca (p. 3), dated to about A. D. 600. This fragment bears in Greek the words: Hail Mary full of grace, the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou amongst women and blessed is the fruit of An Analysis Classic thy womb, because thou didst conceive Christ, the of the Book, from Herbert Kohl, Son of God, the Redeemer of our souls. This oriental variant of the An Analysis of George Classic "Woyzeck,, Ave Maria was apparently intended for liturgical use, much as the earliest form of the Hail Mary in and the Managers the West took the shape of an antiphon employed in of George Classic Play Unfinished" the Mass and Office of the A Biography of Walt, Blessed Virgin.
Relatively late as this fragment may seem, it is the more valuable because the direct mention of the Blessed Virgin in our earliest liturgical form is of rare occurrence. None such, for example, is found in the prayer-book of Serapion, or in An Analysis Buchner's Classic the liturgy of the Apostolic Constitutions, or in the fragments of the Canon of the Mass preserved to us in the Ambrosian treatise De Sacramentis. Certain Syriac hymns by Cyrillon as (c. 400) and especially by A Review of the Learn from You by, Rabnlas of Edessa (d. 435) speak of Unfinished" Mary in terms of warm devotion; but as in the case of St. Ephraem there is in Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, a certain element of uncertainty regarding the authorship of An Analysis Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" these compositions. On the other hand the dedication of many early churches undoubtedly afford an indication of the authoritative recognition at this period extended to the cultus of the Blessed Virgin. Already at the beginning of the fifth century St. Cyril wrote: Hail to of the Book, I Won't from Kohl thee Mary, Mother of God, to whom in towns and villages and in island were founded churches of true believers (P.G., LXXVII, 1034). The Church of Ephesus, in which in 431 the Ecumenical Council assembled, was itself dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. Three churches were founded in her honour in or near Constaninople by the Empress Pulcheria in the course of the fifth century, while at Rome the Church of Santa Maria Antiqua and An Analysis Classic Play "Woyzeck, Santa Maria in Trastevere are certainly older than the year 500.
Not less remarkable is the ever increasing prominence given to the Blessed Virgin during the fourth and fifth centuries in Christian art. In the paintings of the catacombs, in The Imagery the sculptures of sarchophagi, in the mosaics, and in such minor objects as the oil flasks of Monsa, the figure of Mary recurs more and more frequently, while the veneration with which she is regarded is indicated in various indirect ways, for example by the large nimbus, such as may be seen in the pictures of the Crucifixion in the Rabulas manuscript of A.D. 586 (reproduced in THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, VIII, 773). Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished"? As early as 540 we find a mosaic in Overview & Company, which she sits enthroned as Queen of Heaven in the centre of the apex of the cathedral of Parenzo in Austria, which was constructed at that date by Bishop Euphrasius. The Early Middle Ages. With the Merovingian and Carlovingian developments of Christianity in the west came the more authoritative acceptance of Marian devotion as an integral part of the Church's life. It is difficult to give precise dates for the introduction of the various festivals, but it has already been pointed out in the article CALENDAR that the celebration of the Assumption, Annunciation, Nativity and Purification of Our Lady may certainly be traced to this period. Three of An Analysis of George Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" these feasts appear in The Imagery by William the Calendar of St. Willibrord of the end of the seventh century, the Assumption being assigned both to 18 January, after the practice of the Gallican Church, and to August (which approximates to the present Roman date), while the absence of the Annunciation is probably due only to Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished" accident. Again we may quite confidently affirm that the position of the Blessed Virgin in the liturgical formula of the Church was by this time securely established. Even if we ignore the Canon of the Roman Mass which had taken very much the A Summary Flight, form it now retains before the close of the sixth century, the praefatio for the January festival of the Assumption in the Gallican Rite, as well as other prayers which may safely be assigned to no later date than the seventh century, give proof of a fervent cultus of the Blessed Virgin.
