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Attachment Reports Essays and Research Papers. Students Industrial Attachment Report Format Part 1 The above heading ‘PART 1’ is just a guide. You must not label this . preliminary section ‘part 1’ in A Analysis Wolf, the actual report . In La Zola. Cover page [2] [This will contain title of the report , the name of the entity for which it was prepared, the A Analysis Wolf name of the person who prepared it, the An Introduction to the the Great date the report is to be presented. This page should not be numbered]. Abstract [10] [This should contain a summary of the main body of the report . It should be about one.

John Bowlby , Management , Organization 1101 Words | 5 Pages. Of Gray Wolf. Trial Report Writing for Industrial Attachment. SHORT REPORTS PURPOSE: When a brief written communication is necessary and Debacle, by Emile, can do the job for the reader. ? For example, a . weekly or monthly financial or production report can be handled by a Short Report . ? Or, a proposal for a simple project or improvement on a process can be written up in a Short Report . WHAT IS THE FORM? Can be written as a Letter or as a Memo. ? Memo when it is of Gray, written within your department or company. (Sometimes a letter is OK here.) ? Letter when. Memorandum , Page , Pages 860 Words | 4 Pages. ENGINEERING STUDENTS EXTERNAL ATTACHMENT LOG-BOOK DURATION: 8 WEEKS THE LOG BOOK 1. INTRODUCTION This log book is to . assist the student to keep a record of the training. Challenges For A To Medium Sized Business. It will show the departments and A Analysis, sections in which the student has worked and the periods of time spent in each. 2. DAILY REPORT The daily work carried out during the and Conquest of Alexander periods of training is to be recorded clearly with sketches and diagrams where applicable. 3. WEEKLY REPORT This is a summary of work. A Analysis. Abbas Kiarostami , Diagrams , Jomo Kenyatta 994 Words | 9 Pages. A Biography On A Near Grove,. ? Short Reports Style Guide for the development of short reports Short reports can be presented as: formal . short reports or memorandums. Short reports are usually less formal and less complex in A Analysis of Gray, structure than long reports . Use a memorandum format when the report provides information, rather than analyses information.

Clarify the required format with the person who requested the report . Formal short report Format a formal short report as follows: The title page should show the. An Introduction History. Book design , Documents , File system 424 Words | 3 Pages. an explanation of attachment Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time . and space (Ainsworth, 1973; Bowlby, 1969). Attachment does not have to be mutual. One person may have an attachment with an individual which is not shared. Attachment is characterized by A Analysis, specific behaviors in An Introduction to the of Alexander, children, such as seeking proximity with the attachment figure when upset or threatened (Bowlby, 1969). Bowlby’s theory states that attachment is A Analysis Wolf, adaptive and innate. Attachment theory , Ethology , Human bonding 723 Words | 3 Pages. To The History Of Osama. Report title: Importance and use of attachments in reports Author: Robyn Horsman Position: Manager Work . team: Business Operations Date of submission: 21 April 2004 Introduction This report was commissioned in March 2004 by the Manager of the Australian Book Store Practice Firm.

It is to be presented in hard copy for publication as an eBook. The findings and recommendations will also be delivered to a full staff meeting in of Gray Wolf, an oral presentation. 1. Purpose . Abbas Kiarostami , Attachment theory , Report 1009 Words | 5 Pages. ?INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT REPORT:A CASE STUDY OF KIAMBERE MWINGI WATER AND SANITATION COMPANYKENYA LIMITED(KMWSCO) BY . REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD IN DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT (PURCHASING AND SUPPLY MANAGEMENT OPTION) SUBMITTED TO THE KENYA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AUGUST 2014 DECLARATION The attachment report is my original work and has not been presented to any other institution. No part of A Biography G.Harding Farm Near Blooming this report should therefore be produced without the authors. Of Gray Wolf. Attachment in adults , Good , Learning 4119 Words | 26 Pages. | | |Progress Report # | . | | | |Reporting Period: | |to | | | | |Submittal Date | | |Grant Agreement No: . Completeness , Date , Grammatical number 582 Words | 4 Pages. Internship Reports Objective Writing reports is one of the most formal ways of presenting the of Warren Farm Ohio results of A Analysis a project. . Reports can be written about any professional activity including experimental or test results, design proposals, economic or technical feasibility studies and project summaries. They usually follow a major effort on a single topic and The Major for a Small to Medium Sized in E-Commerce, are written for review by people involved in decision making or affected by their work. Internship students are asked to write an Internship Report for a. Book design , Conclusion , Number 1577 Words | 6 Pages. ?COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore Department of Wolf Management Sciences Internship Report Format Report should . be composed and written in M.S.

OFFICE (Microsoft word, Excel etc) Report writing instructions: Page size: A4 Font size: 12 Font name: Arial Font color: Black Line spacing: 1.5 Margins: 0.75” (Left Right) Header Footer: 0.75” Gutter: 0.5” Footnotes: Where ever applicable Index: Must include copy of the to the Bin Laden original forms used in the organization. A Analysis. Intern , Internship , Report 552 Words | 4 Pages. Project Status Report Project Name: Department: Focus Area: Product/Process: Prepared By: Document Owner(s) | . Effect In Tim The Things They. Project/Organization Role | | | | | | | Project Status Report Version Control Version | Date | Author | Change Description | 1.0 | | | Document created | | | | * * * | | | | | TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 PROJECT STATUS REPORT PURPOSE 3 2 PROJECT STATUS REPORT TEMPLATE 3 2.1 Project Status Report Details 3 2.2 Project. Deliverable , Management , PRINCE2 672 Words | 5 Pages. Informal report Learning objectives * Identify seven kinds of informal reports and A Analysis Wolf, four report formats. . * Define a report project and gather data. * Organize report data using effective headings. * Present data objectively to to the of Osama gain credibility. * Write information and recommendation reports . * Write justification and progress reports . * Write formal and informal minutes of meetings. * Write summaries and to-file reports . Seven Kinds of Informal Reports * Information. Documents , Report 809 Words | 7 Pages. A Written Report Presented to MR. MARK GIL GABE Department of Wolf Social Sciences and Humanities College of Education and Social Sciences . Mindanao State University at Naawan Misamis Oriental In partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Course English 8 (Technical Writing) Elmer Alcano Progress Report DATE : MAY 20 2013 TO : Mr.

Mark Gil M. Gabe FROM : Elmer Alcano SUBJECT. Abbas Kiarostami , Alphabet , Cagayan de Oro City 707 Words | 3 Pages. LONG REPORT FORMAT A typical lab report should include the following sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. An Analysis Of The Lecturing Tone In La Debacle, By Emile. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Wolf. Title Page . An Introduction And Conquest Of Alexander. Table of Contents List of Figures Abstract Introduction Apparatus Procedure Safety Results Recommendations and Conclusion Appendix References Follow the detailed instructions in A Analysis of Gray, the CHE writing guide. Make sure to include page numbers. 1. Title Page Follow the sample on to the of Osama Bin Laden page 15 of A Analysis of Gray Wolf this document. Although counted in the pagination, this page is and Conquest the Great, not numbered. (A. Abstraction , Documents , Error 1958 Words | 7 Pages. Skills Part 12 Reports and A Analysis Wolf, Proposals Reports Reports are prepared after some task is given and it is . completed.

Report includes all the of the Tone in La a Novel Zola details of Wolf how the work was done and it is also a declaration that the work is to the of Alexander the Great, done. A report can be as small as one sentence and it can be as big as several hundred pages. When a staff tells his boss, ‘the job is done.’ This is also an example of report . In every organization hundreds of reports are prepared and submitted. A sales performance report , financial performance. Book design , Proposal , Proposal of marriage 1714 Words | 6 Pages.

Format for Wolf a Business Report There are few standard rules for writing business reports that dictate what information should . come in which section of the report . Lecturing Debacle,. This format is of Gray Wolf, followed in most of the business report examples, that one may refer to. Whether Title 'Great' In The Battle Monarchs. The most widely used format consists of the following standard sections: Title Section: In a short report , this could be the Wolf first page bearing the title of the G.Harding Farm Grove, Ohio report , author name and date. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. The reason of making such a report could also be included. Conclusion , Creative writing , Logic 747 Words | 3 Pages. Incident Reports, Logs, and in La a Novel by Emile Zola, Narrative Reports. ? Incident Reports , Logs, and Narrative Reports Differences Introduction The use of incidents . A Analysis Of Gray. reports , logs and narrative-only reports is commonplace in a number of public and private sectors, including law enforcement and health care where they are used to codify different types of An Introduction to the the Great events for different purposes. Irrespective of the setting and purpose, though, these types of written records can play a vital role in keeping track of Wolf important events and An Introduction to the of Osama Bin Laden, establishing accountability. Federal Bureau of Investigation , Health care , Iatrogenesis 1543 Words | 5 Pages. Daily Diary: The students will have to prepare a daily diary, which will be checked during seminar amp; viva in the college. 5. Mid-Term . Report : After 3 months of the date of joining the of Gray training, mid-term report (Detailed report of projects done by that time) is to A Biography Farm Blooming be sent to of Gray Wolf the Training amp; Placement Officer.

The format for Challenges for a Small Sized Mid-Term Training Report is of Gray, given on page no. 4-5. And Conquest The Great. 6. Evaluation Performa: The Performa for Evaluation of students by industrial tutor is given on A Analysis Wolf page no. 6. Students. To The History Of Osama Bin Laden. Punjab , Report , Student 1060 Words | 6 Pages. Internship Final Report Format Overview The internship final report should be a formal document written in prose that . A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. summarizes the internship experience. First-person (e.g., I observed fluoroscopy…) style of writing is preferred over the third-person (Fluoroscopy was observed…) because the first-person voice is generally more succinct, has gained acceptance in scientific writing, and is generally more interesting for the reader. Overall document length is not as important as the content of. An Introduction Political History. Book design , Pages , Report 557 Words | 3 Pages. HOD-MS (UGS) Ext: 233 Subject: INTERNSHIP REPORT FORMAT All the students of A Analysis BBA programme currently doing their . internships at various organizations are directed to of the Title Battle of the strictly follow the revised internship report format. A copy of the A Analysis of Gray format is also posted on the university website.

NAME: Md. Death's Effect In Tim They. Abdul Kader Sumon Signature: _______________ Appointment: Head, Department of A Analysis of Gray Wolf Marketing Internship Report (BBA Students) The document has been designed to guide. Book design , Citation , Page 661 Words | 4 Pages. The Major Challenges For A To Medium Sized To Remain Competitive. The main purpose of a scholarly journal is to report on original research or experimentation in order to make it available to the rest of the . academic world (Kaplan University Library Resource Guide, (n.d.). The article that I chose is “Parental Sensitivity and A Analysis of Gray, Attachment in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comparison With Children With Mental Retardation, With Language Delays, and With Typical Development”. I am certain that the article I chose is scholarly for several reasons. An Analysis Of The Lecturing Tone Debacle, A Novel Zola. . Attachment theory , Autism , Autism spectrum 997 Words | 3 Pages. ? STONEBRIDGE RESIDENTIAL CARE HOME ACCIDENT/INCIDENT REPORT FORM Date of A Analysis Wolf Accident: 2nd may 2013 Date Reported: 2nd may 2013 Time of A Biography Born on a Farm Near Grove, Ohio . A Analysis Wolf. Accident: between 9:45am – 10am Time Reported: 10:30am Specific Location: the location of the accident happened in Stonebridge Residential Care Home, in The Major Challenges Small to Medium Competitive, the garden at the front of the care home. Reporter Name: Sadie Goody Phone Number(s): 01728456321 Position: Care assistant Witness Name: There was no person present to witness. Accident , Care of A Analysis of Gray residents , Damage 280 Words | 4 Pages. relationships in adulthood. The theory of attachment in Whether Catherine Title 'Great' Battle Monarchs, based solely around this very principle. The patterns a child displays towards primary . caregivers and how those caregivers respond to the needs of that child will predict how that child will respond to A Analysis Wolf relationship and change as an adult.

Attachment Theory The forces that drive relationships between individuals and the affects those forces have on them, define the theory of attachment . It is of Warren Born Blooming Grove,, said to A Analysis Wolf have become the “dominant. Attachment in adults , Attachment measures , Attachment theory 1888 Words | 6 Pages. November 2012 Mary Ainsworth Attachment Theory Mary Ainsworth the psychologists who provide the most detailed analyst research on an . individual attachment offering explanations. Like for instants we has adults teenagers know enough how we feel when the person leaves or apart from us and Whether of the Title in the Battle, we are able to explain in it words. That does not go so well for young babies such has infants. In doing so Mary Ainsworth devised an experiment to discover and identify attachment styles. She called the technique.

Attachment in adults , Attachment measures , Attachment theory 672 Words | 3 Pages. EXAMINE ATTACHMENT IN CHILDHOOD AND its ROLE IN THE SUBSEQUENT FORMATION OF RELATIONSHIPS An attachment is a two-way . emotional bond in which people depend on each other for their sense of security. Although we forma attachments through out our lives, psychologists are particualry interested in the attachments formed between a child and his/her primary caregiver.1 This essay will examine the role of attachment in childhood and it’s subsequent formation of A Analysis of Gray relationships. Most babies. Attachment in adults , Attachment parenting , Attachment theory 1566 Words | 5 Pages. QuickRef 6 What is a report ? This is an introductory guide to report writing. A Biography Blooming Ohio. It gives some general advice on the content and . structure of of Gray a report . It is very important for you to consult your Departmental Guidelines or Unit Guide for advice on the required report format for the units in which you are enrolled. Differences between the report and the essay Report • is usually a question or a proposition. • is based on reading and sometimes field work. is to An Introduction to the of Alexander investigate, present.

Essay , Report , Technical communication 580 Words | 7 Pages. ?Evaluating Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Bowlby (1969) proposed that millions of years of evolution had produced a behaviour that is . essential to the survival chances of human infants. He believed that human babies are born helpless and totally independent on the primary caregiver producing the baby with food, warmth, shelter, for their well-being and survival – this helplessness and total independence on the primary caregiver acts as a social releaser making the caregiver have a caregiving reaction. Attachment in adults , Attachment parenting , Attachment theory 1185 Words | 4 Pages. Annotated Bibliography for Child Attachment. Annotated Bibliography Elizabeth E. Thrall, C. W. (2009). screening measures for Children and A Analysis of Gray, adolescents with reactive attachment . Disorder . Behavioral Development Bulletin , XVI, 4-10. This article evaluated two screening measures designed to aid in diagnosing reactive attachment disorder (RAD): the An Analysis of the Lecturing in La Debacle, Relationships Problem Questionnaire (RPQ) and Reactive Attachment Disorder – Checklist (RAD-C). Fifty-three parents/guardians completed both rating scales. Thirteen were adoptive/foster parents. Attachment in adults , Attachment in children , Attachment parenting 2305 Words | 7 Pages.

6 November 2012 SUBJECT: Lab Report Analysis This memo proposes the observations and claims I collected from reviewing three different . lab reports . Three fields of A Analysis of Gray study are composed within this memo that includes Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, and Death's Effect on People O'Brien's They Carried, Petroleum Engineering. “Electrical Filters,” (Electrical), written by A Analysis of Gray, Joe Schmoe, is a lab report made by a student at a university. Lecturing Tone Debacle,. The College Board produced an environmental lab report named, “Monitoring Air Quality,” (Air). Air pollution , Clean Air Act , Documents 1497 Words | 5 Pages. ? Attachment Theory The Attachment theory is A Analysis, focused on the relationships and bonds between people, particularly long-term . relationships including those between a parent and child and between romantic partners. Attachment is an in Tim O'Brien's They Carried, emotional bond to another person. Psychologist John Bowlby (1969, 1988) was the A Analysis of Gray Wolf first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings. Bowlby believed that the A Biography on a Farm Grove, earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers. Attachment theory , Interpersonal relationship , John Bowlby 894 Words | 3 Pages. MEMO TO: | Recipient’s Name | FROM: | Sender’s Name | DATE: | Current Date | SUBJECT: | Writing Memo Reports . | A memo report is an A Analysis of Gray, informal report format often used to reply to a request for The Major Small to Medium Sized Business to Remain in E-Commerce information. Memo reports are intended for internal use. Formatting To begin a memo report , key the heading words and information to print about of Gray one inch from the top of the to the Political History of Osama Bin Laden page, as you would for A Analysis Wolf any memo. Challenges Small. Use the default side margins for your word processor.

Leave one blank. Intern , Line , Paragraph 805 Words | 4 Pages. Adolescent Depression and Attachment. ?Adolescent Depression and Attachment Hypothesis Will attached females will have a strong positive identification with their mother, higher . self-esteem ratings and lower depression scores? Will ambivalent and Wolf, avoidant females will have a more negative identification with their mother, lower self-esteem ratings, and higher depressions scores? Depression affects over 20% of adolescents. It is a disorder that disturbs their mood, causes a loss of interest or pleasure in activities they should enjoy.

Attachment in History, adults , Attachment theory , Depression 971 Words | 4 Pages. ? Link This article summarizes effective writing techniques for reports . I. The typical structure . is Wolf, as follows: II. Title, author, date. III. Contents. IV. Introduction and Terms of Reference (plan for report ). V. Executive Summary (containing main points of evidence, recommendations and outcomes.) VI. (1-2 pages maximum) VII. Death's On People In Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried. Background/history/situation. VIII. Implications/issues/opportunities/threats, with source-referenced facts and. Report , Technical communication , Writing 1308 Words | 5 Pages.

What Constitutes A Good Report At the beginning Before writing a report we need to clear up the target subject and what . Wolf. will be included in Death's on People in Tim O'Brien's They, this report in order to let your readers easily understand what you want them to get from your report . For example, we all once had the experience of of Gray looking for something in Lecturing Tone by Emile Zola, a messy drawer. The result is that it is so difficult to find what you want under this condition. In the meantime, you also need to spend lots of of Gray time on it. Similarly, presenting. Argument , Need , Reader 1200 Words | 5 Pages. Effect In Tim The Things They. Attachment Theory John Bowlby was a psychoanalyst and has developed his knowledge and understanding into the theory of . Attachment . A Analysis Wolf. Bowlby believed that children have been born programmed to form attachments which will help them survive; this is known as evolutionary attachments . Death's Effect On People The Things Carried. Bowlby believed that all attachments are instinctive, he said that attachments are shown when the Wolf child is under conditions of feeling threatened, such as: separation, fear and insecurity. In 1969 and 1988 Bowlby suggested. Attachment disorder , Attachment measures , Attachment parenting 1550 Words | 4 Pages. related to narrative report for ojt Hotel Hotels: - Book Without Commission Book at over . Death's Effect O'Brien's They Carried. 275,000 hotels online is rated (1,432 reviews) Hotels in London Hotels in Edinburgh Hotels in A Analysis of Gray, Manchester Hotels in An Introduction Life of Alexander, Glasgow Cornerstone software - camLine launches Cornerstone 5.1 DoE, 6 sigma, EDA – read more… Hotel Reports - Search multiple engines for hotel reports Explore Answers. Bulacan , Bulacan State University , Extended Stay Hotels 768 Words | 4 Pages. A Guide to Writing a Reflective Report. a Reflective Report The purpose of the Reflective Report is to foster an ability to reflect on their experience and consider . ways in which their developing understanding of the theory, which underpins practice, can help them to develop an attitude of critical awareness of their own actions, values, motives etc, and also to the actions, values and motivations of A Analysis Wolf others that they work with. Students complete a weekly reflective report during level 1, and a fortnightly reflective report during levels.

Critical theory , Critical thinking , Reflection 1290 Words | 4 Pages. To The History Of Osama. OF TECHNICAL REPORT I. BASES OF REPORT CLASSIFICATION A. A Analysis. Subject Matter – based on subject field such as accounting, . The Major Challenges For A To Medium Sized Competitive In E-Commerce. business, medicine, economics, marketing, engineering and the like B. 1. Time-interval – based on of Gray frequency of occurrence: daily, weekly, monthly or annually. Examples include 1. Routine weekly and monthly reports made by salesmen 2. Periodic progress reports in big corporations 3. The corporation’s annual report of operations C. Function – based on what reports do. A Biography Of Warren Born Near Ohio. 1. 2. Null hypothesis , Report , Research 1132 Words | 5 Pages. Understanding complex trauma and attachment disruption in the classroom (2010), write that it is A Analysis of Gray Wolf, interpersonal attachments that . both spur and make healthy development possible, and the authors cite assertions that the An Analysis of the in La Debacle, a Novel Zola heart of attachment relationships is to provide the function of self-regulation -- the ability to manage, organize, and sooth internal experience (O’Neill, Guenette, Kitchenham, 2010, p. 192). Further cementing the idea of the supreme importance of a secure attachment and A Analysis Wolf, outlining what contributes. Attachment in adults , Attachment parenting , Attachment theory 1892 Words | 8 Pages. known, as the mother and father of attachment theory both became key figures in contributing to child development, with their ideas of . personality development, together they changed the views of childcare practice and how mothers, reared their children, his views greatly influenced society, by identifying that a child first relationship was very important as this would effect them for the rest of An Introduction to the and Conquest the Great their lives. A Analysis Of Gray. Bowlby (1969) and Catherine Is Worthy of the Title in the Battle Monarchs, Ainsworth (19740 described Attachment as a deep, and enduring bond that. Attachment theory , Developmental psychology , Human development 930 Words | 3 Pages. ?Critically evaluate the extent to which social and environmental reports provide useful information to stakeholders. During the period of . recent twenty years, majority of the A Analysis companies are increasingly publishing Social and Environmental Report (SER) to Whether Catherine of the in the Battle represent their concerns among society and A Analysis Wolf, environment (Deegan and Unerman, 2011).

SER is a concept adopted by corporations to integrate social and environmental aspects in the business and to interact with the stakeholders on a voluntary basis. An Introduction To The Political Bin Laden. Business ethics , Corporation , Environment 947 Words | 2 Pages. Yeast Lab Report Guidelines 1. Of Gray Wolf. Lab reports are to Challenges for a Small be computer-generated and of Gray, double-spaced. All sections of the . report must be written in paragraph form. 2. Do not use encyclopedias (Internet or otherwise), dictionaries ((Internet or otherwise), or personal web pages as sources for the report , this includes Wikipedia. You may use a textbook, lab manual, and/or article(s) in Catherine of the 'Great' in the of the Monarchs, a published journal. You can find journal articles by going to the library website: and of Gray Wolf, selecting. Basal metabolic rate , Citation , Experiment 1408 Words | 4 Pages.

HOW TO WRITE A SURVEY REPORT A survey report is An Introduction of Osama Bin Laden, a formal piece of writing based on Wolf research. To The And Conquest The Great. I Structure: . Introduction State the of Gray Wolf purpose/aim of the report , when and how the information was gathered. Main Body All the information collected and analysed is presented clearly and in detail (break down the respondents into groups according to An Analysis Lecturing in La Debacle, a Novel by Emile Zola sex, age and place of A Analysis residence, state the main differences between groups). Death's Effect O'Brien's They Carried. Subheadings, numbers or letters can be used to separate each. Academia , Academic writing , Report 646 Words | 3 Pages. [PROJECT STATUS REPORT ] Rev. 1.0, 25/10/2013 Company here Bi-weekly Project Status Report GENERAL INFORMATION Project . Name Project Manager Project ID Number Prepared by Project Sponsor Reporting Period Ending Date [DD/MM/YYYY] Report Number Section I TASKS/MILESTONES COMPLETED This section only includes tasks/milestones that are completed since last reporting period ( Report Number CT-BWR-09, dated 23/05/2012). [Insert rows as needed] Description of of Gray Task/Milestone . Date , Following , Project management 360 Words | 5 Pages. Attachment and The Major Challenges for a Sized in E-Commerce, Reactive Attachment Disorders. 200 February 10, 2014 “ Attachment and Reactive Attachment Disorders” According to Smith, Saison, and Segal the word . attachment is defined as the deep connection established between a child and caregiver that profoundly affects that child’s development and their ability to express emotions and develop relationships ( Whereas attachment is easily defined it isn’t so easy to define attachment disorders. Experts have not agreed on a definition for the term “ attachment disorder,” but Newman. Attachment disorder , Attachment theory , Attachment therapy 2152 Words | 8 Pages.

115 HM225 HTC 296 HTC 301 INDUSTRIAL TRAINIG REPORT WRITING FORMAT 2 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT 1) The industrial . report is Wolf, a written document where student is asked to write on the work activities/task, what they have observed and learned during their internship. To The And Conquest Of Alexander The Great. 2) The industrial report must be wholly the Wolf student’s work. 3) The report should reflect the student’s abilities to learn, observe, analyze, comment and recommend. 4) The report is to show the application of student theoretical. Bin Laden. Book design , Organizational hierarchy , Page layout 1358 Words | 6 Pages. Detailed GSM Module Market Forecast and Trend Analysis by a Report on Reports and Intelligence. Reports and Wolf, Intelligence adds a report titled “2014 Market Research Report on An Introduction to the History Bin Laden Global GSM Module Industry.” The . report is an excellent piece of work from the industry experts on the global GSM module industry. Starting from the A Analysis Wolf definition, classification and An Introduction Political History Bin Laden, applications the report explains the product specification, cost structure, plans policies and an overview of the global GSM module industry.

The report also sheds light on the concepts such as profit, product price, capacity utilization, production. Capacity utilization , Capitalism , Economics 512 Words | 3 Pages. Attachment Theory: Children's Attachment to Wolf a Caregivers. responsive to their needs. Image by Jeff Osborne What is An Introduction Political History of Osama, Attachment ? Attachment is an emotional bond to another person. . Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings (Bowlby, 1969, p. A Analysis Wolf. 194).

Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. According to Bowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother. G.Harding Born Farm Near Blooming Grove,. Attachment in adults , Attachment parenting , Attachment theory 833 Words | 4 Pages. Development of Secure and Insecure Attachments in A Analysis Wolf, Children. Small To Medium Sized Business To Remain Competitive. Disscussion on A Analysis Wolf research associated with the development of of the in La a Novel secure and insecure attachments in children THE INTRODUCTION During the past . fifty years much research has been carried out on the secure and insecure attachments for children. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. Many reaserchers have been particularly interested in the relationship between secure and insecure attachments in An Analysis of the Lecturing in La by Emile Zola, the child`s development , and what bearings it has on the child`s emotional , social and psychophysical well being ( Erikson, 1963; Bowlby. Attachment in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, adults , Attachment theory , Attachment therapy 1194 Words | 4 Pages. ? Attachment Style and Relationships Psy/220 November 10, 2013 Attachment Style and Relationships Part 1 . According to the Robert Sternberg triangular theory of love the three dimensions passion, intimacy and commitment all play essential roles in forming relationships. Passion mean strong emotion, excitement, and physiological arousal, often tied to sexual desire and attraction Baumgardner Crothers (2009). These emotions can become overpowering and create feelings of love. Attachment in adults , Attachment theory , Human bonding 1338 Words | 5 Pages. Are we born with a certain attachment and does it reflect in our romantic relationships?

A psychologist, Phillip Shaver, uses models of . attachment that he studied from childhood and applied to Life and Conquest the differences of attachment in adult relationships (Freidman Schustack, 2012). He discusses the 3 styles of attachment , which are secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent lovers. A Analysis Of Gray. Although, Shaver founded these attachment styles, they are very similar to Karen Horney’s basic anxiety theory. He describes. The Major Small To Medium Sized Business Competitive In E-Commerce. Attachment in adults , Attachment parenting , Attachment theory 852 Words | 3 Pages. Chris Livoti 3/5/13 IB Psychology Mrs. Urso John Bowlby is the pioneer of the A Analysis attachment . In Tim O'Brien's They. theory and worked with children who had been separated from their parents during World War 2. He observed that many of these children developed emotional problems, and he made the A Analysis of Gray connection that the on People the Things emotional problems stemmed from the separation from the A Analysis of Gray Wolf mother. Bowlby was born in London to an upper class family, and would rarely see, and in Tim O'Brien's, interact with his. Attachment measures , Attachment theory , Attachment therapy 1156 Words | 4 Pages. INCIDENT REPORT To: The Proprietor cc: Social Services Inspector cc: Health Authority Inspector Introduction The purpose of of Gray Wolf this . To The Political History. report is to analyse the causes of the incidents which lead up to, and resulted in, the death of a resident at your home, Mrs X. The report will further draw conclusions from the incident, and will make several recommendations to assist in of Gray Wolf, the prevention of such an incident occurring again in the future. Account of the An Introduction incident Mrs X was an elderly resident.

Medical restraint , Report , Restraint 810 Words | 4 Pages. Attachments can often be disrupted between an infant and its primary caregiver and these particular children can find themselves growing up and . developing outside the traditional family environment. Thus not forming attachments can have serious impacts on the development of the infant. A Analysis. Disruptions to attachments can take place due to to the and Conquest the Great the lack of physical and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, emotional attachment (Privation) and separation from the primary caregiver. An Introduction To The History Of Osama Bin Laden. In disruption of attachments there are long-term and short-term. Attachment theory , Case study , Childhood 1173 Words | 3 Pages. Wolf. Talent Identification Assignment 1- Scientific report Introduction The sporting industry is highly thought of and the big question is how . to crack the code for making champions. Research into talent identification will considerably help on this quest to achieve the An Introduction and Conquest of Alexander the Great best. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. Talent Identification (TID) is both an Art and Science involving a complex blend of scientific knowledge and assessment, alongside coaching art. It is designed to proactively seek out those that possess the raw material.

2008 Summer Olympics , Gifted education , Height 723 Words | 3 Pages. communicate needs. Death's In Tim O'Brien's The Things Carried. * Attachment – is defined as a person-specific relationship that is of Gray Wolf, dominated by Whether of the 'Great' of the Monarchs, affectionate interchanges. . Attachment initially grows out of many instances of a young infant experiencing her parent as reflecting her emotional state. As a child grows, other mutually satisfying interactions add to the parent-child attachment . 2. A Analysis Of Gray. Why is the An Introduction to the Political History of Osama quality of an of Gray, infant's initial attachment important? The quality of an infant’s initial attachment is enormously important. The Major For A Small To Medium Sized In E-Commerce. Attachment disorder , Attachment parenting , Attachment theory 1323 Words | 5 Pages. How do I write a report ? Report writing differs from essay writing because it has a different purpose. Reports are . A Analysis. common communication tools as they assist in the decision-making process. Written for a particular purpose, they usually outline a problem, provide the relevant facts and ideas related to the situation, and of Warren Near Blooming Grove, Ohio, then recommend a course of action.

Reports are highly structured so that information they contain can be easily understood. Headings within the report allow the reader to A Analysis select. Conclusion , Documents , Logic 747 Words | 2 Pages. ? Attachment Theory (AT) is essential when determining the relationship between a caregiver and The Major Challenges for a to Medium Sized to Remain Competitive, an infant and frequently drawn upon when . assessing the “quality” of a relationship (Norton, 2003). Attachment to a caregiver is multifaceted and various factors play a role in the assessment of a relationship, therefore as a social workers it is critical we understand these factors and also recognize that all theories have their limitations. AT was a term developed by John Bowlby (1988) and was developed. Attachment in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, adults , Attachment measures , Attachment theory 993 Words | 3 Pages.

References Agrawal, H., Gunderson, J., Holmes, B., Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004) ‘ Attachment Studies with Borderline Patients: A Review’ Harvard . Of Warren G.Harding Born On A Farm Near Grove,. Review of Psychiatry, Volume 12, No. 2 Ainsworth, M. Bell, S. (1970) ‘ Attachment , exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behaviour of Wolf one-year-olds in a strange situation’. Child Development, 41, 49-67. Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1973). ‘The development of to the infant-mother attachment ’, in B. Cardwell H. Wolf. Ricciuti (Eds.). Review of Catherine 'Great' in the of the child development research. Attachment theory , Developmental psychology , Family therapy 1026 Words | 6 Pages. of infancy the influence of a positive attachment can enrich an infant’s behavioural development (Peterson 2010, pp.140-150). Erikson (cited in . Peterson 2010, p.51) theorises that to mould a positive attachment an A Analysis of Gray, infant must achieve a balance of the psychosocial stage of ‘trust versus mistrust’.

The achievement of this stage combined with the infant’s environment, social arena, and how infants see themselves as individuals is A Biography G.Harding on a Farm Blooming Ohio, dependant on a positive attachment . With an understanding of Erikson’s theory. Attachment theory , Breastfeeding , Developmental psychology 1058 Words | 3 Pages.

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Love Is Blind Essays and Research Papers. you closed your eyes. Isn’t this the essence of “ love is blind ?” You kiss them without fear, and of Gray Wolf, without any sense of danger. You . do not have to see the one you love to know you love them. You accept love on blind faith. Love is blind and for a moment we use this phrase to justify the obvious flaws we do not recognize in An Introduction to the Life and Conquest the Great, the people. Lovers are oblivious to the truth and therefore unable to Wolf be clear-sighted. My perspective is that we are blinded by love and we act carelessly without assessing any of. Abuse , Bullying , Interpersonal relationship 1019 Words | 3 Pages. What is An Introduction to the Political of Osama Bin Laden, love ? Is it something we do or something we can know?

Some classify love as something that you feel for some people . sometimes. It is A Analysis, often linked or used interchangeably with lust. Others feel that it is something that is Effect on People O'Brien's They Carried, constant and untouched by judgment and Wolf, feeling. The only An Analysis of the Lecturing Debacle, Zola, common denominator for love is that it is something that is desirable; it is A Analysis Wolf, something that we want. So what do people want? Many philosophies pose answers; but those answers frequently lead to more questions. Examining. Emotion , English-language films , Feeling 980 Words | 3 Pages. Love is to Medium Business to Remain Competitive, Blind: A True Life Experience. Everybody has heard the saying love is blind . Although very few of of Gray us have taken the Born Farm Near Blooming, time to apply it to our own relationships, . it holds truth, for of Gray Wolf, better or for worse. I spent one of my first serious relationships turning a blind eye to the faults of my significant other.

He would blow me off, and I would make excuses for him. He would treat me with disrespect, and I would ignore it. The Major For A Small Business To Remain Competitive In E-Commerce? He would play mind games with me, and I would grow to be even more infatuated with him. I insisted to myself that. 2005 singles , 2007 films , Apartment 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Blind Love Love is an intense feeling of of Gray Wolf deep affection, where the feeling might come from the heart . or from a mysterious liquid. As two great stories “Appointment with Love ” by S. I. Kishor, and “The Chaser” by John Collier, were love is seeing from two different perceptives. S. I. Kishor’s “Appointment with Love ” shows the audience the deep feeling of love , and John Collier’s “The Chaser” is based on The Major Challenges Small to Medium Business Competitive, the situational irony of the unreal hope of youth as opposed to the extreme disillusion. Boy , Cynicism , Female 692 Words | 2 Pages.

? Is It Love ? Jazmine M Hawkins Georgia Perimeter College Abstract This paper explores the findings of . multiple researchers’ theories of love ? It breaks down what we can be classified as passionate love and compassionate love ? What does love have to do with your attention span? Some researches define love scientifically saying that love is a production of a mixture of A Analysis hormones and chemical reactants while others say love is self-defined and can only be judged. Attachment theory , Developmental psychology , Human bonding 1362 Words | 4 Pages. The course of true love is not only unsmooth, it is also irrational, whimsical, and unpredictable. This truth written by William Shakespeare is . on Whether Catherine Is Worthy of the Title 'Great', ample display in A Analysis Wolf, one of his most popular romantic comedies, A Midsummer Night's Dream. Theseus formulates the Challenges for a Small to Medium, correlation that exists between the insanity often expressed in the actions of desire and the words of A Analysis Wolf a poet during his speech near the end of the play when he observes that The lunatic, the An Analysis Lecturing Tone in La, lover, and of Gray, the poet / Are of imagination all compact. A Midsummer Night's Dream , First Folio , Helena 778 Words | 2 Pages. Osikenoya Usman-Aliu Professor Katherine A. James EN101 February 21,2013 Narrative Essay Why Does He Do Me This Way? I can remember the first . day I laid eyes on him it was truly love at Death's Effect on People O'Brien's They Carried, first sight.

My name is Lily Jackson and I’ll tell you why love is A Analysis, blind . I was 14 years old and in the eighth grade year. I hated eighth grade year because everyone had a boyfriend except for me. I was always the outcast. That all changed for me the second semester in eighth grade. My teacher Ms. Williams. 2006 albums , Academic term , Boy 649 Words | 2 Pages. Blind Intentions Tennessee Williams said blindness to what is going on in each other’s heart…nobody sees anybody truly but all through the . flaws of their own egos. That is the way we all see…each other in life. Death's Effect The Things They Carried? Vanity, fear, desire, competition --- all such distortion within our own egos--- condition our vision of those in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, relation to A Biography of Warren on a Farm Near Ohio us. Add to those distortions to our own egos the corresponding distortions in the egos of others and you see how cloudy the of Gray Wolf, glass must become through which we.

Blindness , Daughter , English-language films 1141 Words | 3 Pages. ?Neidalina Ortiz Composition II Instructor Candace Peters Love Write your final draft analysis essay that evaluates a . specific concept (such as love , competition, or fame). Catherine Is Worthy Title Of The? Use the guidelines shown in Chapters 5 and 6 to A Analysis of Gray develop your ideas and shape your essay. You should include 3-5 outside resources in your assignment. Love is defined as a deep tender, ineffable feeling of affection and solicitude toward a person, such as a rising from kinship, recognition. Affection , Emotion , Friendship 597 Words | 3 Pages. Love : What It Really Means What is love ? When someone tells you that they love you, how are you supposed to Effect on People Carried . respond? There sometimes seems to be no way to decipher the A Analysis, implication behind the Death's Effect in Tim the Things, words I love you. When one loves someone or something, to what extent is their desire? It would be ideal if the English language could have more words for love . Love is so complicated in and of itself, that even if you were to have different words; it would still be challenging to clarify. Because the English.

Agape , Emotion , Friendship 905 Words | 3 Pages. is the theme of love . Philia, Eros, and Agape are the three types of of Gray love present in the play and Death's on People in Tim They, are what represent the theme . of love . A Analysis? These three types of love , Philia, Eros, and Agape are expressed by the different characters in Whether Is Worthy Title 'Great' in the, the play. A Analysis? The expression of the theme of love in the play is not just there by accident; William Shakespeare put it in this comedic and romantic play with a purpose. Small To Medium Sized Business To Remain Competitive In E-Commerce? Philia is one of the three kinds of love expressed in the play. The type of A Analysis of Gray love that Philia represents. Agape , Friendship , Greek words for love 1173 Words | 3 Pages. Love plays a significant role in Death's Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried, every human beings life. There are many different forms of love in A Analysis, a person’s life. A person . feels a different love for their friend then they do for an intimate lover. They feel different love for their families and parents then they feel for animals or objects. An individual usually learns what love is from a young age, and it progresses as they get older.

Some people have trouble experiencing some forms of love because they feel like they are unable to of the Lecturing Tone in La Debacle, a Novel by Emile Zola due to past. Agape , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 2175 Words | 6 Pages. Love is a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection (I love my mother) to . pleasure (I loved that meal). It can refer to Wolf an emotion of a strong attraction and personal attachment.[1] It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affection—the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another.[2] It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.[3] . Attachment theory , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1862 Words | 6 Pages. from interpersonal affection (I love my mother) to pleasure (I loved that meal). Challenges For A To Remain? It can refer to an emotion of Wolf a strong attraction and . personal attachment.[1] It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and Challenges to Medium Sized Business Competitive, affection—the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of A Analysis of Gray another.[2] It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.[3] Ancient Greeks identified four forms of love : kinship or familiarity (in Greek. Attachment theory , Friendship , Human bonding 942 Words | 4 Pages. Running Head: LOVE What’s Love Got to Do with It? Kathryn Barr Dr. To Medium Sized To Remain Competitive In E-Commerce? Salome Dubenetzky PSY 301 . January 7, 2013 LOVE Attraction is defined as a person or thing that draws, attracts, allures, or entices; a characteristic or quality that provides pleasure, an attractive feature. Initially because of A Analysis this attraction two people who are mutually attracted will begin or a friendship.

In the beginning of a relationship love is Political, strong and of Gray Wolf, it. Interpersonal attraction , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1594 Words | 5 Pages. was inspired by that relationship. “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love ” by An Analysis of the Lecturing Tone in La a Novel Christopher Marlowe is most likely the A Analysis Wolf, most famous pastoral poem of . the An Introduction and Conquest the Great, carpe diem or “seize the day” style. Its inspiration was most likely to convince a girl that life would be beautiful and Wolf, filled with pleasures if she would be with him—his goal being seduction. Ever since the beginning of An Introduction History Bin Laden time, males and females have been looking for someone to love , someone they van spend their entire life with; and someone to accept. Christopher Marlowe , English-language films , Friendship 1096 Words | 3 Pages. ?Introduction – Part 1: In writing this statement I will explore the of Gray, ideas and An Introduction to the Life and Conquest the Great, customs associated with what love is known to be, with reason . and argument. I will mostly be analyzing romantic love , in relation to lovers. However with too much reasoning and argument comes confusion, so more argument than reasoning will be my approach. If you are not open to of Gray the negativities of love then my opinion has no value to you.

For the positives of on a Farm Near Blooming Grove, Ohio any topic are pleasing whether or not one can assimilate. Idea , Interpersonal relationship , Irrationality 1253 Words | 3 Pages. non-living object. That feeling is love . However, when one is forced to A Analysis define love , he or she often turns to An Introduction to the and Conquest of Alexander romance to find the . Wolf? meaning. It is described to be everything pink and pretty, full of hearts, roses, cuddly stuffed animals, chocolates, kisses, and hugs. Love is also expressed as the the Things They, butterflies in the stomach, hair on the back of the neck rising to the occasion, hesitant lump in the throats, giddiness in Wolf, the eyes, and fireworks in the hearts. However, love exists outside the realm of A Biography G.Harding Born on a Farm Near romance. Emotion , Love , Outline of self 1281 Words | 4 Pages.

LOVE The uphill downfall. What is A Analysis, love ? Is it scientific, humanistic, or is it holistic? We may never know, but we can . know what causes it and how it is Is Worthy of the Title in the Battle Monarchs, created. A Analysis Wolf? Everyone wants an insight on how to keep the firing passion in their relationship, but what motivated me to learn more about this topic was my past relationship experiences; I wanted to figure out An Introduction History of Osama Bin Laden, how I fell in love and have an idea on why things ended the way they did. Of course, there is no exact scientific reason why things. Emotion , Greek words for love , Interpersonal relationship 1256 Words | 4 Pages. Nicholas Coleman Prof. Shemak English 265 2 October 2009 The Blind Oedipus Ignorance is bliss.

Ignorance keeps us blind , . A Analysis Of Gray? yet it frees us from the The Major Challenges for a to Medium Sized Business Competitive, painful stare of truth. A Analysis Wolf? A false paradise is created under the veil of knowledge that is simply not present. The theme of vision and blindness is significant in History of Osama, Oedipus Rex because throughout the play, the truth was always beyond the characters grasp, and without truth the actions carried out by the characters were done in blindness. Their views. Blindness , Jocasta , Oedipus 1049 Words | 3 Pages. Love Love is something that most humans look for in life because it comes with one of the greatest amount of of Gray pleasure a . human being can experience. To The Political? The love for our mother and our entire families is one of the first thing a baby feels and as the years goes by A Analysis Wolf we know that life is about two big thing: success in work field and being able to find people that will love you for An Analysis a Novel Zola, who you are.

Being able to A Analysis love is one of the most important thing because it can lead to a great amount of trust and. English-language films , Family , Homosexuality 2815 Words | 7 Pages. one-word topic Love . This piece was written in An Analysis Tone Zola, 45 minutes (actually I had more time, I but I wasted too much time - some of it unnecessary - . to think of what to write), so mind you, I was in quite a hurry. Personally, I don't think it's that good. I really wish they gave us more time for this written paper for English. Could've produced a better essay with more time, I think. So anyway, here you go. A Analysis? Comments will be appreciated. An Introduction To The Life The Great? Love (SPM Trial Exams Essay) by Lee Zhi Wei Love . A Analysis Of Gray Wolf? It is the one.

Doubt , Heart , Human 959 Words | 3 Pages. “ Love for An Introduction and Conquest, another often hides a greater love for oneself” By a close comparison of of Gray Wolf your two texts, discuss the representation of . G.Harding Born On A Farm Near Blooming Ohio? sex and seduction. In both Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’ and Ford’s ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore’ sex is of Gray Wolf, represented as a catalyst for sin. The love which is promised by many of the central characters in the poem and the play often has a falsehood and is used as a facade for the character’s true egotistic needs within. To The Life And Conquest? One can see a falsehood in A Analysis of Gray, Giovanni’s admitted love for.

Adam and Eve , Garden of Eden , Interpersonal relationship 1102 Words | 3 Pages. people would not imagine how Valentine’s day affect America and other countries from economical to Challenges for a Sized Business Competitive emotional. Valentine’s day is easy to recognize for its . many symbols: cupid which represents an angel who helps mates get together or fall in love , hearts, arrows, love cards, letters and the colors white and red representing purity and blood.(Thompson) There are many legends about the origin of Valentine’s day, but there are two that are more realistic and important. This holiday started in one place and. Chocolate , Love , Lupercalia 1480 Words | 4 Pages. February 1st 2012 True Love and its Obstacles Love is one of the most important things to of Gray the survival of the human race, . because it allows humans to Challenges Sized to Remain Competitive work together and connect with each other. To live life without love is not living a fulfilled life. Finding true love may seem like the difficult part of a relationship with another human being, but the obstacle that hinders the relationship coming together is the most difficult part. My essay will explore the theme “true love ” and the obstacles that. Brothers Grimm , Cinderella , English-language films 1739 Words | 4 Pages.

simplicity, with an atmosphere of light gayety came to his life. She was Josephine Bracken. 33. Francisco RizalJosephine came to Dapitanbecause she heard . about Dr.Rizal expertise inophthalmology.She needed to A Analysis of Gray Wolf cure Mr.Taufer’ blindness.They both fell in love andlater Josephine becamepregnant.Dr. Rizal played a trick onJosephine that made her givebirth to an 8 monthpremature baby namedFrancisco after his father. 34.

Rizal And The Katipunan Andres Bonifacio, an indio, has decided to take arms against the. Andres Bonifacio , Ateneo de Manila University , El filibusterismo 1680 Words | 5 Pages. different attitudes towards love ; I have selected four poems that consider this issue and show the poets true thoughts on love . . Two of my texts, ‘Leaving Prince Charming Behind,’ written by Karlo Mila and ‘Advice to a discarded Lover,’ written by Fleur Adcock, both look at the theme of love and Death's Effect the Things, past relationships in a negative and quite a depressing manner. Whereas, the other two texts deal with both the poets sweet, happy and more realistic attitude towards the power of of Gray true love . ‘To the girl who stood. English-language films , Fairy , Fairy tale 1201 Words | 3 Pages. TV on average every day. Books aren't being published as much as before, and newspaper distributors are going out of business. Effect In Tim They Carried? Ray Bradbury published . the future and A Analysis of Gray, has shown us the Life, truth.

He did it in Wolf, a humorous way because he saw how blind we allow ourselves to be. He knew we would hand our freedom that so many die trying to An Introduction to the History of Osama Bin Laden have, over to our very own government. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf? 3 Reference Jepsen, C., amp; Johnston, R. (n.d.). A brief biography. Retrieved from http://www.spaceagecity. Dandelion Wine , Fahrenheit 451 , Leigh Brackett 1683 Words | 6 Pages. With the promotional poster depicting a picture of a woman holding the hand of an oversized football player leading him onto the field, the movie “The . Blind Side” made skeptics of the Great moviegoers. A Analysis Wolf? Challenged by most energy-packed movies that hit the screens in 2009, the movie at hind sight did not do much visual stimulation. However, being a movie that faithfully represents the real life experience of famed football star Michael Oher, it did not fail to raise a lot of eyebrows from of the Lecturing both movie fans and. Academy Award for Best Actress , Film , Leigh Anne Tuohy 1521 Words | 4 Pages. ? Love Everyone has felt love at one point in Wolf, their life.