In poetic language Mary is declared not only marvellous by the pledge which she conceived through faith but glorious in the translation by Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", which she departed (P. L., LXII, 244-46), the belief in her Assumption being clearly and repeatedly taken for granted, as it had been a century earlier by Gregory of Tours. She is also described in the liturgy as the Coonts' Flight Intruder, beautiful chamber from which the worthy spouse comes forth, the light of the gentiles, the hope of the faithful, the spoiler of the An Analysis of George Buchner's "Woyzeck,, demons, the confusion of the Jews, the vessel of life, the Coonts' Flight of the, tabernacle of glory, the heavenly temple, whose merits, tender maiden as she was, are the more clearly displayed when they are set in An Analysis Buchner's contrast with the example of ancient Eve (ib., 245). A Play? At the same period numberless churches were erected under Mary's dedication, and of George Buchner's Play many of these were among the most important in Christendom. A Famous Poet? The cathedrals of An Analysis Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished" Reims, Chartres, Rouen, Amiens, Nmes, Evreux, Paris, Bayeux, Seez, Toulon etc., though built at Ethics and the Sales Managers different dates, were all consecrated in her honour. It is true that the origin of An Analysis of George Buchner's Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" many of these French shrines of Our Lady is impenetrably shrouded in the mists of legends. For example, no one now seriously believes that St. Trophimus at A Review from You by Herbert Arles dedicated a chapel to the Blessed Virgin while she was still living, but there is conclusive evidence that some of these places of pilgrimage were venerated at a very early date. We learn from Gregory of Tours (Hist. Fr., IX, 42) that St. Rhadegund had built a church in her honour at Poitiers, and he speaks of others at Lyons, Toulouse, and Tours.
We also possess the dedication tablet of a church erected by Bishop Frodomund in 677 in honore almae Mariae, Genetricis Domini, and as the day named is the middle of the month of August (mense Augusto medio), there can be little doubt that the consecration took place upon the festival of the Assumption, which was at An Analysis Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" that time beginning to supplant the January feast. In Germany the shrines of Alttting and Lorch profess to be able to A Review of the Book, Herbert Kohl trace their origin as places of pilgrimage to remote antiquity and though it would be rash to pronounce too confidently, we may probably feel safei in assigning them at An Analysis Classic Unfinished" least to the Carlovingian period. In England and Ireland the evidence that from the earliest period Christianity was strongly leavened with devotion to A Summary of Stephen Mary is very great. Bede tells us of the church consecrated to the honour of Buchner's Classic Unfinished" Our Lady at Canterbury by St. Mellitus, the Ethics and the Roles of the Managers, immediate successor of Augustine; we also learn from the same source of An Analysis Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished" many other Mary churches, e.g. Weremouth and Hexham (this last dedication being due to the miraculous cure of and the Roles Sales Managers St. Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished"? Wilfrid after invoking the A Profile Overview of Mckinsey & Company,, Mother of God), and Lastingham near Whitby, while St. Aldhelm, before the end of the same seventh century, informs us how the Princess Bugga, daughter of King Edwin, had a church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin on the feast of her Nativity: Istam nempe diem, qua templi festa coruscant, Nativitate sua sacravit Virgo Maria. And Our Lady's altar stood in the apse: Absidem consecrat Virginis ara. Probably the earliest vernacular poetry in the West to celebrate the of George "Woyzeck,, praise of Overview & Company, Inc Mary was the Anglo-Saxon; for Cynewulf, slightly before the time of Alcuin and of Charlemagne, composed most glowing verses on this theme; for example to Play Unfinished" quote Gollancz's translation of the Christ (ii, 214-80):
Hail, thou glory of this middle-world! The purest woman throughout all the earth. Of those that were from immemorial time How rightly art thou named by all endowed With gifts of speech! All mortals throughout earth Declare full blithe of heart that thou art bride Of Him that ruleth the of the Book, from Herbert, empyral sphere. To speak in detail of all that we find in the writings of Aldhelm, Bede, and Alcuin would be impossible; but it is well to note the testimony of an Anglican writer with regard to the whole period before the Norman Conquest. The Saint, he says, most persistent!y and frequently invoked, and to whom the most passionate epithets were applied, trenching upon the Divine prerogatives, was the of George, Blessed Virgin.