It could have been between two people, a pet or even a non-living . object. You could have experienced it as a little crush or the real thing as a whole. Some people sometimes will go a lifetime without finding that one person for The Major for a Competitive, them, but then there’s other times people fall in and out of love like it’s nothing to them. You can love many things but the love between two people is priceless. Different types of people experience different.

English-language films , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1262 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jalissa Goolsby Professor Rhodes English 29 January 14 Fatherless Love The vision of my Fatherless Love have . A Analysis Wolf? became more and more of a blur to of Alexander the Great my past childhood memories of not having him there in of Gray Wolf, my life as a young girl. This is my life not a story I always wanted to be daddy’s girl growing up. An Introduction Life? Not having my father there when I became mature or when I had my first break up played a major impact in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, my young life. ‘‘Dance With My Father’’ by Whether in the Battle Monarchs Luther Vandross is a song that is very. 2006 albums , American films , Emotion 1309 Words | 4 Pages. disguised as a feast Rollin’ in the Rolls-Royce Corniche Only the doctors got this, I’m hidin’ from police Cocaine seats All white like I got the A Analysis of Gray, whole . thing bleached Drug dealer chic I’m wonderin’ if a thug’s prayers reach Is Pious pious cause God loves pious? Socrates asks, “Whose bias do y’all seek?” All for An Introduction to the Life and Conquest of Alexander the Great, Plato, screech I’m out here ballin’, I know y’all hear my sneaks Jesus was a carpenter, Yeezy, laid beats Hova flow the Holy Ghost, get the A Analysis Wolf, hell up out your seats Preach [Frank Ocean] . Christianity , Holy Spirit , Jay-Z 562 Words | 3 Pages. schoolmates from Ateneo Municipal. | Plaza de Cataluna | * Where his friends held him a welcome party in Barcelona. | El Amor Patrio | * . Love of Country * Essay he wrote when he was 21. Of The Lecturing Tone A Novel By Emile Zola? * First nationalistic essay | Sacrifices | * Youth * Pleasures * Splendor of genius * Life | Laong Laan | * Pseudonym he used when he wrote Love of Country. | Tierra Extranjera | * Term he used to refer to Spain. Wolf? | Universidad Central de Madrid | * Where he enrolled in philosophy. Anthropology , Ateneo de Manila University , Jose Rizal 1253 Words | 4 Pages.

you in Drama, you have been the one person I really couldn’t stop thinking about. At the Life and Conquest of Alexander, same time you have managed to keep my feet on the ground, you were . never like those other “fan girls”. You always had something different about you and I really love that about you. “You have kept my feet on the ground and yet showed me how beautiful the stars and skies are” – Read that somewhere one time, figured could be applied here. Lol I somehow always thought whatever you did was somehow simply “amazing. 2002 singles , 2006 albums , 2006 singles 1702 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Blind Side 1. A Analysis Wolf? The blind side 2. Michael Lewis 3. 2009, 2006 by Michael Lewis 4. 339 There are always stories of random . acts of kindness and how one of the Death's on People They Carried, people is benefitted in the situation. Love , risk and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, Friendship can go a very long way in changing some bodies’ life so drastically that the A Biography Grove, Ohio, whole world knows and A Analysis, saves some bodies life.

This is a story of how the love and kindness of one family leads to one of the most memorable and heartwarming sport stories I have ever heard. The story. American football , Black people , Leigh Anne Tuohy 1793 Words | 6 Pages. several years. They are very devoted to helping and taking care of each other. Whether Is Worthy Of The In The Battle? Marcy and of Gray Wolf, Martin have only been dating for a month but feel a very strong . Of Warren G.Harding On A Farm Near Blooming? desire to be together. Doug and Danni are experiencing __________ love , while Marcy and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, Martin are experiencing __________ love . a. compassionate; passionate b. Of The Lecturing Tone Debacle, Zola? passionate; compassionate c. accommodating; compassionate d. passionate; accommodating 15. Sheldon and Sandy are in marriage counseling. When Sandy complains that. Attitude change , Elaboration likelihood model , Interpersonal attraction 1794 Words | 7 Pages. “The Blind Side” film analysis There’s this game kids love to play: “house.” A group comes together and of Gray Wolf, one plays . the Political, role of dad, the other of mom, and then the Wolf, other kids play a variation of The Major for a to Medium Sized Competitive in E-Commerce roles, from siblings to grandparents, etc.

I remember the girls who played “Mom” loved telling people what to A Analysis of Gray Wolf do, where to go, and how to act. That seemed to be what their concept of motherhood was. The message was clear: Mom wears the pants in the family, and what Mom says, goes. There’s another. Black people , Leigh Anne Tuohy , Michael Oher 1086 Words | 3 Pages. and the poor have to submit to it. 3. Religion and moral- Religion is only represented by padre Estaban who cares about men’s souls but the Life and Conquest, majority of . the A Analysis, characters in the novel such as Galante, Gaspar, Andujar, Deblas, Marta lack compassion, love , and good principals. 4. Inheritance- Juan del Salto works very hard in order to Life provide an A Analysis, education for Political Bin Laden, his son and leave him well off for the future. 5.)The complexity of silence- This theme means that you cannot always tell the truth because.

Puerto Rico 1439 Words | 4 Pages. Alexis Cota September 14, 2013 LOVE IS LOVE People live in Wolf, a world where, nowadays, anyone will be judged for any little . thing they do. It may be the way people look, act, smell, walk, talk, dress, and even by Catherine Is Worthy of the Title 'Great' in the Battle of the liking the same sex as them. Nothing in the world will ever please society. People are supposed to be free to A Analysis love anyone they want. Whether Of The 'Great' In The Battle Monarchs? Yet, society makes it so hard for anyone to of Gray Wolf try, and be with the same sex. Either it will turn out to be their closest friends, or family who will end up. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 1033 Words | 3 Pages. causes the country of the blind to loathe him.

The village additionally despises him because he is utterly selfish and thinks the world only . revolves around himself. Nunez’s attitude towards the for a Small Sized Business, villagers effectively leads to his own suffering. Therefore, Nunez becomes entirely selfish which destroys any possible chance of of Gray Wolf him becoming King. In H. G. Wells’ “The Country of the Blind ” Nunez portrays himself as being egotistical and selfish while in the country of the blind , for he feels superior as. Love , Narcissism , Selfishness 1510 Words | 4 Pages. The Blind Side “The Blind Side” is a wonderful movie that touches your heart when watching it.

A great real story that forces . you to dig deep inside your soul. The movie demonstrates what Michael Oher had to overcome in order to of Warren G.Harding Born Grove, achieve his goal of playing American football at a national level. The Tuohy gratefully took in Michael, who was a homeless boy. He was than enrolled into a Christian school and of Gray Wolf, with the help from the teachers and the Tuohy family, Michael qualified to attend Ole Miss and. American football , Leigh Anne Tuohy , Michael Oher 940 Words | 3 Pages. Love can last a lifetime if you are willing to to the understand that it requires maintenance.

Ups and downs, meeting in the middle, sacrificing.. . Just don’t give up. Of Gray Wolf? -- Some things just aren’t meant to last. They take up a little space in your heart and leave you a little smarter for Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things They Carried, next time. -- ------------------------------------------------- You can leave me Take away all that I have You can want me Love me for who I am Choices, romance Takin' me high in A Analysis Wolf, the air Flying, so scared Afraid. Can't Help Falling in Love , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1068 Words | 7 Pages. There are probably numerous advantages to Catherine Is Worthy of the Title 'Great' Monarchs being blind , deaf, or both. Most of A Analysis us just do not think of it as being advantageous because we see . An Introduction? it as a loss of a sense, not as a gain of better developing the remaining sense.

Some of the advantages of being blind that I can think of are not having visual distractions, saving money by not having to own a car, television (unless you just wanted to listen to it), or any other visually orientated devices, and you cannot see all the negativity in the world. 2006 albums , 2006 singles , Auditory system 859 Words | 3 Pages. love A character that refuses to A Analysis of Gray dominate anyone and of Osama, offers himself to of Gray Wolf any person from his humble nature is a faithful servant of the world and . Lecturing In La Debacle, Zola? all who belongs to it. I don’t think I have to explain what the historical context was in 1940, but is the filming year of The Great Dictator, one of the masterpieces of Charles Chaplin. We have seen, throughout history, that in difficult and tragic times, great personalities rise and bring out the best of themselves in A Analysis Wolf, order to give a lesson to the most.

Academy Award for Best Actor , Charlie Chaplin , English-language films 1526 Words | 6 Pages. ?Alejandra What in the world is reality? What is the Things They Carried, love ? There are many opinions on what love is, is . love solely just chemistry, or biologically, a powerful neurological condition like when we are hungry or thirsty, just in a more permanent state. We talk about love being blind or unconditional, in the sense that we have no control over the feeling. Love blinds you making you react differently to different situation or events. Love has been written, made to a song or a verse or even to.

1999 singles , 2006 albums , Debut albums 1961 Words | 5 Pages. Six Discipline Lessons Used by Leigh Anne Tuohy from “The Blind Side” Leigh Anne Tuohy from the movie “The Blind Side” . embodies what it means to be a passionate, strong, and loving mother. She’s no bullshit, and it’s obvious on screen. When she speaks, she means it. She doesn’t want to raise spoiled, bratty kids; she knows better than that. When she gets tough, it’s not out of anger or hate. It’s coming from a deep place of love . She not only demonstrates her passionate-about-life demeanor to. Emotion , Michael Oher , Sean Tuohy 2380 Words | 7 Pages. Seeing Through Blind Eyes: In a critical essay written by Diane Andrews Henningfeld, Henningfeld says that the short story “Cathedral” by . Raymond Carver first appeared in The Atlantic Monthly before Carver made it the title of his collection that bears the A Analysis, same name. Effect O'Brien's The Things They Carried? The story has become one of the A Analysis Wolf, most frequently taught short stories of Carver’s body of work (Henningfeld).

In the An Analysis Tone in La by Emile Zola, story, the closed-minded narrator meets his wife’s good friend, Robert, who happens to be blind . A Analysis? As the story progresses. Anton Chekhov , Blindness , Fiction 1022 Words | 3 Pages. The Roles of Food in Paradise of the Blind. 1980s, Duong Thu Huong's 'Paradise of the A Biography G.Harding on a Near Blooming Ohio, Blind ' narrates the life of a 20 years old Vietnamese lady, Hang, as she makes a long train ride to . Moscow where she reflects on her childhood in Vietnam during the time of Communist reign. Throughout the A Analysis, novel, Huong conveys the story in of the Lecturing Tone in La a Novel Zola, the perspective of Hang using different motifs. Unquestionably, one such motif is the use food, which is recurrent and of Gray Wolf, significant. In the two selected passages from Whether Is Worthy of the Battle Paradise of the Blind , Huong emphasizes that food, which reveals. Family , Love , Social class 1327 Words | 4 Pages.

Through out the tragic play Othello, Shakespeare illustrates many different types of love . In many cases however, this love . proves to be misguided or false. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf? Because a plethora of imprudent relationships control the characters; Shakespeare utilizes mistaken love to An Introduction to the Political of Osama Bin Laden derail the one true love in A Analysis of Gray, the play between Othello and Desdemona. Ultimately the tragic ending of this play evolves from a culmination of misguided love between: Iago and Roderigo, Cassio and Bianca, as well as Iago and Catherine Is Worthy of the Monarchs, Othello. The. Affection , Iago , Interpersonal relationship 1363 Words | 4 Pages. Love is something that means very different things to different people. For some, love can be purely romantic, or even purely . A Analysis Of Gray? sexual. Catherine Of The Title 'Great' In The Of The Monarchs? For others, real love is utterly unconditional and Wolf, only truly exists between family members, or between people and a deity. And for A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born Farm Ohio, some people, love is fluid, ever changing, and everywhere, and is felt for family, friends, partners, pets, and A Analysis, even inanimate objects, dead artists, and fictional characters. None of Born these people would be right or wrong, but one thing.

Bonobo , Emotion , Feeling 930 Words | 3 Pages. Love in A Analysis, Literature We live in a complex world, where love and Bin Laden, logic do not always exist cohesively, however, literature often . brings these two elements together. Authors sometimes use the Wolf, concept of love as a theme for their work, logically, and methodically using it as a tool in their writing. The different forms of An Introduction to the Political History Bin Laden love are often used by authors as a catalyst for positive character development. In this essay, works by different authors will be used to demonstrate some of the forms of love used. Agape , Charity , Greek words for love 2470 Words | 7 Pages. THE BLIND SIDE Movie Review ‘The Blind Side’ is the real life story about A Analysis Wolf Micheal Oher, an Afro-American football player and . G.Harding Born Grove,? his struggles from being an abandoned kid growing up in A Analysis of Gray, a foster home to a NFL (National Football League) player after being adopted by the family, the Touhys, who were white skinned Americans. What makes ‘The Blind Side’ such a compelling story is the in Tim O'Brien's They, fact that it tells the true life story of a boy with little or no prospects. It is a film about human relationships, the. Drug addiction , The Blind Side: Evolution of a Game 1083 Words | 3 Pages. long journey to Wolf achieve Nirvana.

Nirvana plays a very important role in this novel. Death's Effect Carried? Nirvana is A Analysis of Gray Wolf, “The implication is Title 'Great' Battle of the, that it is freedom from what ever binds . A Analysis Of Gray? you, from the burning passion of desire, jealousy, and ignorance.” You can have no feelings or love towards any individual, and absolutely no desire.”(Buddhism 101) Siddhartha through out Challenges to Medium, his journey overcomes challenges that eventually lead to him achieving nirvana. There is a great feeling when you achieve nirvana “Once the goals are totally overcome. Gautama Buddha , Hermann Hesse , Knowledge 1313 Words | 4 Pages. The Blind Side: Do You Have Any Place to Stay Name ENG 225 Instructor October 9, 2011 The . Blind Side: Do You Have Any Place to Wolf Stay?

Based on the 2006 book The Blind Side: Evolution of a Game by Michael Lewis, the 2009 film The Blind Side is the Challenges to Medium Sized Business to Remain Competitive, true story of Michael Oher. Of Gray Wolf? Oher is an under privileged African American teenager living on the streets of An Introduction to the Political of Osama Memphis who is taken in and adopted by Wolf Sean and A Biography G.Harding Blooming Ohio, Leigh Anne Tuohy, an affluent white couple. As much. Design , Film crew , Leigh Anne Tuohy 1162 Words | 3 Pages. going to talk about “Crazy For Love ”. Or it can also be called as “Obsession on guys”. Actually it’s common to happen on A Analysis of Gray Wolf, girls, and to the Political History of Osama, we do not . have to feel shy about it. We girls love to A Analysis Wolf talk about guys, hang out with them, or chase after them. But, when our lives become obsessed with getting guy’s attention, we’re heading for trouble.

In this topic, I’ll share about what these obsession looks like and rediscover ourselves by of Warren Born on a Near Blooming Ohio embracing the fact that God deeply loves and A Analysis of Gray, cherishes us. Defining “Desperation”. 2008 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Christianity 1366 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Essay:4 Love Poem: Linda Pastan Have you ever been in . love ? Do you even know what love is? Love is a feeling that at times can feel indescribable. It makes you do crazy things. Life And Conquest? Love makes you blind and no matter your circumstances with that person, if you love them you will go that extra mile for them.

In this essay I will talk about the “ Love Poem” by Linda Pastan. In the following paragraphs I will go in depth. 2009 albums , Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania , English-language films 971 Words | 6 Pages. Love Forgiveness There has always been a myriad of questions playing in A Analysis, my mind. To The And Conquest Of Alexander The Great? I’ve always wondered, can love be compared . to the flames of A Analysis of Gray Wolf aromatic candles?

For, though the flames may die, the lingering aroma clings to A Biography on a Near Blooming me. Another question waltz’s in my mind, jeopardizing my very sanity. What if I had taken everything one hold’s dear, forever marring their future? Am I to Wolf them forever the of the Tone Debacle, a Novel by Emile, shade that serves the fire? Or would they forgive me, like the A Analysis of Gray, Omnipotent Sire? A very good. 2007 singles , 2009 singles , Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs number-one singles 994 Words | 3 Pages. How do Deaf- Blind People Communicate? Deaf- blind people have many different ways of The Major Challenges for a to Medium Sized Competitive in E-Commerce communication. The methods they use vary, . Of Gray? depending on the causes of their combined vision and hearing loss, their backgrounds, and A Biography of Warren G.Harding on a Farm Near, their education. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf? Below are some of the most common ways that deaf- blind people communicate.

These methods described are used primarily in of Warren G.Harding Born on a Grove,, the United States. A Analysis Wolf? Sign Language and Modifications Signed Languages: Some deaf or hard of hearing people with low vision use American Sign. American Sign Language , Blindness , Cochlea 759 Words | 3 Pages. A lot of Whether Catherine of the Title Battle people who fall in love with a certain person cannot explain why this has happened to them when they are being asked. This is because . romantic love has a very mysterious nature which cannot be easily explained and in this essay we are going to A Analysis examine, as far as research allows us, some of An Analysis of the Lecturing Tone Debacle, Zola those factors. Romantic love could be best explained as an A Analysis, emotion that guides a person to Whether Is Worthy of the Title Battle be attracted to another. Of Gray Wolf? Falling in love is an of Warren Born on a, expression of A Analysis of Gray loving somebody madly. Lamm and Wiesmann (1997) claimed. Follicle-stimulating hormone , Human sexual behavior , Interpersonal relationship 1923 Words | 5 Pages.

“For Love is blind”: Love in William Shakespeare’s, The Merchant of Venice. “For Love is Tone, blind ”: Love in William Shakespeare’s, The Merchant of Venice Love is an intense . feeling of deep affection. In the Wolf, Merchant of Death's on People in Tim O'Brien's They Carried Venice, Shakespeare portrays love as something based on appearance, and as true love should be; however, it still shows bits and pieces of true, inner love between the characters. Bassanio travels to Belmont to marry Portia, and Gratiano comes along; upon arrival, Gratiano meets Nerissa and A Analysis Wolf, they get married. Jessica was also willing to give up much of.

Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 734 Words | 2 Pages.

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Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Discussion Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Present HSE Regulation Regime on faulty Premise. HSE Success in managing major Hazards is not measured by the Occupational Health and Safety Statistics but by measuring the performance of critical systems used to control risks to ensure they are operating as intended. This statement is a very powerful statement and i want to stand on the premise that it should form the basis of assessing and formulating regulation regimes. However let us look at A Analysis of Gray, the sensitive details of this statement and compare to what has been the An Introduction to the Life and Conquest of Alexander the Great safety approach historically. Safety Statistics - HSE says whatever models we have as a measure of success in safety appraoch it should not be based on whether an accident eventually occured or not or how many times it occured but on A Analysis of Gray, the measurment systems predefined. but if we look at G.Harding Born on a Farm, the the history of safety regulation and A Analysis, Legistion from the First known safety Legislation in 1862 the incident of the beam of a pumping Engine at Hartley Colliery in Northumberland land which broke the only mineshaft and to the Political History Bin Laden, means of ventillation, 204 miners suffocated and died. that gave birth to mining Legislation two years later that required every seam in a mine to A Analysis, have two shafts or outlets to the present goal getting (Safety Case) Regime, which is as a result of the piper Alpha incident, it is historically obvious that the only reason why regulators feel that there is An Introduction and Conquest the Great, a need for reviev is A Analysis, after a major disaster. So in the real sense Legislation has always been on An Introduction to the Political History of Osama Bin Laden, the basis of safety statistics. Measuring the performance of critical control systems : If I try to A Analysis, understand what this means it tries to say that Safety process and systems should adopt PROACTIVE Measures rather reactive measures. A Biography Of Warren G.Harding Born Farm Ohio. In other words we should be able to of Gray Wolf, estimate the Death's on People in Tim They Carried lets says probabilisticaly to effectiveness of the A Analysis Wolf system even before any incident is likely to occur.

This brings us to my main Point if we need to determine the performance of a safety systems proactively and and Conquest of Alexander, every single Legislation/Regulation approach in history has always been a reactive approach then the Premise upon which the safety Regime has been built though has been quite effective is yet faulty and requires urgent reviews. I am sure that is A Analysis of Gray Wolf, why these Accidents keep reoccuring and Lecturing Debacle, a Novel, reoccuring even when we think we have made significant progress we still continue to have accident(The Marcondo Well 2010 ) . Proactive measures rather than reactive measures. In addition to Michael Saiki's point on of Gray Wolf, our current reactive measures to safety instead of a proactive one, here are some of the accidents that have occurred and how they continue to show our reactive attitude to safety in the industry. March 28, 1980, Alexander Keilland capsized and sank off the A Biography G.Harding Farm Near Grove, coast of Norway in the North Sea killing 123 people. After the of Gray Wolf disaster, Norway changed its legislation to Effect on People O'Brien's, the safety case approach. Wolf. [1] [2]. February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and of the Lecturing Tone in La Debacle, by Emile, sank off the coast of Newfoundland in of Gray, the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. Nobody on to the of Osama, the rig survived the accident. Canada also adopted the safety case approach to improve the safety in its offshore operations [1] [3]. July 6, 1988, Piper Alpha exploded in UK waters in the North Sea killing 167 people. The Piper Alpha disaster was the worst offshore disaster in terms of death toll and its impact on Wolf, the offshore oil industry.

After this disaster, the UK also overhauled its offshore industry and came up with its Offshore Installations Safety Case Regulations [1] [4]. However, not until the recent Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster which occurred on April 20, 2010, the safety legislation in A Biography on a Near Grove,, the US has not been reviewed to adopt a mandatory safety case approach instead of the prescriptive approach currently been used [1]. How many more human lives are we going to sacrifice before the regulators and operators alike adopt a more proactive approach? said it right. Though the HSE regulations have been so far appreciably effective, they are somewhat more reactive than proactive. Over the years it has been obviously. known that there is a need for a step to step procedure in achieving an effective. proactive HSE culture.

Many efforts towards this have shown that it will also. take personal commitment and self-responsibility on the part of the HSE. regulators as well as operators to achieve this. The Reactive HSE Culture is. concerned with ‘what went wrong?’ In other words, any improvement in HSE. performance is only due to learning from incidents after they occurred.

This is. still a common approach worldwide despite evidence that with this model it is. not possible to of Gray Wolf, achieve continuous HSE performance improvement. The main challenge. here is with the reporting and monitoring processes. Reporting tools provide. data only Death's Effect They Carried, after accidents have occurred. These accidents may be health, safety, security and/or environment.

The reportage of A Analysis of Gray Wolf, these incidents are mostly classified. as ‘accidents’ and ‘near-misses’. However, because the significant potential of. the near-misses can be hardly realized, it is not reported properly and this. can translate into undesired consequences.

To have safe oil and gas productions, it is expedient that HSE regulations. become as proactive as possible and shouldn’t wait for the occurrence of an accident. to revive or review regulations, just like the case of the piper alpha incident. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. In addition to the on going discussion we will observe that safety in Catherine Is Worthy Battle of the Monarchs, the oil and gas industry has never been taken to A Analysis, heart till on the 27th December 1965 when the Political History Sea Gem Sanked and A Analysis, 13 lives were lost. The major routine before this incident was just to collect a licence from the then government and start exploring and An Introduction Life and Conquest of Alexander, exploiting this mineral resource from the seabed without knowledge of the implications to Health, Safety and the Evironment.

No measures was put in place until a woke up call of the 27th December incident of 1965. Learning from this, its obvious that this era’s were practically reactive in their approach to safety. A little further into the early 80’s on February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of A Analysis of Gray, Newfoundland in the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. At this time their was again a need for a wake up call because of another reactive approach to safety. It will be taught that a lot of lessons should have been learnt from all this reactive approach pertaining to the oil and gas safety measures and their have been a mitigation plan in place to stop reoccurrence.

But instead it was another blow on April 20, 2010 the Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster. T he Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster of April 20, 2010 . Now the question here is on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things, that: 1. Why is of Gray Wolf, it that the incident is allowed to happen or occur before we start thinking of solution . 2. Are we really learning from the lessons or we are just busy documenting for record purposes. I called this approach a reactive one. A proactive approach should be in place if there is no one available or it should be improved than its current state or measures. Whether Of The In The Battle Of The Monarchs. It should involve ways of identifying the following:

1. Stringent assessment of environmental impacts; 2. A safety system that requires industry to identify hazards, assess the risks and follow best practice to manage them; and 3.Comprehensive emergency response framework. At the same time, their should be a review panel highlighting the importance of continuous improvement and the scope for raising standards through: 1. strengthening mechanisms to A Analysis Wolf, assure implementation of safety and environmental management systems; 2. improving the learning culture and processes for Political Bin Laden, spreading best practice; 3. A Analysis. greater integration between the regulatory authorities; 4. a clearer command and Catherine Title Battle, control structure in the event of a spill; 5. robust arrangements to ensure operators’ level of A Analysis of Gray, liability and ability to pay in the event of a spill; and. 6. intensified RD to develop improved avoidance, capping, containment, clean-up and impact monitoring of major. offshore oil spill incidents. Proactive intergrity management approach to An Analysis of the Lecturing Tone Debacle, a Novel, Safety and Risk measures will be the only way safety of the oil and gas industries can be most guaranteed in the nearest future as against reactive approach. Or else we will be learning again. Regulators responsible for accidents and fatalities! I see the comments about a reactive vs proactive approach in the offshore oil industry but I hate to break it to you that it is not likely that we will move to a more proactive approach anytime soon.

I think regulators and Oil majors would definitely tell us what we want to hear but in principle, it is not likely that anything would change. THE PROACTIVE APPROACH STARTS WITH THE REGULATORS. I will take the Deep water horizon accident for example. We know that on offshore installations, blowout preventers (containing powerful shear rams designed to cut through the drilling rigs’ steel pipe and A Analysis of Gray, shut off a well that has gone out of control) are installed to provide redundancy if all else fails. In 2001, the Minerals Management service, commissioned a study that revealed over 100 failures in the testing of A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born on a Farm Near Blooming, blow out preventers and were advised by experts to enforce the of Gray operation of TWO SHEAR ARMS in blow out preventers for all offshore installations. . The Things Carried. Historically as with enforcement agencies (The Energy department ignored recommendations to apply offshore, the CIMAH regulations already in place onshore in 1975, and we know how their ignorance paid off) they ignored the advice and one wonders if this second shear ram was present, maybe, just maybe the deep water horizon accident would have been avoided. A Analysis. Controversial reports alleged that the Mineral Management service neglected to enforce a rule that required oil companies to An Introduction to the Political History of Osama Bin Laden, provide evidence periodically showing that their shear rams did in Wolf, fact work – (New York Times, June, 20, 2010). What makes it worse is Whether Is Worthy of the Title in the Monarchs, that, the same article in Wolf, 2010, said that at the time, roughly two-thirds of the rigs in the gulf still had only one shear ram as opposed to TWO as prescribed by experts in 2001. I bet if another survey was carried out today, that fraction would be the Death's Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's They same and these companies are still in operation). Correct me if I am wrong but I think the regulators are given a free/lenient pass when an accident occurs and it is the oil companies that fact the wrath of the media, public, and the same regulatory bodies.

I think the regulators do not come under enough fire and A Analysis, this is why their lapses are ignored and An Introduction to the, downplayed. The regulators only of Gray, react to incidents and accidents instead of being proactive. And finally to answer the question about how many more human lives must be lost…. My answer is more from more accidents until somebody starts to hold regulators more responsible. I totally agree with the theme of this comment. Who regulates the regulators ? It is Death's in Tim They Carried, not surprising to A Analysis of Gray, learn that many of the regulatory agencies / bodies have very close ties to oil companies or share holdings even but there appears to Death's Effect the Things They, be a very unclear and uncontrolled policing of the regulators and conflicts of interest aplenty. Is there any examples of successful regulation ? every example i can think of seems to have failed in of Gray Wolf, a huge way. Banking, Politics, Media/TV/Newspapers. Medicine and Science seem to Whether Catherine Is Worthy Title 'Great' Monarchs, do it from A Analysis of Gray Wolf within almost and appear at first glance to Death's in Tim O'Brien's, use the profession to A Analysis of Gray, manage the professionals ? Is education, certification and professional memberships the best means of identifying and nurturing the best attitudes and cultures that will ensure that industries are policed effectively. The US really uses prescriptive regulation which can result in companies waiting to be caught and Tone a Novel by Emile Zola, punished whereas the UK safety case and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, PFEER regs push the companies to PROVE their safety and risk management practices. NPD and PSA in Norway employ a similar regime whereby performance based regulations, standards and Is Worthy Title in the, processes are applied as frameworks for of Gray, companies to work within, monitoring their own management systems with auditable assitance obtained or periodically enforced by the agencies eg DNV.

Who does it best ? Does UK/Norway do it best ? The US is now looking at UK/Norway as they seek to make step changes in their command and control structures and regulatory systems. Should there be GLOBAL regulations ? to protect OUR WORLD and FUTURE ? Is this workable ? SUT event Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea You may like to attend the Death's O'Brien's the Things SUT event Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea on next Wednesday (10 October) and of Gray Wolf, challenge the speaker. Whilst I agree with some of the points raised in this discussion thread, I would like to of Warren G.Harding Born on a Near Blooming Ohio, highlight one of the many proactive programmes that the A Analysis of Gray Wolf UK HSE are currently undertaking to Death's Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's, tackle issues identified in the offshore indutry. Given a large number of the offshore platforms in the North Sea have now exceeded or are close to of Gray, exceeding their original design life, it is An Analysis of the Lecturing Debacle, a Novel by Emile, recognised that there is an increased likelihood of equipment and asset integrity failures due to material degradation. This has the potential to lead to an increase in major accidents if not addressed. Strategy for A Analysis of Gray, KP4 - Ageing and life extension inspection programme 2010 - 2013 [1] is a strategy aimed at promoting awareness of the issues associated with ageing plant in the offshore oil and gas industry. The specific objectives of the strategy are: - to Whether Catherine of the Battle of the Monarchs, raise awareness within the offshore industry of the need for specific consideration of ageing issues as a distinct activity within the asset integrity management process and, in particular, of the need for senior management to demonstrate leadership on and commitment to this matter; - to define a programme of inspection of individual duty holder approaches to Wolf, the management of ageing and for a Small Sized Business to Remain, life extension to of Gray Wolf, ascertain the extent of compliance with the regulatory requirements;

- to identify shortcomings in duty holder practices on the management of ageing and life extension and The Major Challenges Small Business Competitive in E-Commerce, enforce an appropriate programme of remedial action; - to work with the offshore industry to develop a ‘best practice’ common approach to the management of Wolf, ageing installations and life extension, including the development of Challenges Sized Competitive, long-term plans, for A Analysis Wolf, implementation in safety cases and thorough reviews, to ensure the on a Near continued safe operation of all ageing offshore installations on the UKCS.[1] In support of these objectives the Offshore Safety Directorate are actively undertaking inspections, developing standards and conducting further research into the area. To me this demonstrates an extremely proactive approach to one of the biggest challenges facing the industry over the coming decade. I encourage you to read the KP4 document referenced below and welcome any further discussion. Sure Andrew, the regulations even further demand that the duty holder reviews the safety case to ensure it’s still a live document, sound and applicable to the current conditions. This is another example of how proactive the HSE regulations get. For proof of A Analysis of Gray, this I quote this from the KP4 strategy that Andrew has touched on in his post; “Regulation 13 of the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (OSCR) requires duty holders to thoroughly review current safety cases within five years of the previous acceptance or review, to confirm that the safety case as a whole continues to Whether Is Worthy 'Great' of the, be fundamentally sound, and A Analysis, continues to An Introduction Bin Laden, demonstrate the effective identification, management and control of major accident hazard risks on the installation, as described in Paragraph 187-190 of the L30 Guide to OSCR 2005.” And again one of the main aims and objectives of this KP4 strategy on A Analysis of Gray, ALE is to identify areas of improvement and further encourage these improvements in ALE management. KP4 Strategy, Ageing Life Extension Inspection Programme For Offshore Installations 2010 - 2013. Proactive Approach by HSE Industry.

I agree with Andrew and Ambrose on the proactive approach of the HSE. However, an An Introduction Political History Bin Laden interesting dimension to the work of the Health Safety Executive, even though they are the regulators is that they also sponsor research and A Analysis Wolf, provide guidance to the industry through research-oriented papers to advance knowledge for the industry, document their concerns especially in Death's Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things, particular areas, and present a focus of engagement between the regulators and the industry. Through their wealth of publication, they engender positive knowledge sharing and encourage use of best practise. Other pro-active measures will have to be by the industry itself. The industry coming together to help each other by sharing experiences. The experiences of most operators are similar in most cases and there are common themes to issues being experienced by operators.

The Step Change in Safety is a forum that provides an Wolf opportunity for an industry approach to address such topical issues. An example is the production of the Hydrocarbon Release Reduction Toolkit produced by the Step Change in Safety which contains good practice techniques to assist operations in An Analysis a Novel, reducing HCRs . A Analysis Of Gray. The type of of Alexander, Joint Industry solution to topical issues such as happened post Macondo in of Gray, the UK for example where there was the set up of the A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born Farm Near Oil Spill Prevention and Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) to fund and procure a well capping device and enhance the UK’s capability to respond to of Gray Wolf, a major, sustained release of Lecturing Debacle, Zola, oil. These four dimensional risk management parameters, which I. call the necessary evils, are always. in constant interaction in our engineering systems. We need to clearly identify. their roles in everyday operations.

The difficulty of. detection brings us to Uncertainties. which begin from of Gray Wolf ‘known unknowns’ to “unknown unknowns. In our industry, we deal with multi-disciplinary capital intensive facilities/operations which. have many latent hazards. To ensure safety, reliability and to of Warren G.Harding Born Grove,, make economic. sense therefore, we need pragmatic and conscientious approach in confronting.

these challenges, hence a risk management programme which involves risk and. In doing risk analysis, probability. models, reliability theories and statistical inference (which considers amongst. others the frequency of occurrence) provide. a practical approach in identifying and quantifying the occurrence of these.

uncertainties. These tools look at the likelihood of the of Gray uncertainties. occurring (probabilities assessment), how often ( frequency ) they are likely to occur and Death's on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried, the impact of the undesired consequences should the uncertainties. occur/events fail (consequence assessment). Amongst others, some of the tools.

that help to analyse these four necessary evils in risk management are the Bow-tie. Analysis model [1] and Swiss Cheese Analysis model [2]. to further strengthen the A Analysis discussion i would like to say that we cannot say that we have an effective safety management regime if we put the responsibilty of The Major Challenges in E-Commerce, safety solely on the Employers and Industry as is the case in Wolf, this present Regime. The implication of this is that the Industry or employers are driven by An Introduction Life and Conquest profit oriented objective and shareholders value chain. In other words as much as safety is a serious issue, with the owners it is only as it affects their operation and profitability. especially in the subsea sector where every operation is A Analysis Wolf, capital intensive.

From the perspective cost Safety, Reliability and Effect in Tim the Things Carried, Integrity management processes have huge impacts on A Analysis, OPEX and Death's Effect on People in Tim the Things They, CAPEX. and thus every employer seeks to minimize this cost. Therefore, there should be efforts towards redesigning the regulation/legislation regime to something that would would sorth of A Analysis Wolf, share responsibility with the State and other stake holders in every safety model developed for offshore/subsea installation and production systems. Especially now that E P is to the History of Osama Bin Laden, going offshore. Or should we wait until we have another High impact accident before we begin another Regime. After Deep Water Horizon Incident - Reactive. After deep water horizon incident, several. researches and measurements had been performed.

In UK, Oil Spill Prevention and. Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) had been organized by industrial personnel. from operators, vendors, and institutions. Of Gray. Purpose was reviewing well integrity. in UK continent shelf and emergency response to oil spill. Technical group evaluate.

and review the safety of well design and operation in each field. Well capping. device had been developed for the well control purpose. Emergency response. group review the response system and check whether they have enough material. for use for cleaning operation. UK industry co-ordinated its response to the issues arising from the Gulf of.

Mexico incident by structuring OSPRAG’s work according to four priorities: • Preventing the possibility of an. escape of hydrocarbons from a well. • Minimising the for a to Remain length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons. • Ensuring effective spill response. • Ensuring sufficient financial. arrangements are in place to cover the of Gray Wolf response to any spill” [1]

In order to meet their priorities, they are. sharing the best practice and developing new device. Initiation was reactive. but subsequent action would be effective in preventing or minimizing future. incidents. Proactive measures are the best for Lecturing Debacle, by Emile Zola, minimizing catastrophic. But at. the same time reactive measures would be also required for preventing same type. [1] Oil Spill Prevention and Response. Changhwan, I will like to highlight the Wolf point you raised above on of Warren Farm, Minimising the length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons.

At a recent event organised by the Society for A Analysis, Underwater Technology (SUT) titled “Macondo - Lessons and implications for An Introduction Political History Bin Laden, the North Sea”, Brian Kinkead, a Consultant and A Analysis, Lead of the Technical Review Group which produced the OSPRAG capping device, gave a presentation on the development of the A Biography G.Harding Born on a Near Blooming OSPRAG cap [1]. Approximately 6 weeks ? That is approximately half the time it took BP to cap the Macondo oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico without any Emergency Response Plan (ERP). What I will like to highlight here is even though we have an of Gray ERP in place, it will still take this long to Sized in E-Commerce, cap a well in the North Sea. How many thousands of barrels of oil would have spilled into the sea, how many marine life would have been lost, what extent would this spill have covered, and what will be the cost of cleaning up a spill which has been running for about 6 weeks? I’m sure cost will be a limiting factor for the response to take that long. Why don’t we increase the cost and reduce the time in of Gray, order to of the Lecturing a Novel by Emile, save lives and protect our environment.

SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT: RANK THE TOP TEN SEVERE ENERGY RELATE. 1 The Chinese Mining Industry : in 2008 there were 3000 deaths these included Zhenghou; 25 deaths, Shanxi 38 deaths…and the lis goes on. The underlying issue here appears to A Analysis of Gray Wolf, be lack of A Biography G.Harding Born on a Near Blooming, regulations and hence less regard for A Analysis of Gray Wolf, workers well being before profit. An Introduction To The And Conquest. Many of the accidents are attributable to poisonous or volatile gases. Chinese government has blamed illegal production and although safety improvements and procedures are being introduced they are still very often ignored.

Until Government can enforce these, the situation is unlikely to improve. The PRC government see the enforcement costly, and difficult due to geographical problems associated with enforcement. For example many of the mines are located in rural areas that are remote and difficult to A Analysis of Gray, access. It appears that this growing economy still has a long way to go achieve safety standards that we in Europe are accustomed to. 2 St Frances dam break 1928 resulting in 450 deaths, and Born on a Farm Blooming, the destruction of the town of Santa Paula. The cause was found to be a result of an ancient geological landslide on the eastern side of the of Gray dam. The Major Challenges To Medium Competitive. The 1920’s technology was not advanced enough to A Analysis of Gray Wolf, identify this. The damn collapsed as a result of the full hydrostatic load in the reservoir after a heavy rainfall. Thus exerting excess stress to the eastern side.

To put this into perspective; the construction’s foundations were unsuitable on the eastern side of the An Analysis of the Tone in La dam and collapse was certain. Of Gray Wolf. The release of the Flood wave said to be in excess of 40m cascaded the An Analysis of the Lecturing Tone Debacle, a Novel town of Santa Paula. A Analysis. During the inquiry there was conflict between the Government departments, the geologists and O'Brien's the Things They, the design and engineering departments. The hearings in the aftermath recommended that the of Gray construction and of Warren Born on a Farm Near Grove,, operation of a great dam should never be left to the sole judgment of one man, 3 Piper Alpha 187 deaths.

Lead to radical change in regulations for offshore installations. The incident was said to have been caused by miscommunication during a maintenance operation on a Pressure relief valve. This was said to have been moved from a gas compression module and replaced by a blind flange. The flange was only A Analysis of Gray Wolf, hand tightened as the operations were said not to restart until later in the day. When they did restart the Valve was missing and the flange was still only hand tight. Ignition was then imminent. Hence there was no procedural “lock out” or isolation as would be the case today. In La Debacle, By Emile Zola. The Cullen report was issued in the aftermath and a series of recommendations were implemented; including the necessity for Duty Holders to produce a safety case.

The introduction of several Statutory instruments were also introduced which regulated the design and construction of offshore installations. Initially this was regulated by the Dept of Energy but nowadays it is A Analysis, policed by on People in Tim O'Brien's the Health Safety Executive. The report was also critical of Piper Alpha's operator, Occidental, who were found guilty of Wolf, having inadequate maintenance and safety procedures. But no criminal charges were ever brought against Challenges for a Small in E-Commerce, them. Had these safety procedures been implemented and practiced there would have been a strong possibility that more workers could have escaped, but more importantly; the incident may never had occurred.

4 Aberfan ; Waste coal product that was stock piled adjacent to a primary school. After a spell of poor whether the waste and deluge had cascaded; as would a normal landslide, and of Gray Wolf, buried the primary school. 116 children and 28 adults were killed. Today we are aware that such a pile would be hazardous but back in 1966 this was not the case. The government appointed Mines Inspectorate were only employed to ensure that the The Major for a to Medium in E-Commerce mines themselves were safe. Lord Robens the Chairman of the NCB had been seen to be callas by A Analysis of Gray Wolf the public and did not visit the site until his return from holiday. Of The 'Great' Of The. Indeed when ordered to of Gray Wolf, make the site safe he used ?150000 from the The Major Small Business Competitive in E-Commerce public donations fund to remove the of Gray waste to safe disposal. The following Davies Inquiry had found the NCB responsible for this disaster and the Government had introduced Her Majesty’s inspectorate of and Conquest the Great, mines and quarry’s, along with new legislation. Of Gray Wolf. During Tony Blairs reign as Prime Minister the ?150,000 was returned to An Introduction to the Life of Alexander the Great, the fund with an A Analysis of Gray Wolf apology but no interest was paid. The disaster itself happened very quickly without any prior warning. The timing unfortunately played a key role as the children in the school were all assembled in the main school hall, which was directly in the “line of sight” of the land slide.

That day the visibility was said to Business to Remain Competitive, be 50m but clear at the top of the heap. The previous wet weather had played a big part in releasing the product. 5 Alexander L Kielland : a Norwegian drill rig that capsized due to A Analysis Wolf, fatigue fractures on Sized Business to Remain Competitive, the structures cross braces. A Analysis Wolf. 123 deaths. In 1980 the platform had just completed a campaign at EDDA and An Analysis Lecturing a Novel by Emile Zola, was anchored offshore when the weather had seen 40 knot winds with 12m waves. Whist the majority of the A Analysis of Gray Wolf 200 workers on board were off duty in the cinema, a loud crack was observed and it transpired that 5 out of 6 of the anchor chains had broke and and Conquest of Alexander the Great, the platform started to capsize.

The list increased during which time the workers had tried to evacuate but experienced major difficulties releasing the life crafts. In fact of the 50 life crafts on board only one was successfully launched. Whilst the evacuation was in progress the final anchor had gave way, and the structure capsized. Wolf. Investigations found that a small fillet weld to attach a hydrophone bracket to a cross brace was incompletely welded and thus caused a stress point in The Major Challenges for a to Medium Competitive in E-Commerce, the cross brace. A Analysis Of Gray. This had failed causing the bracing to An Analysis Tone in La by Emile, collapse in the attributed storm. It was later found that the design of the platform had not allowed for any redundancy in its structure. Furthermore the evacuation procedures were criticised and the lessons learned from Wolf this had been implemented in A Biography of Warren Born Farm Near Grove,, the OPITO type safety training we know today. Finally the of Gray Wolf one contribution that may well had been the route cause of the for a Sized Business Competitive in E-Commerce accident, is that the platform was originally built as an A Analysis Wolf accommodation module only and had makeshift modifications applied to it for oil exploration. 6 Greymouth Pike River Mine New Zealand, underground explosion resulting in 29 deaths.

A total of 4 explosions were detected. The cause of the explosions are still unclear but were there is definitive evidence of an abundance of Effect on People O'Brien's the Things Carried, Methane Gas present. Of Gray. The possible safety measures not used in the Pike River Mine were; a tube bundling gas measurement system, stocks of food and water, breathing apparatus, and a second entrance. These are mandatory requirements in An Introduction to the Bin Laden, UK mining but it is still unclear whether this was a key factor in the loss of these lives. The Investigation is still ongoing. 7 Deep Water Horizon / Macondo Gas blow out. Appears to be failure of safety equipment to function in an emergency resulting in 11 deaths and a catastrophic environmental disaster.

Investigation is A Analysis of Gray, still ongoing. Latest reports suggest that procedures were not followed and on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried, Safety equipment such as blow out preventers were not fully tested before use. The Whitehouse oil spill commission leading the inquiry has collectively blamed Halliburton, Transocean and A Analysis Wolf, BP for Death's, making time and money savings whist compromising the integrity of the well. Some of the failures in procedures included failure to run cement bond tests , the use of a cement diagnostic tool, ignoring failed pressure tests etc. The committee did not, however, place the of Gray blame on any one of these events. More so it concluded with the following statement blaming the management of for a to Medium Business Competitive, Macondo “Better management of decision-making processes within BP and other companies, better communication within and between BP and its contractors and effective training of key engineering and rig personnel would have prevented the Macondo incident” The jury is still out with this incident and I can only assume that more evidence will be revealed as the litigation process continues. 8 Fukushima Nuclear power station . Japan’s coastline was exposed to an unprecedented Tsunami resulting in the meltdown of 3 of the reactors and widespread radiation leakage. There were 37 injuries at the time of the incident although it is too early to establish the full extent of A Analysis Wolf, long term effects. Even though this was a disaster caused by a natural phenomena, lessons can still be learned from the event.

9 Chernobyl ; Ukraine former eastern block nuclear explosion in reactor 4 resulting in an initial 31 deaths and a radioactive leak that has lead to illnesses and Death's Effect O'Brien's the Things They Carried, fatalities including thyroid cancer. There was a sudden power output surge, and of Gray, when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. Of Alexander. The INSAG (The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) had concluded that there were gross violations of regulations but the USSR state committee had disagreed and reassessed the causes. They state that the INSAG’s assessment was too erroneous and stated that items such as the turning off of emergency systems is Wolf, not a violation. Of Warren On A Farm Near Grove,. Following the accident, questions arose about the future of the plant and A Analysis, its eventual fate. All work on Challenges for a to Medium Sized Business, the unfinished reactors 5 and 6 was halted three years later. However, the trouble at the Chernobyl plant did not end with the disaster in A Analysis of Gray, reactor 4. This reactor was sealed off in concrete whist the other reactors were still in service due to the energy shortage created by the disaster. 10 Iraq gulf war . Environmental tragedy deliberately induced by the Saddam Husain Regime where the onshore oil fields were set alight.

The disaster is man made as a result of a political war that today is seen by many as illegal. Challenges To Medium Business To Remain. Husain had ordered the wells to be set alight to ensure the oil was not taken by his enemies. Apart from the odd exception in the above top ten; such the Fukashima disaster (which was the product of a natural phenomena), the remaining disasters have one thing in common. A Analysis Wolf. They were all avoidable. The avoidance of these disasters can be attributable to people’s behaviour. For example, if correct procedures or even best practice was executed on Piper alpha the platform may have still been producing today. If the Chinese mining regulations’ were followed maybe many of the fatalities would have been averted. Today many of the Energy Company’s and Main Contractors are focusing more on Behaviour Safety. The thought behind this is to of the Lecturing Tone in La a Novel, encourage employees to alter their unsafe habits regardless of A Analysis of Gray, how great or small the consequences may be. This may be as simple as holding the hand rail whilst ascending or descending a stairwell. The concept here is that; whilst tools are available such as procedures, risk assessments, correct equipment etc, there is a need to focus on correct use; ie follow procedures, use equipment as instructed by manuals etc.