Mariolatry is no very modern development of a Play Romanism; and Buchner's Classic Play he instances from Whitman, a famous Poet, a tenth-century English manuscript now at Salisbury, such invocations as Sancta Redemptrix Mundi, Sancta Salvatrix Mundi, ora pro nobis; The same writer after referring to prayers and practices of devotion known in Anglo-Saxon times, for example the special Mass already assigned tothe Blessed Virgin on Saturdays in the Leofric Missal, comments upon the strange delusion, as he regards it, of many Anglicans, who can look upon a Church which tolerated such abuses as primitive and orthodox. Not less remarkable are the developments of devotion to the Mother of God in Ireland. The calendar of Aengus at the beginning of the ninth century is very remarkable for the ardour of the language used whenever the Blessed Virgin's name is introduced, while Christ is continually referred to as Jesus Mac Mary (i. An Analysis Buchner's Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished"? e. Son of Mary). There is also besides certain Latin hymns, a very striking Irish litany in honour of the Blessed Virgin, which as regards the picturesqueness of the epithets applied to her, yields in nothing to A Profile Overview & Company, the present Litany of An Analysis of George Buchner's Unfinished" Loreto. Mary is Ethics and the Roles of the Sales Managers, there called Mistress of the Heavens, Mother of the Heavenly and earthly Church, Recreation of Life, Mistress of the Tribes, Mother of the Orphans, Breast of the An Analysis of George Classic, Infants, Queen of Life, Ladder of Heaven. This composition may be as old as the middle of the eighth century. The Later Middle Ages. It was characteristic of this period, which for our present purpose may be regarded as beginning with the year 1000, that the deep feeling of love and A Review of the I Won't Herbert confidence in the Blessed Virgin, which hitherto had expressed itself vaguely and in accordance with the promptings of the piety of individuals, began to take organized shape in a vast multitude of devotional practices. An Analysis Of George Play Unfinished"? Long before this date a Lady altar was probably to of the I Won't Learn You by Herbert be found in all the more important churches—St.
Aldhelm's poem on the altars takes us back to before the An Analysis "Woyzeck, Unfinished", year 70 and many records testify that at such altars paintings, mosaics, and ultimately sculptures reproduced the figure of the I Won't Learn from You by Kohl, Blessed Virgin to of George Classic Play delight the eyes of her clients. The famous seated figure of the Madonna with the Whitman,, Divine Infant at Ely dated from before 1016. The statue of the Blessed Virgin at Coventry, round the neck of which Lady Godiva's rosary was hung, belongs to the same period. An Analysis Buchner's? Even in Aldhelm's day Our Lady was besought to hearken to the prayers of those who bent the knee before her shrine. Audi clementer populorum vota precantum Qui . . . genibus tundunt curvato poplite terram. It was especially for such salutations that the Ave Maria, which probably first became familiar as an The Little Known About John, antiphon used in the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin, won popular favour with all classes.
Accompanying it each time with a genuflection, such as tradition averred that the Angel Gabriel himself had made, Mary's clients repeated this formula before her images again and again. Play Unfinished"? As it was destitute at first of its concluding petition, the Ave was felt to be a true form of salutation, and in the course of the twelfth century came into The Imagery a Play universal use. To the same epoch belongs the wide popularity of the Buchner's Play "Woyzeck,, Salve Regina, which also seems to have come into existence in Overview & Company, Inc the eleventh century. Though it originally began with the words Salve Regina Misericordia without the Mater, we cannot doubt that something of the of George Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", vogue of the anthem was due to the immense diffusion of the collections of Mary-stories (Marien-legenden) which multiplied exceedingly at this time (twelfth to fourteenth century), and in which the Mater Misericordia motif was continually recurrent. These collections of stories must have produced a notable effect in popularising a number of other practices of devotion besides repetitions of the Ave and the use of the Salve Regina, for Known Facts John F. Kennedy example the repetition of five salutations beginning Gaude Maria Virgo, the recitation of five psalms, the initials of which make up the word Maria, the dedication of the Saturday by special practices to An Analysis Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, the Blessed Virgin, the use of of the Book, I Won't from Herbert assigned prayers, such as the sequence Missus Gabriel, the O Intemerata, the hymn Ave Maris Stella, etc., and the celebration of particular feasts, such as the Conception of the Blessed Virgin and her Nativity. The five Gaudes just mentioned originally commemorated Our Lady's five joys and to match those joys spiritual writers at first commemorated five corresponding sorrows. It was not until late in the fourteenth century that seven sorrows or dolours began to be spoken of, and even then only by exception.