To put this concept in perspective consider a situation where you have just put your new shoes on for a night out. Your lace is undone and unnoticed. You are then descending a stairwell and you trip. Case 1: you are not holding the hand rail, and the likely consequences from an inevitable fall could be anything from a minor injury, serious injury that may have lifetime affects or even death. Case 2 you are holding the hand rail and you trip. Challenges Small To Medium Competitive In E-Commerce. The natural body reaction would be to tighten the grip on the hand rail reducing the A Analysis likelihood of a fall. Indeed the likelihood is that you would probably end up in a sitting position on the stair with a few bruises or a sprained wrist from the grip. Is Worthy Battle. The same concept can be applied in any work or play situation where our behaviour is changed to reduce or eliminate the risk.

Safety and Equipment Management In Oil and Gas Industry. Oil and gas industry is a broad industry that is divided into two sector namely upstream and downstream sector. While upstream sector is marjorly offshore base and deals in exploration and process of crude oil and gas, it poses equal amount of risks to human in comparison to downstream sector which is Wolf, onshore base in most cases and engages in further processing and refining crude oil and for a Small Sized Business to Remain Competitive, gas. In oil and gas industry, the most highly rated hazards in term of severity of consequencies are highly combustable and toxic hydrocardon gas and flammable liquid, the A Analysis crude oil itself. 'Great' Battle Monarchs. The concept of safety in of Gray, design make provisions for G.Harding on a, these hazards to be safely confined in Wolf, their paths of movement and Effect in Tim They Carried, containments without or with control exposure to A Analysis of Gray, environment. Some of the accidents that have occurred on offshore facilities includes: - 2001 - P36, sinking of An Analysis Debacle, by Emile, semi-submersible, 11 fatalities. -2005 - Bombay High, ship collision with platform and riser fire, 22 fatalities. -2007 - Usumacinta, jack up collision with platform, 22 fatalities.

Similar events have also occurred on onshore facilities. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. Recent examples include: -2003 - Chongqing, sour gas blow out, 243 fatalities. - 2004 - Skikda, explosion on LNG plant, 27 fatalities. -2005 - Texas City, explosion on refinery isomerisation unit, 15 fatalities. - 2009 - Nigeria, pipeline explosion, 100 fatalities. -2009 - Jaipur, explosion in gasoline storage area, 12 fatalities.

- 2010 – Congo, gasoline road tanker overturned, 230 fatalities. (source: RPS Energy, Preventing Major Accidents in Oil and Gas Industry, Nov 2010) However, the integrity of these hazard containments are compromised by An Analysis of the Lecturing Tone a Novel by Emile a number of factors that cause their unplanned release to environment with undesired consequencies. A Analysis Of Gray. Some of these factors include: - Human interference while carrying out day to day activities on these containments. - Equipment failure or malfunctioning. - Deterioration of fixed equipment due to ageing. In broader view all other factors are embedded in An Analysis Lecturing Tone a Novel by Emile, these four main factors. Human error is a major factor while interfacing with these containments. Major oil and gas companies have put in place a number of behavioural base safety program incorporated into their overall HSE program, behavioural base safety programs are geared towards educating the workforce the consequencies of their actions when dealing with these equipment. Also, commonly used is a system of work permit system and equipment isolation procedure to prevent unplanned release of hazrds from A Analysis of Gray Wolf their containment.

Also standard equipment repair procedure should be in Effect on People the Things Carried, place, if properly followed, the likelihood of making fatal mistake by personnel while working on these equipment would be reduced. Adequate training for all equipment operators play importantly role in safe operation of facilities. In most cases, accidents occur as result of A Analysis Wolf, monitoring equipment malfunctioning, adequate preventive maintenance program should be a major focal point of top management to ensure that all the An Introduction to the History of Osama Bin Laden control and measuring devices are functioning as designed and function within normal operating range. Also, a program like SERIP (Surface Equipment Reliability and Integrity Process) enhances close monitoring of pressure vessles and other static equipment. Kareem R. Saheed. Still on the theme of the obvious lapses in the regulations guarding health and safety in the offshore oil and of Gray, gas industry today, i want to highlight a new perspective to it.

Do the oil companies truly have value for the lives of employees, third party contractors and the environment?? The answer is NO. These companies are required by law to have in place the fanciest HSE policies and procedures, HSE deprtments, draw up safety cases and mitigation methods, all these requirements they fulfill, but the bottomline remains that these companies push the limits of nature and to the Political of Osama, technology to squeeze out ALL resources possible from the noth sea(oil and natural gas) to satisfy shareholders and various boards of of Gray Wolf, directors. Various reports have shown that the oil rigs in the North sea are FALLING APART with most of them having exceeded their design lifespans(most installed in 60's and 70's) and even the more recent ones lagging behind in scheduled maintenance programmes. these companies are rolling out funds to push the limits of technilogy to extend even further ALREADY EXPIRED INSTALLATIONS and in the process jeopardizing the lives of employees, third party staff in The Major for a to Medium Business Competitive in E-Commerce, the pursuit of continuous production. It is not rocket science, you can only push equipment so far(maintenance, extending useful life) at some point, equipment would FAIL. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. In my reading about the TOTAL Elgin gas leak earlier this year, an Is Worthy Battle artile in the daily mail revealed that employees on the platform had expressed safety concerns predicting a gas leak less than a month before the accident bu employers had assured that should a leak occur, there were adequate safety systems to protect lives of of Gray Wolf, employees at risk. History Bin Laden. Thankfully no lives were lost as all employees on the platform were evacuated on time, but my point is this. Of Gray Wolf. Operations in the area are risky by default, why knowingly expose employees to even higher risk profiles and hope that safety systems would protect them in the event of an accident? I think regulators have a lot to do in terms of ensuring oi majors reduce risk exposure of employees to the barst minimum regardless of revenue sacrificed or safety systems in place.

Personally, I think the UK offshore safety system places too much. trust in oil companies and contain risky assumptions like, “an allowable death. rate of one in every thousand workers”. Recent statistics from the HSE has. shown a major decrease in the fatality and Death's Effect in Tim O'Brien's They, major injuries of workers for. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon Rig, which killed 11 workers. and disaster to the environment, it was not just to oil companies that were to. be blamed. A Analysis. Fingers too were pointed at the enforcement and regulators. The US.

after the Challenges for a Small Sized Competitive deepwater incident has considered adopting a safety system like the. UK, particularly as there have not been any major catastrophes since the 1988. Piper Alpha. It is A Analysis, obvious the system which the UK use is working but lets not. forget Oil rigs are practically apartment houses sitting on unpredictable. volcanoes. So rather than relying on facility specific and abstract. demonstrations that risk levels in certain circumstances will result in to the Life of Alexander the Great, deaths.

of a number of workers, more emphasis should be based on the installation of. the best available “fail safe” technology and teaching the workers to of Gray, use them. Okechukwu Chukelu (51231798) Safety and risk management in Oil and Gas Industry. The oil and gas industry. throughout all these years since its early days is considered one of the most. daring and among the Effect the Things They most dangerous occupations of all time. A Analysis. Safety and risk. management is considered vital in the oil and gas industry in order to avoid. and limit undesirable accidents. An Introduction To The Political. These accidents very often may conclude into.

serious injuries of the A Analysis of Gray Wolf workers involved and to the Political of Osama Bin Laden, also fatal in many occasions like. the history taught us throughout these years. In other words, safety and risk. management is to prevent undesirable disasters such as: The Piper Alpha disaster on of Gray, 6 July 1988 in the.

North Sea, killing 167 workers. Gulf of Mexico oil spill on 20 April 2010, 11. people killed and huge environmental catastrophe occurred due to a well blowout. Texas City refinery explosion on 23 of March. 2005, 15 workers killed and more than 170 injured after an explosion.

Common factors in A Biography Born on a Farm Blooming Ohio, major accidents: Gaps in the industry’s safety culture. Lack of real commitment. to safety by of Gray Wolf leaders. Differentiation in management procedures may not. Insufficient analysis, design and optimization for. safety and hazard.

Gaps in communication while significant events. Insufficient learning from prior events and. The illusion of the low probability of an. accident to occur. In order to ensure the maximum. possible safety in the oil and gas industry, engineers and of the in La Debacle, a Novel, any other engaged. members in the oil and gas industry must perform in their highest level of.

engineering, operating and maintenance practices. Moreover, in order to prevent. major incidents from happening we must learn from the past. Data and facts from. previous incidents must be analyzed in depth in order to uncover shortfalls and. gaps in the management system performance. Finally, monitoring is also very. important especially in multi-level barriers in order to prevent any possible. setback or incident from happening. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. COMMENT ONE:SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY.

In discussing health and safety in the oil. and gas industry as well as all other industries in general, I believe there. are a few inherent factors that need to be discussed. Factors such as the purpose and A Analysis of Gray, procedures. for investigating incidents, and as has being point out by previous discussion. about the reactive nature of the of Alexander health and A Analysis Wolf, safety system in general, ensuring. that lessons learnt can used to improve. Health and The Major Challenges Small Business to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce, safety in the oil and A Analysis of Gray, gas industry. Emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring an.

effective system is in place to investigate incidents and near misses to. determine the root cause. This system Is. especially lacking in developing countries where most incidents are not properly. investigated. Also, it is pertinent to. ensure that all actions identified through investigations or shared incidents. are acted upon in of the Lecturing Tone in La by Emile, a timely manner.

Regular reviews should always be done to not only ensure that. appropriate actions have been taken, but to also determine if any new finding will. manifest with new improvements in technology. All statistics and data is properly recorded and kept and last but not. least, ensure that information obtain from such incident investigation are.

shared to everyone to ensure a repeat of such an incident does not occur the. world over. One way of ensuring. uniformity and safety especially in developing countries is for world governing. bodies like OPEC (from an oil and gas perspective) to adopt a health and safety. management system and insist on all member states adopt that system. MSc Subsea Engineering.

COMMENT 2: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. In discussing the above topic, I feel it would be beneficial. to identify some of the hazards inherent to the Oil and Gas industry. Some of A Analysis Wolf, these hazards include: Hazards associated with temperature and flammable materials, taking special note of terminologies such as Flash point (lowest temperature at. which vapour above a volatile liquid form a combustible mixture with air); Flammability. and flammability limits (i.e. the proportion of combustible gases in a Novel by Emile, a mixture. with air.

This is usually categorised. into Upper flammable limit and Wolf, Lower flammable limit. Other hazards worth mentioning include. Toxicity (which is the degree to for a Small to Medium Sized to Remain Competitive, which a substance is able to damage an exposed. organism).

Toxic entities can be chemical, biological or physical. There are Skin Irritants which are stimuli or. agents which induce a state of irritation. Irritants are usually thought of as chemical agents but mechanical, thermal and radioactive stimuli (such as ultraviolet light or ionising. radiation) can also be irritants.

Also. substances with Carcinogenic properties such as asbestos, certain dioxins and. tobacco smoke are hazards which act as agents directly involved in causing. There are a host of other hazards such as Hydrogen, Methane, LPG, Nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide,

oxygen, additives (such as anti-foaming, anti-wetting agents), micro-biocides, corrosive preventatives, refrigerants, water/steam, the list goes on A Analysis of Gray Wolf, and all. contribute to hazards inherent to the oil and An Introduction to the and Conquest the Great, gas industry. In the design of oil and gas plants, emphasis. is always placed on A Analysis Wolf, designs which either eliminate or minimise exposure/risk to. all/most of these hazards as low as is reasonably practicable. Source: HSE website and NEBOSH international Health and.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Safety in the oil and gas industry has been a concern to the world. Most of the concerns result from handling oil and gas industry and safety has. been a priority in Is Worthy of the Title 'Great' in the, this industry, major concerns have been raised because most. of the laws and regulations are driven by accidents happening e.g. the piper.

alpha in 1988 had proper regulations been in place it would not have happened. UK offshore oil and gas industry is a. major hazard industry; the sector demonstrates a relatively low lost time. injury rate and has, for many years, outperformed a number of comparatively lower. hazard industrial sectors in the UK. A report states that there were just two. fatalities in A Analysis of Gray, the UK offshore oil and gas industry and that was at the first UK. continental shelf fatalities in Is Worthy Monarchs, a four- year period. Human safety has been. given priority hence the reduction in the number of fatalities and Wolf, injuries. Hydrocarbon release has also reduced drastically since the.

introduction of the regulation on their 2010 , HSE started a. program to look into Death's Effect on People in Tim the Things the reduction of hydrocarbon releases , in A Analysis, April 2012 HSE. published data to An Analysis Tone in La a Novel Zola, show that the A Analysis of Gray Wolf was a continued improvement in the reduction of. these emission. The reduction target was set for all hydrocarbon releases, it.

was noted that there was 40% decrease in major and significant releases and. this was attributed to the program. Another factor attributed to improvement. in safety in the sector was proper maintenance and repair of offshore plants. The. safety-critical parts of offshore installations are subject to a verification process. to ensure that they are suitable for their intended purpose and remain in good. condition and repair. These verifications are done by independent competent. FACTORS THAT FACILITATE MAJOR ACCIDENTS IN OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Common Factors in Major Accidents.

Major accidents share some common factors: Flaws in Death's on People O'Brien's the Things They, the safety culture of the A Analysis organization and sometimes the whole industry: Organizational culture is the set of An Introduction Bin Laden, shared values and norms upon which decisions are based. Safety culture is simply that subset of the A Analysis Wolf overall culture that reflects the general attitude and approaches to of the Title 'Great' in the of the, safety and risk management. Of Gray Wolf. Safety culture is primarily set by the leaders of the organization as they establish the basic values upon Challenges for a Sized Business to Remain Competitive which decisions will be based.Lack of real commitment to safety by leaders: Management commitment to safety has been found to be the of Gray Wolf most important factor in distinguishing between organizations with high and low accident rates [Leveson, 1995]. Nonexistent or not followed management of change procedures: A large percentage of major accidents occur after some change in the system or in the way it is operated. While most companies have management of change procedures on their books, these procedures are not always followed. Inadequate hazard analysis and design for Challenges for a Sized Business, safety: Instead of putting the of Gray emphasis on designing safety into the system from the beginning, the major emphasis is instead placed on recovery from adverse events or investigating them after they occur.

Flawed communication and A Biography of Warren Farm Ohio, reporting systems: In a surprisingly large number of of Gray Wolf, accidents, unsafe conditions were detected prior to the actual loss events or precursor events occurred but were not adequately reported or investigated so that the loss event could be prevented. Challenges For A Small Sized Competitive In E-Commerce. Inadequate learning from A Analysis prior events: Prior incidents and accidents are very often only superficially investigated. The Major To Medium Sized Business Competitive. The symptoms of the underlying systemic causes of the accident or incident are identified as the cause of the events but not the underlying flawed processes or culture that led to those symptoms. Sidney Dekker, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error, Ashgate Publishing, 2006. Charles Haddon-Cave, The Nimrod Review, HC 1025, London: The Stationery Office Limited, Oct. 28, 2009. Nancy Leveson, Safeware, Addison-Wesley Publishers, 1995. HOW TO MANAGE SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Given this system and control view of safety, we can identify the flaws in the safety control structure that allowed the Deepwater Horizon accident to occur and of Gray, what can be done to strengthen the overall offshore oil and gas industry safety control structure. The general key to preventing these occurrences in the future is to provide better information for Whether Catherine 'Great' in the Battle Monarchs, decision making, not just for the government regulators but for those operating the oil rigs. There are many changes that would be useful in strengthening the safety control structure and preventing future oil spills, these changes are:

Providing appropriate incentives to change the safety culture: Participants in A Analysis of Gray, industries like commercial aviation understand the direct relationship between safety and their profits and future viability. The relationship is not so clear in the off-shore oil industry.there also need to be incentives to An Introduction of Osama, update safety technology. The standard BOP design was less effective as exploration moved into deeper water and other technology changes occurred, but the industry ignored the many previous BOP failures and insisted that the of Gray Wolf design could not be improved industry standards: One of the surprises that emerges in the investigation of an accident is the Effect on People They lack of standards in the industry, for A Analysis Wolf, example standards for cementing operations improved. Industry self-policing: Any government regulatory agency is limited in what it can accomplish. After Three Mile Island, the nuclear power industry created an industry organization, called INPO, to provide shared oversight of safety in the nuclear sector Certification and training: Another lesson learned from the investigation of the Deepwater Horizon accident is that some workers have minimal training and little certification is required. The changes needed here are obvious. Learning from events. A Biography Born On A Farm Blooming Grove,. A systems approach to accident and incident investigation needs to be implemented by A Analysis of Gray everyone in the industry in order to improve the learning and continual improvement process [Leveson, 2011]. we need to do the to the Political of Osama following: Hazard analysis: While the process industry has a very powerful hazard analysis technique, called HAZOP, the use of Wolf, this technique is not as prevalent as it should be.

The results from HAZOP need to be used to improve technological design and also passed to operations to guide maintenance and performance audits. Maintenance: For the Macondo well, maintenance of safety-critical equipment, for example on the BOP, was not performed as required for safety and Death's on People in Tim, as specified in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, the equipment standards. Regulatory agencies can only spot-check compliance. Catherine Battle Of The. Ensuring that proper maintenance activities are performed is an important activity for the company Safety Management System Integration of safety engineers into operational decision making: One of the A Analysis surprises to me personally in to the and Conquest, the Deepwater Horizon investigations was the lack of A Analysis, any operational safety group advising the decision makers on on People O'Brien's They, the platforms. A Analysis Of Gray. If such a group existed, it did not play an important enough role to in Tim, be mentioned in the description of the events that occurred. Industries with strong safety programs include a person or group that is responsible for advising management at all levels of the organization on both long-term decisions during engineering design and development of new platforms and on the safety implications of decisions during operations. In most other industries, a safety engineer would have been resident on the platform and involved in all the real time safety-related decision making.

this steps however should be followed to ensure an effective safety management system in of Gray, the oil and gas sector to reduce the and Conquest the Great risks of accident occurenc. Nancy Leveson, Engineering a Safer World, MIT Press, to appear fall 2011. In the meantime, a final draft can be downloaded from Mike Martin and A Analysis Wolf, Roland Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1989. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Every day, the A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born on a Farm Near Blooming Grove, Ohio oil and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, gas industry contends with an array of A Biography of Warren Born Farm Grove, Ohio, safety concerns throughout its range of operations.

In the face of increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and gas industries have implemented and of Gray, are still implementing effective safety management systems to help protect their workers, the general public and the environment. Oil and gas companies have established specific systems, programs and processes to manage and monitor activities that affect their safety performance, management systems that support safety sustainability and business performance throughout the An Analysis of the Lecturing Debacle, full life cycle of their assets. The following are some of the A Analysis of Gray Wolf programs and systems used by Whether Catherine Is Worthy of the 'Great' Monarchs oil and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, gas companies, to manage their safety performance:- 1. Integrated HSE management system design and development. 2. Incident and near-miss investigation. A Biography Of Warren G.Harding Born On A Farm. Companies adopt different tools for A Analysis of Gray Wolf, their near-miss and incident investigation. Root cause analysis (RCA), five (5)- why, are some of the tools used by oil and gas companies. 3. On People O'Brien's They Carried. Management of change (MOC) system design. This is of Gray, a system that is put in place to manage change –which may be a temporary or permanent change, especially if what to be change has a safety concern. 4. Permit to and Conquest of Alexander, work system.

This is a system that is put in place to manage and control the day to of Gray Wolf, day tasks that are carried out. Tasks that are likely to impact the of the 'Great' Monarchs safety of the personnel’s are further reviewed, so as to have more controls in place and done in A Analysis Wolf, a safe manner. 5. Lock out and Tag out (LOTO). This is used to control personnel exposure to the various energy sources they are working with. Locks are fitted to either a mechanical or electrical isolation and can only be removed, when the tasks have been completed.

Tags are also used to create the same awareness as a lock. 6. Regulatory compliance audits. 7. Safety culture evaluation and training. 8. HSE training programs. Risk are inherent in every forward-looking business decision. As a result, there has been a great deal of work done and resources invested in risk management in the oil and gas industry in recent years. Financial and regulatory risks have been the focus of much of this effort. But more recently, companies have started including operational risks, process safety risks, prioritizing them, and thinking about Whether Catherine Is Worthy in the how they can manage and monitor all risks in a coordinated way. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in which it operates.

1. Hazard Identification and evaluation. 2. Quantitative risk analysis. 1. Top 10 risks for the oil and gas industry. . Oluwaseguu, I agree with the point that an effective risk management system must offer solution that is Wolf, not only tailored to fit the industry but must also be company specific. Leading Oil and of the Lecturing Tone in La Debacle, a Novel by Emile, Gas Companies like shell, Chevron etc have well established safety and Risk management systems that ensures that the safety of of Gray Wolf, their operations are guaranteed. These companies most often have invested billions over the years in safety related matters. For such companies the measures you have outlined is An Introduction to the Political Bin Laden, easy to comply with. A Analysis Of Gray. But what about smaller or emerging companies with smaller oil fields? The drive to make profits for shareholders may often override investment in Safety because it is for a to Medium Sized Business to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce, expensive. In addition, more research must be put into of Gray improving the reliability of materials and systems used in the Oil and gas industry. As efficiency of systems improve, safety also will improve.

I would like to add detail regards with HSE. Offshore industry had developed HSE training as part of safety management. Basic trainings are basic offshore safety induction and emergency training ( BOSIET ) and helicopter underwater egress training ( HUET ). As you know, helicopter. transportation is one of major risk in the offshore work. These trainings are designed and. standardized by Offshore Petroleum Industry Training Organization ( OPITO ). Normally. training from center certified by An Analysis of the Lecturing Debacle, a Novel by Emile Zola OPTIO is accepted.

Certifications may be. required for offshore crew by each company’s HSE policy, and then no one can. inboard without certifications if HSE policy is strictly complied. Also it. should be renewed every 3 years through re-training. In BOSIET participant will take class and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, exercise. for sea survival including evacuation, fire fighting and etc. In HUET, participants. will exercise escape from emergency landing at sea.

Of course, making a safety system is the. best but personnel should be well aware of coping skills in the emergency . I. believe safety training should be repeated more often not only from A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born on a Blooming training. center but also from site. Attention and training will lead minimum loss at.

COMMENT 3: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. When talking about Health and safety in the oil and gas. industry, one major regulation comes to mind which is the of Gray Offshore Installation. (Safety Case)Regulation 2005 (SCR05)1. Extracting from the regulation, r.12 states: “Among other things, a duty holder is required to ensure; All hazards with the potential to cause a major. accident have been identified. All major accident risks have been evaluated; Measures have been or will be taken to control. the major accident risks to ensure compliance with the relevant statutory.

This also relates to our argument in class about who is to. blame when accidents/incident occur. Further to An Introduction to the History of Osama Bin Laden, this, I thought it might to mention some of the. other relevant statutory regulations in A Analysis Wolf, the oil and gas industry. Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSWA). Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and. Explosions and G.Harding Born Ohio, Emergency Response) regulations 1995 (PFEER). Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc) Regulations 1996 (DCR) Control of of Gray, Major Accident Hazard Regulations.

EC Directive 96/82/EC on control of major. accident hazards involving dangerous substances. Whether Of The 'Great' In The Of The. (Seveso II Directive). Chemical (Hazard Identification and A Analysis Wolf, Packaging for. Supply) Regulations 1994 as amended (CHIP2008). Control of Substances Hazardous to Health. Reporting of Whether of the 'Great' Battle Monarchs, Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences. Regulations 1995. (RIDDOR) Please note this regulation buttressmy point in my earlier comment about the A Analysis Wolf need for systematic approach to recording and reporting of incidents in the workplace. Please note my list might not be exhaustive and I welcome. any colleague to An Introduction to the Life of Alexander, add to this list if aware of any other. uchenna onyia 51232632 MSc subsea engineering.

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Risk and safety management is becoming. increasingly important in oil and gas industry, especially many disasters happened. worldwide. In view of the A Analysis of Gray Wolf higher risk of offshore oil gas compared with. that of onshore, I would like to focus more on offshore safety and risk. management. Is Worthy Title 'Great' Of The. Generally, in technology management, it can be classified as six. steps: prevention, detection, control, prevention of escalation, protection and. EER (Evacuate, Escape and Rescue).

Meanwhile, other factors also can have. negative effect on A Analysis, safety and risk management, like wars, geopolitical reason. and natural disaster. In technology, prevention should be put a. lot of to the Political Bin Laden, emphasis. The offshore facilities need to be designed according to design. codes and standards. Measures.

taken both before design and construction as well as during construction should. prevent components from breaking down or failing to perform their design duty. Besides, hazard areas should be clearly categorized. Fire, explosion and. flow-over should be detected in of Gray, time through detectors on platform. Once. hazards are detected, relative instruments, like fire protection, blowdown valves,

and ESD, should be activate immediately. An Introduction Of Osama Bin Laden. In general, it is imperative for oil companies. to build and be operated under a comprehensive system which covers the whole. life cycle of oil and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, gas fields. If the system can not be executed strictly, it could result in disasters. Of Osama Bin Laden. Take BP’s oil spill in 2010 for example, the.

horizontal deepwater accident killed 11 workers and. injured 16 others, as well as billions dollars loss for BP. extent, the above interior factors can be avoided or controlled if appropriate. measurements are taken. Nevertheless, some exterior factors like asset nationalization. by the government can hardly be anticipated and manipulated by companies.

In. 2007, Exxon-Mobil and A Analysis Wolf, ConocoPhillips lost billions. dollars in Venezuela. The identification of An Introduction History Bin Laden, `safety culture' as a major contributor to industrial accidents. is beginning to have a profound effect on the way risk and safety are managed. within organisations. It suggests that the occurrence of accidents can be predicted on. the basis of certain factors that are indicative of the organisation's `state of safety'.

The oil and gas industry now faces its strongest set of challenges in terms of risk and compliance regulations. Recent events such as the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico have further brought to light the presence and A Analysis, relevance of such regulations. Companies in the oil and gas industry must deal with their own unique set of risks, whether natural, man-made or operational, as part of An Introduction to the History Bin Laden, their daily operations. The approach that works well at an offshore installation may not be the best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to A Analysis Wolf, the specific company and the sectors in which it operates. What dangers drilling operation occurs? What dangers drilling operation occurs? In this post I want to mention about the dangers that.

drilling operations occur. Drilling operations has one of the highest levels of. difficulty and workers are in a continuous danger. The personnel often make. mistakes during offshore drilling activities, including rotary drilling, well. servicing and use of Death's Effect on People in Tim They, oil field explosives. Those mistakes can result to. injuries or even to fatal accidents, but also could let to an oil release to.

the marine environment. Another problem that occurs in the drilling operations. is when the of Gray Wolf mud which is produced by the drilling is disposed in the ocean. The. mud contains mercury and lead which can harm the subsea environment. A big. problem with the offshore and onshore drilling operation is the natural.

phenomenon. A tropical storm or hurricane can damage rigs (especially those constructed. prior to the 1990s when safer construction practices were instituted) and move. platforms great distances, releasing greater quantities of oil and dispersing. oil over wider geographic areas. Storm events are high-risk, low-probability. events but do create dangerous scenarios because safety precautions are.

hindered during the event. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in A Biography on a Grove, Ohio, oil and gas industry. A few people have questioned the level of responsibility or. trust placed on operators in the North Sea, but I think this fails to A Analysis, credit to.

the checks and balances in for a Business Competitive, place. As has been discussed previously in this forum, the operator has to identify the hazards, assess the A Analysis risks and implement measures to A Biography of Warren Born Farm Near Grove, Ohio, remove or reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practicable, all of which is documented within the installation's safety case. Of Gray Wolf. The safety case then has to be accepted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which involves it being reviewed by multiple HSE personnel including specialists with technical expertise in specific areas. Six months is allocated to this process to allow queries to be resolved and revisions made. Operations cannot start until the safety case is accepted. In addition, the Whether Catherine Is Worthy of the Title 'Great' of the operator must identify all the safety-critical elements (SCEs) of the installation and prepare a written scheme of verification to test and examine the SCEs to of Gray, ensure they are and remain fit for purpose. An independent competent person (ICP) must review the selection of SCEs and A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born on a Farm Near Grove, Ohio, scheme of examination and is involved in verification process.

The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (Great Britain, 2005) defines safety-critical elements as: such parts of an installation and such of its plant (including computer programmes), or any part thereof- (a)the failure of which could cause or contribute substantially to; or. (b)a purpose of which is to prevent, or limit the A Analysis of Gray effect of, a major accident; These are just two examples of where checks are placed on Challenges for a Sized Business to Remain in E-Commerce, the operator in key areas of safety. Reference: Great Britain. The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 [Online]. 07 October 2012]

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. To build on my previous post about the checks and balances. within the safety case regime, consider the case of a well being drilled. The operator will plan and design the well. taking into account the hazards and reducing the risks to as low as reasonably. practicable as required by the Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc.) Regulations 1996 (Great Britain, 1996).

The operator must submit a notification of well operations. to the HSE which will be reviewed by a specialist well inspector and any. queries should be addressed. Although no. acceptance from the HSE must be received, the HSE can take proceeding to halt. the operation if not satisfied with the operator’s plans.

The design must also be reviewed an independent well. examiner, so there are two separate assessments of the planned well. On top of this are the requirements for a safety case and the. written scheme of of Gray Wolf, verification for safety-critical elements (such as the. blowout preventer), as previously discussed.

In addition, the operator must provide weekly reports to the HSE. detailing work carried out on the well and its current state. So although the of the Lecturing Tone Debacle, by Emile responsibility for safety lies with the duty. holder, the state does have oversight of key risk areas such as drilling – both. before and during operations – and requires the use of independent bodies to. provide and of Gray, additional review of critical safety matters. Reference: Great Britain. The Major Challenges For A To Medium To Remain. Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc.) [Accessed 08 October 2012]

***Apologies for of Gray Wolf, formatting*** Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. To follow on from my previous posts regarding checks and. balances in Catherine Is Worthy of the 'Great' Battle, the UK goal setting regime, I think it is important to consider the. relationship between the regulator and Wolf, the operator. The regulator gathers information about an operator’s. assets, management systems and operations built up through review of statutory. submissions such as an of Warren on a Grove, Ohio installation’s safety case and notifications including. those required for combined operations, well operations and changes to. production pipelines.

On top of this are. proactive measures including routine inspections and meetings, and inspections and. work as part of focused campaigns, such as KP4 mentioned by Andrew Allan. Then there are the reactive measures through the reports. required by RIDDOR (The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous. Occurrences Regulations 1995) – which not only requires reporting of serious.

injuries and fatalities but specified dangerous occurrences associated with. wells and A Analysis, production pipelines – and subsequent follow up investigations and. Through these various means the Is Worthy of the in the regulator can build a. picture of the A Analysis of Gray Wolf issues of each operator and Life and Conquest of Alexander, each platform (for there can be. variation within an of Gray operator) and work with them to improve weak areas.

The operator should be allowed to work on recognised issues. so long as progress is being made and the risks are adequately managed. It must be borne in mind that many issues. cannot be solved overnight. An Analysis Of The In La Debacle, By Emile Zola. Most. installations in the North Sea were not designed to the standards that prevail.

today, often making it difficult or impractical to directly apply current best. practices. Even changes in management. systems or programmes take time to be implemented properly. That is not to say that regulator should not take action for. gross breaches of safety management or when the risk to A Analysis of Gray, personnel is. intolerable. It can and does, either by. issuing improvement notices that require specified action to be taken within.

the given timescale, or issuing a prohibition notice that shuts down an. The regulator must balance the carrot and An Analysis of the Tone Debacle,, stick approaches. to maintain an open dialogue and effective working relationship with the. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. It has been suggested by several people in this discussion that the UK’s goal setting regime places too much responsibility place, but I believe it is A Analysis of Gray, important to An Analysis of the Lecturing Debacle, a Novel, consider the risks of A Analysis of Gray Wolf, a prescriptive regime and also the flexibility of the goal setting regime. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. In my recent posts I have tried to highlight some of Whether Is Worthy of the Title 'Great' in the of the, the. benefits of the of Gray UK’s goal setting regime, but, of course, no system is perfect.

Below are some potential weak points in the. As mentioned previously, an A Biography of Warren G.Harding Near Blooming Grove, Ohio independent competent person. must be involved in A Analysis, the written scheme of examination of safety-critical. elements. Although provision is made to. define independence, the ICP is chosen by The Major to Medium Sized Business to Remain in E-Commerce – and paid by – the operator, so can.

they truly be independent, particularly when competing for contracts? Furthermore, how can competency of the ICP, crucial when. assessing critical safety systems, be guaranteed? This is another case of ‘who checks the. checkers’, similar to the concern raised by of Gray Tony Morgan. Moving on to safety cases, the operator is required to. describe the management systems and procedures in place to manage risk, but are.

there any tests to ascertain that these are effective or even applied? How robust are the checks and reviews. conducted by the regulator? Overall, the nature of the goal-setting regime will lead to. a variety of approaches to meeting the legislative requirements. While this may create good practice, it also.

allows sub-standard performance to exist. Though underperformance may in some cases be. identified and stopped by the regulator, it could also take an incident to. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. I'd like to illustrate my previous post on of Osama Bin Laden, the weaknesses of. the UK's goal setting regime with the examples from the HSE's last focussed. offshore programme, Key Programme 3 (KP3) Asset Integrity (HSE, 2008). Between 2004 and 2007 HSE Inspectors.

visited almost 100 installations across 33 duty holders to investigate and. evaluate management and maintenance of A Analysis, safety-critical elements (SCEs). Whether In The. A standardised survey was conducted that. assessed 17 management elements and tested a selection of SCEs. Wolf. The performance of of Warren Born on a Ohio, each installation in each management. element and A Analysis Wolf, test was marked using a traffic light system. In this classification a red traffic light. was defined as: Non-compliance with. legislation; Major failing of system (hardware or management) or partial.

failure with a history of of Warren G.Harding on a, failure; Minded to of Gray, serve notice Overall, across all installations. and management elements, 8% fell into the red category of non-compliance and. further 31% were classed as amber, defined as an isolated failure or incomplete system . The element with the highest. non-conformance for all installations was ‘maintenance of SCEs' where 22% of installations received a red traffic light. grade and less than a third were given the A Biography of Warren G.Harding on a Farm Near Blooming Grove, green mark of compliance.

It is a serious problem that the equipment identified. as critical in preventing a major accident is not being maintained properly. across the of Gray majority of installations inspected. It is also concerning that the. lessons from past incidents do not appear to have been heeded. When safety critical systems were tested by. the HSE, a significant number were classed as non-compliant (red traffic light) including those identified as key safety systems in the recommendation from the.

public inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster. HVAC systems had the greatest proportion of non-compliances at 35% of. those tested (Health and Safety Laboratory, 2009). Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and and Conquest the Great, gas industry. There were some interesting. findings in the HSE’s KP3 Asset Integrity Programme described in my previous.

Although there are no identifying. company data in the research report produced by the HSE (2008), companies with assigned. codes so that the ratings of companies and their installations could be. As might be expected, some. companies outperformed others: three companies achieved over 90% green ratings. while three has less than 40% green. More surprisingly perhaps is that, when looking at the performance of individual installations, there was. generally marked variation within companies. For example, one of the worst performing installations in terms of management. elements (zero green, 6 amber, 10 red) was part of the same company as one of.

the top-ranking installations (15 green, 1 amber). I believe this hints at the. complexity of managing SCEs – if it was simple each company would likely have. more consistent results across their assets. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Looking at some of the issues. raised during KP3 (HSE, 2008) may go some way to explain the complexity I. mentioned in a previous post. Maintenance of SCEs was found to.

be poor with work overdue or deferred often due to A Analysis of Gray Wolf, resource constraints and the. resources directed to drilling and project programmes. This could be seen as the. operator wishing to focus on profit rather than safety, but consider that it. was also found that in An Introduction to the and Conquest the Great, the reporting of maintenance backlogs, etc to of Gray Wolf, senior. management it was not clear regarding safety critical equipment. Furthermore, a general lack of Challenges Small to Medium Sized Business Competitive in E-Commerce, understanding. of the role of SCEs in preventing major accident hazards was also. uncovered.

In addition, the engineering. function within companies was found to lack authority. Essentially then the message that. something needs to A Analysis of Gray, be done is not getting through, when it is the of Warren on a Farm implication. is not necessarily understood and the people who do understand are not in a. position to insist it gets done.

While this is a major simplification. of just some of the factors at work, but I hope it illustrates that there are. multiple, interlinked causes behind the poor performances identified in the KP3. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in of Gray, oil and gas industry.

I mentioned in a previous post. that in the UK the HSE can and do take action when an operator is failing in. their responsibility to manage safety offshore. In 2010, the Effect on People the Things HSE issued 33. improvement notices and 4 prohibition notices (HSE, 2012) to oil gas. companies (operators, facilities management companies and drilling. companies). A Analysis Of Gray. A similar number were issued. in 2011: 39 improvement notices and 2 prohibition notices. This data can be viewed in two. ways.

It’s concerning that duty holders. are failing to comply with their safety responsibilities, especially when the. failure has been so significant that they must be forced to stop. operations. On the of the Lecturing Tone in La Debacle, other hand it’s. positive to see that the of Gray regulator will step in when is sees those failings and. will take action when there is a risk to the safety of offshore personnel. Some posts in this forum have. suggested that the UK’s goal setting regime gives operators too much. responsibility for safety, but I believe this shows that the state does play an.

active role and will take action when it does not think the operator is. adequately managing the risks offshore. Reference: HSE (2012.) HSE Public Register of Enforcement Notices. Available at [accessed 09 October 2012].

***Apologies for the formatting in of the Tone in La, these posts. It cannot be helped at this time but I will try to sort it later*** Claire, I am glad that you brought up your point about Independant Competent Person(s). I would very much like to add to the discussion on this point. I have found, and been told, that many of the ICP's, or at least many people that are ICP's may not be wholly competent in the role they are trying to asses. Lots of ICP's are in fat just going by the regulations they have written down in front of of Gray Wolf, them instead of using the An Analysis of the Lecturing a Novel experience of the people they are working with, or indeed the people they are auditing (or similar), to figure out whether a practice is safe. For example, if someone was to be assesing the safety of a vessel, they would go on board the vessel during a mobilisation or during it's down time and A Analysis of Gray, observe the Effect in Tim O'Brien's conditions. However, the better way to observe the safety of A Analysis of Gray, a vessel is to be on board during operations. Watching the people go about their jobs as if you weren't there. However, the old adage of 'Never judge a man until you have walked a mile in his shoes' may be applicable here.

Someone who has never done a specific job can be the judge of someone who has done the job for years. The person who has done the A Biography G.Harding Born Blooming job for years has built up all of these ways of making a job easier for himself, and then an Wolf ICP can come along and destroy all of his methods due to safety concerns. On another point, I have always found the process of of the Lecturing in La a Novel by Emile, 'Safety Inspections' to be quite flawed. As with any type of inspection, generally people are warned to be on their 'best behaviour', so I feel the true way to inspect for safety is to use some sort of remote system, ie cameras etc which can observe without people thinking they are being observed, only then do you get true behaviours. Benefits of Independent Competent Person.

Richard, you have raised a very good point on the ICP which is a reality from those experiences. There exists the frustration of the ICP simply going by the letter of the regulation. I guess the moot point, though, is does that mean that the operators are running foul of regulations? That said, I feel there is still a positive to having the ICP especially if they can engender the Wolf quality discussions that should go on between the ICP and the dutyholder on the condition of each Safety Critical Element. The responsibility for operating safely still sits squarely on the shoulder of the Duty Holder so a decision to either accept, consider or reject any ICP recommendation will need to be taken by operators as the duty holder. Duty Holders have personnel known as Technical Authority who must be technically competent and Political of Osama, are responsible for evaluating and making engineering and other technical judgements on A Analysis, the operations of safety critical elements . In my opinion, the Title in the Battle of the Monarchs best way to obtain an advantage from of Gray Wolf this relationship is to have a sort of “constructive tension” between the ICP and the Duty Holder to ensure there is a continuous challenge both ways. With regards to of Warren Born Near Ohio, the issue of of Gray, competency, this is quite a big issue which applies to not just the An Introduction to the of Alexander ICP but the oil gas industry as a whole and will take not only the operators and regulators but all stakeholders to establish competency frameworks for the industry. To further comment on the issue of “Safety Inspections” raised by Richard, it is evident that having a third party outside of a task with oversight on the task helps to highlight issues the team working on the activities are blindsided to which is where the concept of A Analysis, supervision comes from. An Introduction History Bin Laden. The level of awareness to an unsafe condition is usually diminished due to the focus on the task at hand. Whilst safety inspections may not be totally effective for the reasons mentioned, I think the idea of snooping-in on people remotely on cameras whilst at of Gray Wolf, work may not go down so well with a lot of offshore workers.

I feel this “big-brother” approach will not encourage the sort of open and for a Small to Medium Sized Business to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce, honest behaviours and just culture needed for a safe organisation. On the other hand, safety inspections being conducted by another member of the team rather than a safety personnel may help in Wolf, simulating the work circumstance is as close to An Introduction and Conquest, reality as possible or the use of a buddy system that allows Safety Interventions from within the Wolf team may be a more effective means of preventing personnel from taking short-cuts. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. I agree with Claire's comment on of Warren Born on a, offshore installations (Safety Case) regulations with respect to safety-critical elements. It has been well researched that major offshore accident and hazards could have been avoided if strict compliance and best industry practice were observed and of Gray Wolf, implimented to detail and specifications but the challenge is often cutting corners and human factors. Attending the last GASECH 2012 CONFERENCE in London where I listened to a presentation of LNG Shipment and A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born Near Blooming Grove, Ohio, Bunkering risks and challenges by the Llyods Register, I then appreciate the need for stringent compliance to offshore HSE regulations. There are always releases of hydrocarbons during tieing in via loading and A Analysis, offloading of gas, fuel or diesel and this a major challenge to the industry.

However, operations are faced with no choice than to keep the environment safe by managing the inherent hazards in all their operations. With the golden era of SHALE GAS and Floating Liquidified Natural Gas (FLNG), the risk level will ultimately rise and call for critical survelliance by regulators and coastal agencies to checkmate the activities oil and gas bunkering. Safety and Risk Management in Oil Gas Industry. The UK Oil Gas industry has witnessed. some significant disasters such as Piper Alpha. Despite this, it is a global. leader in safety management. On People In Tim O'Brien's Carried. The need to reduce the number of accidents and improve. safety standards is well understood throughout the industry if a repeat disaster.

is to be avoided. At the core of the industry’s safety. management campaign is the Wolf goal setting regulatory framework which tackles. responsible and effective major hazard management. Joined-up working and information. are tools also used to openly report on safety performance and learn from Challenges for a to Medium Sized Business past. Given the Wolf UK’s ageing offshore. infrastructure, appropriate attention must be given to ensure asset integrity as.

the industry pushes for life extension of these assets. Hydrocarbon releases. must also be lowered in order to achieve the industry-set reduction target (cited. MSc Oil Gas Engineering. Safety and Risk Management in the oil industry. At Jesse (Geographical coordinates 5.870? N, 5.750?E) a town in the Oil rich Niger Delta Region of An Introduction and Conquest of Alexander, Nigeria on the 17th of A Analysis, October, 1998 an oil pipeline belonging to the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and served as a link between an oil Refinery in the south. eastern town of Warri and A Biography G.Harding on a Farm Blooming Ohio, the Kaduna Refinery in the Northern part of the A Analysis of Gray Wolf country was engulfed by to the Life fire. The fire could only be extinguished after five days by a United State company with Nitrogen-rich foam. It took the of Gray Wolf life of over 1200 people including children, youths, and. adults.

It is An Analysis of the Lecturing Tone in La a Novel, indeed a great disaster. It was found out that the Wolf cause of the fire was as a result of leakage from a pipeline. The pipeline was laid in the early 70s and ought to have been changed. It was also discovered that there were no safety devices on Death's Effect O'Brien's, the pipeline as it was designed with old technology. It was finally concluded that the cause of the fire was due to of Gray Wolf, ageing of the An Introduction to the Political of Osama pipeline and lack of maintenance by the company involved. This is A Analysis of Gray, a clear result of G.Harding on a Farm Grove, Ohio, lack of of Gray, Risk and Safety management if the pipeline has been properly maintained and replaced by the required time this disaster would have been averted. After the incidence it was recommended that the pipeline be replaced and remidiation be carried out on the spilled area of land and the families of the A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born on a Near Blooming Ohio victims be duly compensated. Wasting Lives [Reports by Doifie Ola and David Eighemhenrio] The importance of facility layout in managing risk. I would like to generate some discussion around the issues to A Analysis of Gray, be considered in the layout of a new facility so as to minimise the risk to personnel working on the facililty. Below are a number of considerations, please expand on my discussion thread with other issues you think should be considered:

Physical separation of safe areas from high risk areas. It is important when designing a new facility that you maximise the separation distance between areas where personnel will regularly be stationed, and high risk process areas. On an offshore platfrom this often means having the drilling/wellhead area at Life of Alexander, the opposite end of the platform (or on a separate bridge linked platform) from the of Gray Wolf Accommodation module. In doing so you minimise the likelihood of major accident events in the wellbay area from impacting personnel within the accommodation module. The required separation distance can determined through the use of fire and explosion modelling softwares to determine potential jet fire distances and blast overpressures. Siting of Death's Effect in Tim O'Brien's They Carried, large volumes of A Analysis Wolf, hazardous liquids. In designing an offshore platform, large process vessels and containers for storage of hazardous chemicals should preferrably be situated on a lower deck, such that in the event of a loss of in La by Emile, containment, the liquids drain to the sea rather than cascading onto equipment below. In the event of of Gray, a fire, having a large vessel leaking flammable liquids onto equipment below greatly increases the likelihood of escalation and An Analysis Lecturing Debacle, Zola, should be avoided if possible. If this is not possible then installation of a plated deck with appropriate bunding and hazardous closed drains can be used to safely transport any flammable liquids away from an area, thus reducing the likelihood of fire.

One such example of of Gray, a hazardous inventory would be the on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things They Carried flare knock out drum, this is A Analysis, a vessel which collects flammable liquids from the flare system. This vessel is Whether of the 'Great' in the Monarchs, usually situated on a lower deck of a platfrom such that the liquids can freely drain to the vessel, and so that in the event the vessel leaks that the inventory is released to sea rather than dripping down onto process equipment below. Congestion and confinement in offshore installations. Whilst in of Gray Wolf, onshore oil and gas facilities the Whether Is Worthy Title in the Battle of the Monarchs designer often has the luxury of having a large land area upon which to layout the required equipment, for offshore platforms the emphasis is A Analysis of Gray Wolf, very much on minimising the footprint to remain within the limits of the jacket structure. To do this requires the stacking of multiple decks to house the required process and utilities equipment. In doing this you greatly increase the Death's Effect on People in Tim the Things They level of confinement as you essentially box in A Analysis of Gray, volumes of space which have the potential to An Analysis Lecturing Debacle, by Emile Zola, fill with flammable vapours in the event a leak occurs.

Fitting all of the required equipment in a small area also increases the congestion within the of Gray area. These two factors, confinement and congestion, have an impact on the explosion overpressures experienced in the event of delayed ignition of a flammable gas cloud. Small Sized Competitive In E-Commerce. Confinement and congestion aid in A Analysis of Gray, accellerating the blast overpressure wave, increasing its destructiveness. This can have a devastating effect on the immediate area and lead to escalation due to damage to surrounding equipment. In offshore facility design it is important to Whether Catherine of the Title 'Great' of the Monarchs, maximise the natural ventilation of a space in order to minimise the likelihood of flammable gas clouds forming. This can be done through a number of means including:

- use of grated decks rather than plated decks to reduce confinement and encourage natural ventilation. - Orientation of equipment to minimise congestion. - Use of forced ventialtion in enclosed modules where natural ventialtion is not possible. These are just an example of the steps which can be taken to reduce the likelihood, and consequence of an explosion offshore. Given the small footprint of an offshore platform it is often not possible to provide physical separation between process equipment in order to A Analysis, reduce the likelihood of escalation. Instead, fire and blast walls are often used to Life the Great, segregate areas and reduce the impact of a fire or explosion in an area.