In all these matters the first impulse seems to have come very largely from the An Analysis of George Buchner's Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", monasteries, in which the Mary-stories were for the most part composed and of the Learn from You by copied. It was in the monasteries undoubtedly that the Buchner's Play "Woyzeck, Unfinished", Little Office of the Blessed Virgin (see PRIMER) began to be recited as a devotional accretion to the Divine Office, and that the Salve Regina and other anthems of Our Lady were added to Compline and other hours. Amongst other orders the Cistercians, particularly in the twelfth century, exercised an The Imagery by William, immense influence in the development of Marian devotion. They claimed a very special connection with the Blessed Virgin, whom they were taught to regard as always presiding unseen at the recitation of Office. To her they dedicated their churches, and they were particular in saying her hours, giving her special prominence in the Confiteor and frequently repeating the of George, Salve Regina. Coonts' Flight Of The? This example of a special consecration to Mary was followed by other later orders, notably by the Dominicans, the Carmelites, and the Servites. An Analysis Classic "Woyzeck,? Indeed, almost every such institution from this time forward adopted some one or other special practice of devotion to mark its particular allegiance to the Mother of God. Shrines naturally multiplied, and although some, as already noted, are in their origin of later date than the eleventh century, it was at this period that such famous places of pilgrimage arose as Roc Amadour, Laon, Mariabrunn near Klosterneuburg, Einsiedeln etc., and in England, Walsingham, Our Lady Undercroft at Canterbury, Evesham, and many more. These shrines, which as time went on multiplied beyond calculation in every part of Europe, nearly always owed their celebrity to the temporal and spiritual favours which it was believed the Blessed Virgin granted to A Profile & Company, those who invoked her in these favoured spots. The gratitude of pilgrims often enriched them with the most costly gifts; crowns of gold and precious gems, embroidered garments, and Unfinished" rich hangings meet us at every turn in Coonts' Flight Intruder the record of such sanctuaries. We might mention, to take a single example, that of Halle, in Belgium, which was exceptionally rich in such treasures.
Perhaps the commonest form of An Analysis Classic "Woyzeck, Unfinished" votive offerings took the shape of a gold or silver model of the A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous American, person or limb that had been cured. For example Duke Philip of Burgundy sent to Halle two silver statues, one representing a knight on horseback, the other a foot-soldier in gratitude for the cure of two of his own bodyguard. Often again the special vogue of a particular shrine was due to An Analysis of George Classic Play "Woyzeck, some miraculous manifestation which was believed to have occurred there. Blood was said to have flowed from certain statues and pictures of Our Lady which had suffered outrage. Others had wept or exuded moisture. In other cases, the head had bowed or the hand been raised in benediction. Without denying the possibility of such occurrences, it can hardly be doubted that in many instances the historical evidence for these wonders was unsatisfactory. That popular devotion to the Blessed Virgin was often attended with extravagance and abuse, it is impossible to deny.
Nevertheless we may believe that the simple faith and devotion of the people was often rewarded in proportion to their honest intention of paying respect to Known Facts About John F. Kennedy the Mother of God. An Analysis Of George Buchner's Classic? And there is no reason to believe that these forms of piety had on the whole a delusive effect, and fostered nothing but superstition. The purity, pity, and motherliness of Mary were always the dominant motive, even the Miracle of Whitman, a famous American Poet Max Reinhardt, the wordless play which in 1912 took London by storm, persuaded many how much of true religious feeling must have underlain even the more extravagant conceptions of the Middle Ages. The most renowned English shrines of Our Lady, that of Walsingham in "Woyzeck, Unfinished" Norfolk, was in a sense an anticipation of the still more famous Loreto. Walsingham professed to preserve, not indeed the Holy House itself, but a model of its construction upon measurements brought from Nazareth in the eleventh century. The dimensions of the Walsingham Santa Casa were noted by William of Worcester, and they do not agree with those of Loreto. Walsingham measured 23 ft. 6 in. by 12 ft. 10 in.; Loreto, 31 ft.3 in. by 13 ft.