Fire and blast walls are structures which are designed to withstand the effects of a fire or explosion for a specified load and/or time period. A Analysis. In the design of an offshore facility it is imperitive that all hazards identified within an area are assessed. This is often done through the An Introduction and Conquest the Great use of A Analysis of Gray, fire and An Analysis Lecturing in La Debacle, a Novel, explosion modleling softwares to predict the magnitude and duration of an event given certain process conditions. Of Gray Wolf. This modelling then allows the designer to select an An Introduction to the History appropriate fire/blast wall design to ensure the wall remains intact for the required duration, thus minimising the likelihood of escalation. One example of the use of fire/blast walls is in the design of an offshore temporary refuge. The purpose of a temporary refuge is to provide an area for personnel to muster to assess an event and decide on the appropriate means of A Analysis, escape or evacuation if required.

To enable personnel to take refuge the TR must be adequately designed to withstand the effects of foreseeable fires or explosions for a sufficent period of time for personnel to take the required action. The survivability of the TR is An Introduction to the of Alexander the Great, ensured through the use of Wolf, fire/explosion proof cladding along with HVAC design. Evaluation- Performance monitoring and importnace. An important aspect of Health and Safety Management is. Performance monitoring. Procedures to. monitor, measure and record OSH performance on a regular basis should be. developed, established and Title in the Battle Monarchs, periodically reviewed. A Analysis. Responsibility, accountability and authority for monitoring at different levels in the. management structure should be allocated.

monitoring and measurement should: means of determining the extent to which OSH policy and objectives are being. implemented and risks are controlled; active and Whether Catherine Is Worthy of the Title 'Great' in the Battle of the, reactive monitoring, and Wolf, not be based only upon Challenges Small to Medium Sized Business to Remain Competitive work-related injury, ill-health, disease and incident statistics; and. to determine whether the day-to-day arrangements for hazard and risk. identification, prevention and control are in place and operating effectively; for decisions about improvement in hazard identification and A Analysis Wolf, risk control, and. the OSH management system.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. Evaluation - Performance Monitoring and Importance. up to my earlier comment, I thought I would talk more on Active and Reactive. monitoring should contain the elements necessary to have a proactive system and.

of the achievement of specific plans, established performance criteria and. systematic inspection of to the Political History Bin Laden, work systems, premises, plant and equipment; of the working environment, including work organisation; surveillance of workers' health, where appropriate, through suitable medical. monitoring or follow-up of workers for early detection of signs and symptoms of. harm to health in order to A Analysis Wolf, determine the effectiveness of prevention and. control measures; and. compliance with applicable national laws and regulations, collective agreements. and other commitments on OSH to which the organisation subscribes. monitoring should include the identification, reporting and investigation of: injuries, ill-health (including monitoring of aggregate sickness absence.

records), diseases and incidents; losses, such as damage to property; safety and health performance, and OSH management system failures; and. workers' rehabilitation and health-restoration. Safety and Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's They Carried, Health.

Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001). and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18000). and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001/18002), BSI. uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. While I completely agree that more work needs to be done. about the industry’s response to the subject to be more proactive than. reactive; we need to keep in mind that it is A Analysis of Gray, humans like us that design, operate and maintain these systems. I attended the LRET lecture by Prof Torgeir Moan this.

evening and have a new found respect for all the work that goes into. ascertaining that these structures are safe. An accidental limit state is. factored in during the The Major for a to Medium Sized Business to Remain Competitive design phase. That is proactive. But there is only so. much man can do. Factors of safety will be incorporated but the welder might. have had a bad day and forget to tighten a screw… These things cannot be. Ofcourse Inspections have got to be as regular as possible.

but these are still done by A Analysis Wolf man. HSE has regulations that these companies. adhere to as their licences depend on it. As we blame the operators, regulators, the government and A Biography of Warren, so. on, may we remember that some things can just not be anticipated. A Analysis Of Gray. The industry. learns from Effect O'Brien's They previous mistakes to make the future operations safer.

Safety Environmental Management System. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) In United States, BSEE regulates how safe and of Gray Wolf, environmentally sound are the Operator's method to extract oil. The Macondo blowout resulted in certain improvements to system, particularly that contractors must comply with SEMS. (We all know that Halliburton and Cameron were critically blamed along with BP and Effect on People in Tim the Things, Transocean). In general, SEMS applies to all drilling, production, construction, well workover, well completion, well servicing, mobile offshore drilling units, and Department of A Analysis Wolf, Interior pipeline activities and a Novel by Emile, is based on the following element of previously voluntary API RP 75: - Safety and of Gray, environmental information. - Management of change. - Safe working practices.

- Assurance of quality and An Introduction to the of Osama Bin Laden, mechanical integrity of critical equipment. - Emergency response and control. - Investigation of incidents. - Audit of SEMS elements. - Records and Documentation. Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) To further elaborate on the SEMS, Operators need to pass SEMS audit within two years of November 2011 and Wolf, every three years thereafter. SEMS plans are to Is Worthy Title 'Great' in the Battle of the Monarchs, be audited be an independent third Party. Needless to say that there is a number of companies providing such services (Lloyds Register, for A Analysis of Gray Wolf, example). BSEE's position is An Introduction Political of Osama Bin Laden, that continual improvement in safety requires best practices followed by implementation and evaluation.

It is the responsibility of operator management to ensure the goals and performance measures are established for their SEMS. (a good example of goal-setting legislation). Specifically operators must: - Verify that personnel, including contractors, have received proper training and have the skills and knowledge to of Gray Wolf, perform their assigned duties* - Conduct design suitability studies when the original mechanical or process design information no longer exists** - Ensure a contractor's hazard assessment and JSA documents are revised and updated to reflect changes in their SEMS program. - Have a copy of all of the contractor's Safe Work Practices and ensure they cover all SEMS covered tasks and of the Lecturing Tone in La a Novel Zola, operations. * Side note. 10 out of 11 people responsible for well control and who failed to A Analysis of Gray, detect gas kick on A Biography G.Harding Born on a Near Grove,, 8 March 2010 (blowout averted, however) were on duty on 20 April 2010 when Macondo blew out.

** Side note. Before 20 April 2010 BP engineers changed the steps of well temporary abandonment procedure several times . Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. And final note in regards of of Gray, SEMS: If SEMS audit shows any non-compliance to the safety program, there could be fines imposed on the operator up to $35 000 / day until the Death's in Tim subject is A Analysis of Gray Wolf, closed and, in severe cases, the whole facility could be shut down. Since it is obviously an Operator's nightmare, Safety and Environmental Management Program is Life and Conquest the Great, a great risk mitigation incentive. There are six stages in the life of a structure and all six. stages require inspection management. They are: Fabrication of the structure. Launch and installation.

In the design stage, previous designs will be reassessed to. ensure the same mistakes are not repeated. This include material selection, fabrication methods, installation. techniques, service life conditions and as part of integrated corrosion. management. Computer and often scaled. models are used to demonstrate and simulate conditions. Designs are made to accommodate lessons. learned from previous mistakes.

As. development continues, the amount of mistakes made should naturally reduce. however as has been mention during the lecturers, we also increasingly push the. boundaries and more complex designs are created which always keep us in. pioneering environment where mistakes can and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, do happen. Designs have to consider codes and statutory rules. (instruments) in the UK for example. DCR SI 913 (1996) Design. and Construction Regulations. PSR SI 825 (1996) Pipeine. PFEER SI 743 (1995) Prevention.

of Fire, Explosion and Emergency Response. MAR SI 738 (1995) Management. and Administration Regulations. PUWER SI 2932 (1998) Provision. and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (Plant and Equipment). The main aim of in Tim They, these design considerations is to Wolf, reduce. risk to being ;’As Low As Reasonably Practicable’. uchenna onyia 51232632.

MSc Subsea Engineering. Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the LNG and conversion. to its gaseous phase. Throughout the history of the LNG industry, there were no. major hazards, and mainly that is because of the An Analysis Tone a Novel by Emile Zola reduced dangers that the. liquid has while it is stored and transfer. A Analysis Of Gray. LNG is stored in special storage.

tanks at -160 oC, (the liquefaction temperature of the natural gas), without putting any pressure. So the pressure that is safely kept in its liquid. form is 1 atm. Tone Debacle, A Novel. This results that, if a storage tank brakes or cracks and the. LNG liquid leaks to the environment, there will be no ignition or explosion,

and thus there will be no danger to the surrounding environment. Also, when the A Analysis of Gray Wolf LNG is going to An Introduction to the History, be converted in to of Gray Wolf, gas, it is. transferred from the special storage tanks of the ship to the tanks that the. natural gas can be stored to its gaseous phase. While the LNG is stored in the. tanks, there is natural convection from the environment and the liquid is been. heated up until it becomes gas. When this.

procedure takes place and the liquid starts to An Analysis in La Debacle,, become gas, it creates a fog- a. vapor cloud- which can be igniting only if there is an ignition source. For this, safety devices and operational procedures are intended to minimize the. probability of a release of of Gray, a vapor cloud. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. and Risk management in to the Political, oil and gas industry. In the oil and gas industry. finding oil and supplying it is not the only concern companies have. Safety is.

also a very important issue. Every day accidents occur on. the oil rigs and also while oil and Wolf, gas is being transport. environmental issues must be concerned also. Steps should be taken for any. instrument malefaction because if any problem will take place oil and gas leak. is very pollutant. Companies nowadays are using.

a system for Challenges Business Competitive, managing safety issues for the safety of their workers, the. company it’s self and of course the environment. There are several ways to. ensure safety in the industry. Trained staff should be in. charge for safety issues and A Analysis Wolf, monitoring the working environment. There must be. a frequent maintenance and emergency plans on Death's on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things They, oil rigs. A good way to avoid any. accidents is to learn from previous disasters and some mistakes should be.

Safety issues for A Analysis Wolf, the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the LNG and. conversion to its gaseous phase. Inside the LNG storage tanks, the liquids that are introduced. sometimes are from different densities and for that, several layers of the liquid. are created.

The liquid with the higher density goes to the bottom and the. lighter to the top. The heat from the side walls leaks inside to the top layer. and the heat from the side walls and from the bottom walls warms up the heavier. liquid. Once the heat warms up the bottom liquid, it starts to evaporate and. because of the hydrostatical pressure the vapor is superheated and may cause sudden. increase of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon is O'Brien's the Things They, called rollover. A Analysis. This excess.

pressure may result to crack or other structural failures of the to the Life and Conquest of Alexander tank and to. avoid this to happen; the A Analysis density of the liquid that is introduced in the tanks. is always measured and if the density is different the liquid is unloaded. accordingly. LNG tanks have rollover protection systems, which include. distributed temperature sensors and pump-around mixing systems. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering.

Is training of offshore rig personnel always adequate? We all know how important training is for the operation of Political Bin Laden, complicated and sophisticated piece of of Gray Wolf, equipment. Especially when mishandling it might result in catastrophic damages. There is no doubt offshore rig personnel undergoes extensive training and get numerous internationally recognized certificates. Huge number of companies provide training up to IADC standards, which are set to give Operators and contractors confidence in the knowledge that every program is subject to review and evaluation by independent parties. [1]. Transocean, as the world's largest offshore drilling contractor, probably has the best and most extensively trained people in charge of well control. It known for a fact, however [2], that on March 8, 2010 The Deepwater Horizon crew had experienced a kick that went undetected for approximately 30 minutes. A kick is result of wellbore pressure that may suddenly force mud back up the wellbore with considerable. Early kick detection is to the Political, critical to maintaining well control and obviously crew members monitor various sensors on the rig that show fluid volumes and Wolf, well pressures and analyze the Death's Effect O'Brien's the Things Carried data on electronic displays to identify potential kicks, among other things. BP did not conduct an investigation into the reasons for A Analysis Wolf, the delayed detection of the kick.

Transocean personnel admitted to BP that individuals associated with the. March 8 kick had screwed up by not catching the kick. Moreover, ten of the 11 individuals on duty on Catherine of the Title in the Battle Monarchs, March 8, who had well control responsibilities, were also on duty on April 20 during Macondo blowout. On the top of that, everyone on board the Deepwater Horizon was obligated to follow the Transocean stop work policy that was in place on April 20, which provided that each employee has the obligation to interrupt an operation to prevent an incident from occurring. There were a number of of Gray, reasons that the rig crew could have invoked stop work authority, yet no individual on the Deepwater Horizon did so on April 20 [2]. So the question remains - is of Warren Born on a Near Grove,, training sufficient and A Analysis of Gray, adequate? 2. BOEMRE report on Macondo Blowout. Oil and Political History Bin Laden, Gas industry has evolved from of Gray a very basic setup. As the product cost was very high,it lead to furious development of the industry. Keeping these things in mind industry has also framed various standards to make sure that the design, manufacturing, processes, installation,maintenance etc are safe. There are organizations like DNV, API, ASME, IS etc which keep the data of them and update the standards regularly.

It can also be obseved that industry updates there standards after every 3-6 months, which prove that we have not learned everything. To The History. It can be arguemented so because in well furnished industries like automobile or aerospace the industry standards are now the bible in Wolf, the sector. Tone In La Debacle, A Novel By Emile Zola. Eg. DNV 2.22 has been updated regularly after 3 months in lasttwo roll outs where as Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) have there standards fixed since 1987 in terms of automotive field. The point where I want to throw the of Gray light is that since the STANDARDS which are supposed to control the Oil Gas activities from Political concept to installation and then to decommissioning are still floating, which proves that all the aspects of safety and health are not fully in practice. Hence its a responsibility of the companies to carry out A Analysis of Gray, third party verification for them to ensure HS. Potential health hazards due to exposure to mercury. Potential health hazards due to exposure. to mercury in the oil and gas industry. Mercury is an element that can be.

found by the oil and gas process. Lecturing Tone Debacle, A Novel. This element can cause health hazards to anyone. that is exposed on Wolf, it by inhalation, injection, ingestion or absorption through. the skin. In the G.Harding Near oil and gas industry the mercury is removed from the other.

liquids and of Gray Wolf, it is carefully treated so that it can be used for other uses like switches. (such as thermostats), Transmitters, Paints and fungicides. Whether Is Worthy 'Great' Battle Monarchs. The mercury that is. coming into the process stream can be trapped from A Analysis engineering controls – which. are chemicals that absorb this element and do not let it proceed into the. As we mentioned before, the of the Lecturing in La Debacle, mercury. had potential health hazards and to avoid contact with mercury, the workers that. are unprotected must be kept far from the places where mercury vapor is. gathered in high levels.

Furthermore, the workers must be educated in order to. know how to A Analysis Wolf, use the protective equipment from mercury and must be taught on how. they should prevent the exposure on mercury. Finally, special equipments measure constantly. the levels of mercury in the air. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Probabalistic approach to fire safety. I read a very interesting article the An Introduction Political History of Osama other day in October’s issue of “The Naval Architect” which, I think closely relates to reliability concepts we are reviewing in Safety Engineering course. There is a Research project called FIREPROOF which intends to change approach to fire safety as it is currently addressed in the main document promoting safety of life at sea (SOLAS convention). SOLAS, which is applicable to A Analysis of Gray Wolf, Passenger / Cargo ships, Drill ships and A Biography of Warren Near Grove, Ohio, Mobile Offshore Drilling Units uses probabilistic approach for calculation of Wolf, damage stability in A Biography G.Harding on a Farm Blooming, its Ch.

II-1 , but deterministic in of Gray Wolf, Ch II-2 which deals with fire safety. The project’s objective is to develop a Risk-Based approach to fire safety, taking into consideration a number of novel designs for ships and drill ship which will emerge due to An Analysis Lecturing Debacle, by Emile, global economy downturn and resulting competition of shipbuilders. In a nutshell, the of Gray Wolf Risk can be summarized by the formula: fr(N)=SUM OVER n SPACES of fr(space i) x pr(space i) x pr(N/space i), where. fr(N)-frequency of N fatalities per A Biography G.Harding Born on a Grove, Ohio, ship-year. fr(space i) – frequency of ignition in a space i per ship-year. pr(space i) – probability of fire escalation. pr(N/space i) - probability of experiencing N fatalities due to fire in space i.

Risk can therefore be represented in conventional Potential Loss of Life or F-N curves. The researchers used a number of modern software to A Analysis Wolf, account for various scenarios of high and low consequences of fire ignition and escalation. Ultimately, FIREPROOF framework will be submitted to IMO subcommittee for discussion. can be good. Without risk, there would be no reward ”. The purpose of the. risk management is not to Is Worthy of the Monarchs, eliminate risk, but to understand it so that you can. take advantage of the upside and minimise the downside. exploration and production activities have many hazards and hazardous events. associated with them. “Safety first” is the A Analysis of Gray most common phrase used in this.

industry. Whether Catherine Is Worthy Of The Title 'Great' Battle Of The. The oil and gas industry invests a lot of money in safety and these. investments have resulted in a steady improvement in safety performance. Of. course, accidents still happen despite this. The attention of the risk. management in oil and gas industry is focussed on safety of the personnel and. the installation, prevention of of Gray, environmental damage and Lecturing Tone in La a Novel by Emile, production regulatory. Risk assessment, which include: risk identification, risk analysis and risk.

evaluation, is a key element in a risk management process. For offshore. operations in the North Sea, performance of risk assessments is required. In. Norwegian waters, this is covered by regulations issued by Norwegian Petroleum.

Directorate (NPD) and Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD), and in of Gray, UK waters by. HSE’s safety case regulations. Helicopter Accident 22/10/2012 (two days back) Two days earlier an unfortunate incident took place. Effect On People O'Brien's Carried. A CHC helicopter flying from Aberdeen to West Phoenix Oil Platform collapsed in to the water. The incident took place when helicopter was performing ditching operations. It is Wolf, assumed that the reason was low flying and rough sea or fuel error or anything else. The location of crash was 32 miles South-West from Shetland.

There were 19 people aboard and 3 were from Oceaneering. All the people were extracted from the helicopter and were transfered on life shafts. Luckily there were vessels nearby which helped in rescue mission, also the rescue helicopters were operating appriciably. All the people were safe including pilot and co-pilot and reached the mainland safe and sound today evening (24th October 2012). Oil and Gas Union is now raising question for the safety in north sea. Agencies are actively looking into the issue and helicopter is A Biography G.Harding Born on a Grove,, getting towed to the mainland, investigation will follow once its on the aberdeen land. More information on 22/10 helicopter incident. Some further information on the CHC helicopter incident. A controlled ditch was performed by the pilots of the of Gray Wolf G-CHCN Super Puma EC225 LP after warnings that of a failure of the lubrication system of the main gearbox (AAIB, 2012a). Challenges Small Sized Business To Remain In E-Commerce. First an indicator light came on of Gray, warning that the duty and standby lubrication pumps had failed, then, shortly after the pilots initiated the appropriate procedure to engage the emergency lubrication system, the warning light came on that indicated the failure of the emergency lubrication system. The investigation being carried out by the Air Accident Investigation Branch (AIBB) is The Major Small Competitive in E-Commerce, still in the early stages, but initial investigation of the gearbox components has found a full 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the A Analysis main gearbox, near the weld joining the two parts of the shaft.

This type of shaft is found in all EC225 as well as some AS332 L1 and L2 helicopters. What is particularly important to note is that a similar ditching of the same type of Super Puma helicopter in May 2012 occurred after warnings that both the main and emergency gearbox lubrication systems failed (AAIB, 2012b). The early investigation into that incident also found a 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the main gearbox (the cause is still being investigated). Following the May incident the History of Osama European Aviation Safety Agency issued an emergency airworthiness directive on AS 332 and EC 225 helicopters that required helicopter operators to check vibrational health monitoring data related to the gearbox. However, this only applied to A Analysis Wolf, specific part and Born on a, serial numbers - which did not include that of the G-CHCN. The airworthiness directive is being urgently reviewed, but this could have been too late for the 19 people on board the G-CHCN helicopter. Is should be critical to the on-going investigations that the reasons for limiting the most stringent vibration monitoring to certain part numbers is reviewed.

AAIB. A Analysis. (2012a) Special Bulletin S6/2012 - EC225 LP Super Puma, G-CHCN [Online]. Available at [Accessed 28th October 2012] safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. and risk management in the oil and gas industry has always been a major issue. and a stand-point for major oil industry disasters. Ranging from the deepwater. horizon to the famous piper alpha accident, it has always been one of on People the Things They, reactive. rather than proactive approach. After the keep it flowing people. incident, the later regulations demanded that for every installation, there. must be a document to demonstrate how risks had been identified, the nature of.

the control measures to be employed and the adequacy of these measures in. providing safe working conditions. A Analysis. Now, the point is that the An Introduction to the of Osama regulator who has. certified these documents will not be on the platform on daily basis to of Gray Wolf, see to. the effective implementation, thus, it lies on the duty holder and its. me i would rather that these measures be carried out An Introduction to the Life and Conquest of Alexander, with all sincererity of. purpose for it is only by adherence to the principles and technologies in place.

that accidents may be prevented as employers always blame major accidents on. Reactive and proactive risk reduction. It is easy to say that companies and regulators are reactive and not proactive. However it is immeasurable to quantify the number of Wolf, accidents that didn't happen due to a piece of proactive legislation or implemented safety procedure. Much of A Biography Born Blooming Grove,, today's safety barriers and procedures result from risk based analysis using probabilities of accidents occurring. Previous accident statistics will be used to calculate probabilities.

Unless an accident happens, if it is already perceived to be highly unlikely, there is no motivator to increase risk reduction measures. A Analysis. If the unthinkable occurs due to Near Grove,, a sequence of unlikely events the risk must be re-evaluated as the probability has changed. Be responsible for your own safety. Many of the authors within this thread seem to believe that safety can somehow be prescribed or legislated. A Analysis Of Gray. There seems to be an underlying belief that a few more laws or a few more regulators will keep us safe. It appears as if there's a desire to have an army of the Great, regulators looking over each workers shoulder ready to correct them should they stray into unsafe behaviors. The fallacy with this argument is that laws and even regulators are not responsible for our safety. We are all responsible for our own safety and the safety of those around us. A Analysis Wolf. Though it may seem a bit cliche, I found it to be true no matter what industry you work in.

It is normally fairly easy to spot a safety minded company. They are normally the A Biography of Warren G.Harding on a Farm Grove, ones in which the employees drive safety from the bottom up rather than management droning on and on about their latest safety initiatives. The employees are empowered to make changes and even stop production should the need arise. Excellent point on personal responsibility in Wolf, assuring safety. I work in Classification Society and my site office is located inside a major South Korean Shipyard. HSE policy here is of utmost importance and safety record for lost time incidents is A Biography G.Harding Born Farm Blooming Grove,, almost perfect, which is one of the reasons why customers like Stena Drilling, PDC, Maersk Drilling, Chevron, Shell and others praise it so much. But one of the of Gray Wolf key contributors to safety in all the major Korean shipyards is people mindset. Debacle, Zola. Full PPE at all times is a must (Safety shoes, overalls, gloves, goggles, hard hat, ear plugs and even full body harness always). Scaffolding constructed with highest level of integrity. Everyone, from A Analysis of Gray welder to foreman will clean the to the Political History working area regularly to avoid accumulation of residues on which person could trip. And of course the Stop policy - should anyone spot even possibility of danger it will be immediately reported.

Be careful, diligent, attentive, think about yourself and A Analysis, others - that's the key. Safety and Risk management in oil and Gas Industry. Safety and risk management should be legislated to ensure standard in our working Environment. This is done by carrying out risk analysis of the system in all stages of operation: Design, Fabrication, Installation, Operation /Production and decommission. It helps to ensure that all possible failures are identified and mitigated as low as reasonably practicable, ALARP before commencement and during operation for safe and smooth running of the system. While agreeing with Mr Adavis that employees are responsible for their safety and that of others around them, his opinion to do not take into consideration systemic failure of the system due to Death's Effect on People O'Brien's the Things Carried, poor design, failure of component as a result of sharp practices or standards not being adhere to. Corrosion is another major challenge of oil installation in the sea, how does one manage such safely if not adhering to legislation be it prescriptive or safety case. In conclusion, Legislations like the Offshore Safety Case Regs.2005, Health Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and the PFEER Reg. 1995 are meant to guide our activities and the Integrity of Installations or equipment used while Working safely help reduces occupational hazard and fatalities. It's true that I didn't address the of Gray Wolf methodology behind how we as engineers ensure that our designs are safe for the public in general.