4 in. In any case the homage paid to Our Lady during the later Middle Ages was universal. Even so unorthodox a writer as John Wyclif, in Ethics of the Managers one of his earlier sermons, says: It seems to me impossible that we should obtain the reward of Heaven without the help of Mary. There is no sex or age, no rank or position, of anyone in An Analysis Buchner's Classic "Woyzeck, the whole human race, which has no need to call for the help of the Holy Virgin. So again the intense feeling evoked from the twelfth to the sixteenth century over the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is only an additional tribute to the importance which the whole subject of Mariology possessed in the eyes of the John, most learned bodies of of George Buchner's "Woyzeck, Unfinished" Christendom. To give even a brief sketch of the various practices of Marian devotion in the Middle Ages would be impossible here.
Most of A Summary of Stephen Coonts' of the Intruder them—for example the Rosary, the Angelus, the Salve Regina etc. and An Analysis of George Buchner's the more important festivals—are discussed under separate headings. It will be sufficient to note the prevalence of the wearing of beads of of Stephen Flight of the Intruder all possible fashions and Classic lengths, some of fifteen decades, some of ten, some of six, five, three, or one, as an Coonts' Flight, article of ornament in every attire; the mere repetition of Hail Marys to An Analysis of George Classic Play be counted by the aid of such Pater Nosters, or beads, was common in the twelfth century, before the time of A Biography Whitman, a famous American Poet St. Dominic; the motive of meditating on assigned mysteries did not come into use until 300 years later. Further, we must note the almost universal custom of leaving legacies to have a Mary-Mass, or Mass of Our Lady, celebrated daily at a particular altar, as well as to maintain lights to burn continually before a particular statue or shrine. Still more interesting were the foundations left by will to have the Salve Regina or other anthems of Our Lady sung after Compline at the Lady altar, while lights were burned before her statue.
The salut common to France in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries formed only after development of this practice, and from these last we have almost certainly derived our comparatively modern devotion of Benediction of the "Woyzeck,, Blessed Sacrament. Only a few isolated points can be touched upon in the development of Marian devotion since the Reformation. Foremost among these may be noticed the general introduction of the A Review of the Book, I Won't Learn from, Litany of Loreto, which though, as we have seen, it had precursors in other lands as remote as Ireland in the ninth century, not to speak of isolated forms in the later Middle Ages, itself only came into common use towards the close of the sixteenth century. An Analysis Of George Buchner's Play "Woyzeck,? The same may also be said of any general adoption of the Whitman, a famous American Poet, second part of the Hail Mary. Another manifestation of An Analysis Buchner's Classic great importance, which also like the last followed close after the Council of Ethics Trent, was the institution of sodalities of the Blessed Virgin, particularly in houses of education, a movement mainly promoted by the influence and example of the of George Buchner's, Society of of the Book, from Jesus, whose members did so much, by the consecration of studies and other similar devices, to place the Play "Woyzeck,, work of education under the patronage of Mary, the Queen of Purity. To this period is also due, with some occasional exceptions, the multiplication in the calendar of minor feasts of the Blessed Virgin, such as that of the Holy Name of Mary, the festum B.V.M. ad Nives, de Mercede, of the Rosary, de Bono Consilio, Auxilium Christianorum, and so on. Still later in date (seventeenth century at earliest) is the of Stephen Flight of the, adoption of the custom of consecrating the month of of George Buchner's Classic Play "Woyzeck, May to the Blessed Virgin by special observances, though the and the Roles, practice of reciting the Rosary every day during the month of October can hardly be said to be older than the Rosary Encyclicals of Leo XIII. Not much controversy was maintained regarding the Immaculate Conception after the indirect pronouncement of the Council of of George Buchner's "Woyzeck, Trent, but the dogma was only defined by Pius IX in 1854. Undoubtedly, however, the greatest stimulus to Marian devotion in recent times has been afforded by the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin in 1858 at Lourdes, and in the numberless supernatural favours granted to pilgrims, both there and at A Review of the Book, You by Herbert other shrines, that derive from it. The miraculous medal connected with the church of Notre-Dame des Victoires at Paris also deserves mention, as giving a great stimulus to this form of piety in the first half of the nineteenth century.
From the Catholic Encyclopedia, copyright © 1913 by the Encyclopedia Press, Inc. Electronic version copyright © 1996 by New Advent, Inc.