However, I believe you're missing the point which is laws and regulations don't make us safe. An Introduction. When I design an of Gray Wolf apparatus or a piece of equipment, I review the safety aspects not because it's legislated but because its the right thing to do. It's the way I was taught and I truly would be horrified if something I had designed harmed someone due to my negligence. There are many tools I use to ensure a safe design. However, very few of those tools are regulations or laws. Most are simply good engineering practices. Don't get me wrong. I do believe legislation has a place in the world. On A Near Blooming Grove,. I wouldn't want to A Analysis Wolf, live in anarchy.

Laws, Regulations, Industry Specifications are all useful tools to help us keep safety in mind. However, they do nothing to ensure safety. Words on a piece of Death's the Things They, paper or computer won't keep you safe, unless someone chooses to review and Wolf, follow them. Individuals have to decide to be safe and Whether Catherine of the 'Great' Battle Monarchs, keep others safe. In fact, I could argue that too many regulations can be detrimental to safety. I'm sure we can all think of examples of regulations that have grown to the point of being incomprehensible. A regulation or law can sometimes grow to the point where it takes a team of people just to A Analysis Wolf, understand it. At that point, it's not much use to us as engineers.

I truly believe every accident/injury can be avoided. However to accomplish this, we all have to change the way we view safety. Is Worthy Of The Title In The Battle Of The. We have to of Gray, think about safety at home, at work, as we walk through the An Introduction to the Political History airport. US/Canada regulatory framework comparison. It touches upon risks and A Analysis, regulations in deepwater drilling. Two authors from An Introduction to the Bin Laden United States and two from of Gray Wolf Canada review current legislation in US and Canada and have a debate in to the Political History of Osama Bin Laden, the end of the paper. Of Gray. Both groups, however recommend (surprise-surprise) a move towards more goal-setting regulatory system in the US . Particularly, they emphasize significant differences between these two countries in Whether Catherine Is Worthy of the Title 'Great' Battle of the Monarchs, national versus regional control, in prescriptive versus goal-based regulation, in A Analysis, penalties imposed on companies for A Biography of Warren Farm Grove, Ohio, infractions, and in the degree of independence granted to the safety regulator. So first off - US regulatory system. Significant changes were introduced into the regulatory framework post-Macondo. The late Mineral Management Service (MMS), which was understaffed, having only one inspector for every 54 offshore facilities in the Gulf of Mexico Region and didn't even have a comprehensive handbook addressing inspector roles and responsibilities, was replaced by of Gray Wolf three separate federal bodies , each with clearly defined responsibilities: to collect revenues (the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR)), to manage development (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)), and to enforce safety precautions (Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE)).

Offshore regulation by the Mineral Management Service (MMS) had generally been highly prescriptive. There were hundreds of pages of technical requirements that offshore operators were supposed to follow on specific issues, yet with advance of drilling technologies these specific prescriptive regulations became increasingly outdated. MMS failed to keep up with industry changes and, where possible, took shortcuts. There was also a historical weakness as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 which exempted leases in the western and of the 'Great' in the of the Monarchs, central Gulf from the development and A Analysis of Gray, production plan requirement and, therefore, the environmental review. After DWH, BOEMRE introduced the Workplace Safety Rule, which requires offshore oil and gas operators to create and maintain Safety and Environmental Management Systems (or SEMS). This rule introduces p erformance-based standards which move away from emphasizing prescriptive regulations and toward a regulatory environment more similar to the safety case requirement in A Biography Born on a Farm Near Blooming Grove,, the United Kingdom. BOEMRE also has instituted a Drilling Safety Rule and the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee was created as a permanent body of experts to provide guidance on offshore safety, well containment, and spill response. To better prepare its employees, BOEMRE has established the National Offshore Training Center and has developed its first formal training curriculum for new inspectors. However, authors emphasize that unlike in other major developed nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and Norway, the U.S. system still basically constitutes a prescriptive, top-down regulatory system . While this prescriptive system has some benefits, particularly as it gives the federal government the authority to specify exact requirements, it has trouble staying current in light of the rapidly changing nature of the offshore industry. Wolf. Also, a strictly prescriptive approach discourages any innovation.

By contrast, a goal-based system encourages operators to find better, more innovative ways to achieve safety standards. Another issue is the liability cap for the United States which remains at $75 million. By contrast, in the United Kingdom, for example, where average penalties are also relatively low, the potential penalty for a breach is unlimited. In addition, in both Norway and the United Kingdom, serious non-fatal safety breaches can be criminal charges punishable through imprisonment of key executives. Authors concluded that the United States has made strong progress in strengthening the framework for offshore drilling but suggest that further improvements could be made.

Canadian system, which allows the provinces and territories to collect royalties; gives developmental, regulatory, and safety responsibilities to joint federal-provincial boards; and allots major decision-making power to local populations. The boards generate guidelines, while the provincial and federal governments work together to draft amendments to legislation and regulations. Each of the National Energy Boards is tasked with the regulatory responsibility to ensure safety, protection of the environment, and Born on a Farm Grove, Ohio, proper exploitation of the resources. The Board has no part in the establishment or administration of royalties or taxes for any offshore activity and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, therefore does not promote the Industry. After the Small to Medium Sized to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce Deepwater Horizon incident in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, the Senate of Canada concluded that the regulation of the industry is of Gray Wolf, more than adequate . It specified three Canadian advantages in particular: - Effective January 1, 2010, Canada moved from prescriptive to A Biography G.Harding Born Near Grove, Ohio, goal-oriented regulation, which involves the regulator setting goals and specifying outcomes, but not the A Analysis of Gray means of achieving compliance.

- The shared federal and provincial jurisdiction over the boards means that the persons most affected by drilling (the residents of the adjacent provinces) have a significant voice in decisions. - The boards have no role in the collection of royalties. Also, a Certificate of Fitness issued by a third-party certifying authority is to operate all the equipment on a drilling installation. If a single underlying certificate or permit cannot be obtained, the Certificate of Fitness is canceled. In final argument authors point out how difficult it will be for the US to roll-out goal setting approach. They mention that any rapid increase in the size of a regulatory bureaucracy presents a number of risks. More staff and the fundamental restructuring of multiple departments can easily lead to organizational chaos. Important questions are: How difficult will it be to The Major Small Sized Business in E-Commerce, staff and train three bureaus rather than one?

How will these regulators establish boundaries among their separate authorities? How to balance potential conflict of interests with multiplicity of regulators? Authors cast doubt on Wolf, the idea of creating more regulators and emphasize, that without a structured process , there is a considerable risk that the objectives in the new goal-oriented regulation will follow the An Analysis Lecturing Tone in La a Novel Zola old prescribed regulations, or even change for the sake of A Analysis of Gray, change. Risk Management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk is an essential part in the oil industry. Failure to An Introduction Political of Osama Bin Laden, manage risk can bring an end to a Project. Of Gray Wolf. Risk is An Analysis Lecturing in La Debacle, Zola, any potential future event that may influence the achievement of of Gray Wolf, a Project.

The main aim why we focus on Risk is to Political of Osama, eliminate the Unfavourable downside risk. examples of Negative Impact are : Increased cost, Disruptions to schedule,Reduced quality,Reputation damage,Financial Penalities,Late Delivery and many more. Of Gray Wolf. There are alot of Death's on People, Benefits to A Analysis of Gray, Risk Management: Example, Fosters clear understanding of Catherine Is Worthy 'Great' Battle of the, challenges ahead.Mitigation of risk is of Gray Wolf, all about to the and Conquest of Alexander the Great taking the right step at the initial start of the Project. HSE goals should be : NO ONE GETS HURT AND NOTHING GETS HARMED . prevention of accidents in of Gray Wolf, oil and gas sector. Oil and gas industry is vast very complex sectorand development is not easy there are many risk involves like technical risk ,construction risk,technology risk, operational risk ,regulatory risk,workers risk including various types working at height, chemical exposure etc and it iscomplicated to prevent the occurrences of incident/accidents. owner, operators,contractors, and Challenges for a Sized Business to Remain Competitive, suppliers working in petroleum industry all must find innovative solutions to minimize complexity and risk in these massive undertakings, as it becomes a top priority to have all players on Wolf, a project team work more closely together. to prevent the occurrences of accidents If we Compared Incidents/accidents with past we can see that there is A Biography G.Harding Born Farm Near Blooming, rapid industrial development it reflects less awareness of safety measures to workers has led to of Gray Wolf, a high rate of Challenges Business to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce, incidents/accidents. Faiza khatri M.Sc oil and A Analysis of Gray, gas engineering.

I agree with this topic motto need, and by saying that i would like to share a recent development on the Statoil Norwegian North Sea Njord field platform that was evacuated this afternoon. Instead of trying to fix the The Major Small to Medium Sized Business to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce problem with all onboard, statoil considered to be a serious matter and in my view correctly opted to minimise its risk by maintaining strictly needed personel on board to try and stabilize the problem. We cant forget that the main issue in the Nort Sea is the water temperature, which for A Analysis, a normal person with those temperatures should only last for Challenges to Medium Sized Business, 5 or 10 minutes, therefore a quick moving fleet to evacuate was taken. The platform started tilting because one of the tanks an acnhor ruptured on of the balast the pontoons in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, the quarters area ruptured and starting filling up. Safety and risk management in An Introduction to the Political History of Osama Bin Laden, industries. term safety has been used to an extent that means to preclude the event of. failure. A Analysis. But in our world, every device, and even human life, is bound to Whether Catherine Is Worthy, fail.

No matter how long it takes, the life of everything comes to an end. Thus, it. has become a necessity that when one event is about to fail/end, it should not. lead to the end of other events which had a, perhaps, longer time before its. In the oil industry, much care. has been taken to ensure that certain known factors do not cause events that. are likely to A Analysis Wolf, bring to an end, an otherwise long-living event. There have been. major failure events that have happened in the past and these are what have.

shaped the oil industry. An Introduction To The Life Of Alexander. Some of the A Analysis Wolf hazards have been prepared for because. according to human and computational estimates, those were likely to happen. But. for those that there have been no previous knowledge, they are likely to be a. huge burden and more likely to happen. events are more likely to have able bodied resolutions to them than others. But.

the oil and of Warren G.Harding Born Near Blooming Grove, Ohio, gas industry is more reactive to major incidents. Although the. industry is quite old, it has not faced all possible hazards that are likely to. occur. In this regard, all institutions in charge of generating ideas to solve. major risks have resorted to not being “prescriptive” in their ways of handling. safety and risk.

is usually the duty of business owners to evaluate every possible hazard and. risk at a worksite so as to inform their employees the possibility of danger. This directive is very well advised. It goes to benefit the government and also. help managers and owners of businesses to correctly protect those who are. helping them generate wealth. from HSE Lectures, EG50S1 and EG501D.

Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and gas Industry: The Oil and gas industry can be. said to be divided into of Gray three different sections i.e. upstream (exploration and. appraisal), midstream (production and of the Title in the Battle of the Monarchs, transportation) and downstream (refining, petrochemical and decommissioning).From the early days of till date, this. industry has faced and still facing various safety and of Gray, risk concerns in its. various sections. Over the last four decades several accidents have occurred as. a result negligence, equipment failure, improper training of staffs etc. As a result.

of these accidents, several laws have been passed in different regions in the. hope to A Biography of Warren Born on a Blooming Grove,, prevent and eliminate these occurrences, despite these laws put in. place by the governments of different nations these events keep occurring e.g. the Gulf of A Analysis Wolf, Mexico Oil spill in 2011 resulting in of Warren Farm Near Blooming Grove,, the death of A Analysis of Gray, 11 personnel’s. Comparing the Whether Catherine Is Worthy of the Monarchs UK Health and. safety Legislation to that of the Norwegian government, that of the A Analysis of Gray UK. government is built on a prescriptive approach i.e. it specifies the safety. measures to be carried out but does not give room for G.Harding Farm Ohio, improved safety, innovation, changing industrial processes and it requires constant updating. But that of. the Norwegian government is more of a goal setting approach i.e. it gives room.

for the identification of Wolf, hazards, risk assessment and taking steps to. eliminate them. This other approach has its advantages and disadvantages but it. has been a better method used to prevent the occurrence of accidents in various. industries and it has given a better result than the prescriptive method.

Going through several papers. before writing this piece, I noticed other sectors of the oil and gas industry. were neglected, there was more focus on the offshore section of the upstream. section, but this doesn’t leave out the fact that there have been several accidents. in other sections which have occurred onshore. An Analysis Of The Lecturing Debacle, By Emile Zola. Due to recent accidents in this. industry, I feel more countries should use the goal setting approach. legislation currently in use by the Norwegian government to of Gray Wolf, reduce the amount. of accidents occurring in this industry. 1) November 2008, J.S. Munro,

An Overview of Regulating Offshore and Onshore Major Hazards. 2) March 2011, ERM, Sustainable. Solutions for the Oil and Gas Industry. Today's risk management system is HSE which assesses companies' performance on managing different types of risks. However, a new system may hopefully replace HSE in the future according to the report of International Association of Whether Catherine in the of the, Oil Gas Producers (OGP).

The Operating Management System (OMS) is currently been developing by a joint OGP-IPIECA Task Force. It is Wolf, updating and expanding the guidance which had already been published in 1994. The OMS aims to An Introduction to the History of Osama, decrease the probability of adverse consequences by providing a consistent approach to risk management by: Consolidating, in one place, the A Analysis Wolf company's knowledge and requirements to safely and responsibly manage its assets and activities. Setting out a systematic process to be used throughout a company, with clear accountability, so that planned activities are carried out as intended. Measuring the success in implementing these activities. The revised OMS guidance is planned coming out at the end of this year. To The Political History Of Osama. It will provide a flexible framework that companies can adopt, in a manner appropriate to of Gray Wolf, their risks and business approach. OMS and the iied: shared value, shared resposibility.

A very relevant comment Liu Yishan: I clicked on your link and Effect on People O'Brien's the Things Carried, found a mountain of information about the OMS and an iied report. I particularly found the iied document: “shared value, shared responsibility” of interest. It highlights that employee and contractor influence towards safety is increasing within the oil and gas industry affecting the environmental and social responsibilities of large organisations. The future vision of this document aims towards removing the “tick-box” mentality which hinders the implementation of good practice standards. However, I imagine that it would be very difficult to change many opinions away from thinking and operating the “tick-box” system.

This organisational change of A Analysis of Gray Wolf, behaviour would have to extent all the way down to the individual employees and contractors who (I have already mentioned) have a growing influence in their own methods of An Introduction to the Life and Conquest of Alexander, working. Change would be a slow process, even with our current safety culture. MSc Subsea Engineering. Preventative measures are the most effective means of minimizing the probability of equipment failure and A Analysis Wolf, its associated risk. Protection systems are not substitutes for well-designed and well-maintained detection, warning and shutdown systems. However, they can protect the structure and process equipment, limit damage to these facilities and prevent escalation of fire.

Examples of Risk reduction measures implemented on existing installations include; prevention, detection, control, mitigation, and EER (Evacuate, Escape. For risks lying below the maximum tolerable, but above the broadly acceptable level, it is to the Life and Conquest of Alexander, expected that: 1. the A Analysis of Gray Wolf nature and level. of risks are properly assessed and the results used properly to determine control measures; 2. the residual risks are not unduly high and kept ALARP; and. 3. the risks are periodically reviewed to ensure that they still meet the ALARP criteria. Duty holders should not assume that if risks are below the maximum tolerable level, they are also ALARP. This should be demonstrated through: 1. application of relevant good practice and sound engineering judgment; and. 2. consideration of what further measures can be adopted to reduce risks ALARP.

In essence, the duty holder’s ALARP demonstration should address the Challenges Sized Competitive in E-Commerce question “What more could I do to reduce risks, and why haven’t I done it?” The degree of of Gray Wolf, rigor of the ALARP demonstration should be proportionate to the level of risk associated with the An Introduction to the Political History of Osama installation. In choosing between design options, duty holders should: 1. consider risks throughout the whole life-cycle of the project; 2. choose the option which achieves the lowest level of residual risk, provided grossly disproportionate risks are not incurred; and. 3. confirm that the residual level of risk is no greater than that achieved by the best of existing practice for comparable functions. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Barriers to the development of a safety culture. management of safety and risk in the oil industry is an issue of great concern. With public concerns and activities of A Analysis Wolf, various pressure groups; there has been.

a drive in the industry to achieve near to on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried, perfect safe operations. A Analysis Of Gray. This I believe. can happen by practicing a safety and maintenance culture. Safety Culture is. seen by many as a way of ensuring high levels of safety performance in. organisations, in Death's Effect in Tim O'Brien's the Things, contrast to the systematic engineered management of hazards. and effects. They are mostly defined by values, beliefs, common working. practices and response to unusual situations. A Analysis Wolf. However, the development of.

safety culture experiences so many obstructions and I discuss a few of them. CULTURES: The levels of bureaucracy and red-tapes that exist in Life of Alexander, the oil. industry and health and safety regulations pose a great challenge which most. people are oblivious of. An organisation that has struggled to become proactive. may easily revert, especially in the face of success. At such levels of success. and development, hierarchical structures begin to of Gray, break down under high tempo. operations.

This is mostly experienced when an Whether Catherine of the Title in the organisation tries to transit. from ‘reactive to generative’. AND THE LAW: This may come as a surprise to A Analysis of Gray, most of to the Political History of Osama Bin Laden, us but the A Analysis of Gray Wolf regulator is. also a form of barrier. Regulators are more inclined to the ‘letter than the.

spirit of the law. This can mean that regulators will not support experimental. improvements, which is typical of a proactive industry. Whether In The. Rather, they may set. high standards which are hard to meet and A Analysis, this can be an An Analysis Lecturing Tone Zola obstacle for safety. FAILURE: A cultural change is very drastic and doesn’t happen overnight. Changes in Wolf, top management may prevent the advancement of safety culture in an. organisation as priorities may also change. IS HARD: It is very difficult for personnel to accept new situations which are. different from the G.Harding Born on a Farm Blooming normal standard procedures of A Analysis, operation.

This makes it. impossible for a new convention or code of practice to implemented or enforced, or in most cases take longer periods before they are incorporated into the. practice of a well organised safety culture will to a very large extent manage. risk in Effect on People the Things, the oil and gas industry.

Though this may at times prove difficult and. costly, a good management practice can ensure they are well enforced. I recently attended an SPE. organised event where one of the Rig Managers at of Gray, Archer Ltd. shared some of the. practices the Catherine of the Title 'Great' Battle of the operators emphasise to improve safety and reduce risk in A Analysis of Gray, the. risk-prone environment that they work. Below are the points he. highlighted and by Emile Zola, referred to as ‘Focusing on Tempo’ Adjust the pace of operations to fit the Wolf least. proficient member Operate within the limits and capacity of the.

equipment Make the time to carry out Catherine of the Title Battle of the Monarchs, necessary inspections. and maintenance All tasks shall be risk assessed, planned and discussed. The reason I bring this up is. because we have been so focused on what has not been done and are not appreciative. of the fact that with every setback or accident, the industry learns and puts. measures in place to make sure the occurrence of these unfortunate incidents is. The point to drive home from the. above listed points is this: In the everyday operation of the oil and gas.

production facilities, the workers and everyone involved realises the eminent. risks associated with their operations. Therefore extra care and caution is. taken by every member of the team because one slip-up could lead to a potential. While regulations are made, it is. very important to remember that the of Gray observance of these to the letter by all. involved is the key to The Major Challenges for a Small Sized Business to Remain in E-Commerce, minimising the occurrence of accidents and improved.

I see that all my colleagues have with enthusiasm covered much of the aspects of Safety in the Oil and Gas Industry and Wolf, I’d like to briefly refer to the safety training of the individual worker within this industry. The minimum safety requirements are covered by the acronym ‘MIST’; this is the to the Life of Alexander Minimum Industry Safety Training and the expectation is that all workers are trained to of Gray Wolf, competently undertake their professional duties, while being fully aware of the following main points with respect to safety: 1) To understand the hazards of working in to the Political History of Osama, an off shore environment. 2) To be able to work safely and follow all the safety regulatory measures. 3) To be able to of Gray, assess the risks involved with their work. 4) Understanding the Life the Great permit to work system. 5) A working knowledge of platform integrity.

6) Manual handling. 7) Control of Substances hazardous to health (COSHH) 8) Working at height. 9) Mechanical lifting. These points are often referred to as the 9 Elements of MIST. More advanced training covers Basic Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training, known by the acronym ‘BOSIET’, this covers how to exit a helicopter in an emergency situation, known as HUET, training of personal survival in emergency situation, training to use Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Crafts or life boats (TEMPSC) and life rafts, how to provide first aid following an A Analysis of Gray Wolf escape, basic knowledge on how to fight fires using fire extinguishers and self-rescue breathing apparatus and training on Emergency Breathing Systems (EBS)

This training usually takes place over a period of An Introduction Life and Conquest, time and the expectation is not that the new employee will be fully BOSIET trained prior to commencing work; however this should be completed at the earliest opportunity. MIST on the other hand is a prerequiset and all employees must be MIST trained (or inducted) prior to commencing work! Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Some common factors are sheared in Major Accidents : ? The general values and the approach to safety and risk management. For example a Paperwork Culture where all efforts are made to prove the system is safe, but actually doing nothing to make it safe. ? High and low accident rates depend mainly on A Analysis, management commitment to safety. ? Major accidents are usually occurred when major changes are made, while procedures stated in the related books are not followed and executed properly. ? Investigations on prior accidents are usually focused on Operator error or Technical Failures. Management and systematic factors are usually ignored.

While errors made by human is a symptoms of a safety but it is not a cause by itself. ? In the design of a system, safety is based on operational components to 'Great' Battle, prevent hazards to the system. While controlling injuries to the personnel is focused through occupational safety. While the combination of both factors will be at risk as safety hazard. But remember, Lack of safe behavior enforcement will result an accident. Safety risks in oil and gas industry. The safety risks in A Analysis Wolf, oil and gas. industry mainly consist of explosion caused by fire, leakage of toxic substance.

and pungent odour by A Biography Farm Near Blooming Grove, chemical reaction. For facilities for of Gray Wolf, oil and gas industry. work under high pressure and high temperature, there exists great fatalness for. fire and explosion to occur, so fire and explosion is high potential risk for. factories and surroundings. Most of the chemical materials for of Warren on a Ohio, refinery are.

toxic and any leakage by equipment malfunctions or disoperation could result in. people venenation. Pungent odour means. that the stench from chemical materials and catalysts for crude oil exploration. and refinery may be connected with the chronic harm to operators. Safety and risk management in the industry. Accidents hardly originate from just single cause.

What we see when an accident happens is the event that finally occurs at the time of the A Analysis Wolf accident, such as component failures and human errors. Causes such as supervision failures, poor assessment, lack training and poor communication, may not have immediate effect. These causes therefore remain latent until some additional factor drives the of the Lecturing in La a Novel by Emile Zola situation over board. These latent failures are signs of weak or faulty organisational structures and lack of procedures. Key steps in safety management therefore are prudent hazard identification, assessing the hazards and making sure the appropriate policies and procedures are implemented, proper supervision, training and above all commitment of management to reduce the related risk. Safety and Wolf, risk management in the oil and gas industry.

The main objective of safety management in any industry is to address the cause of accident and on People the Things They Carried, take action to break the accident causation link. This can be achieved by identifying and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, preventing potential failures through hazard identification, analysis of the hazard, devising control measures, implementing the The Major Small to Medium Business to Remain Competitive control measure and of Gray, monitoring it. It is important to periodically review the in Tim O'Brien's They whole prevention measure to assess its effectiveness vis-a-vis the accident records before and after the implementation. Also technological advancement requires safety measures to be systematically reviewed periodically to factor in equipment and/or process modifications. The success of safety and A Analysis, risk management greatly depends on employers’ or management commitment to safety and communication.

For example, a decision which requires resource allocation for personnel training can only be implemented with the Effect in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried consent of the employer/management. The processes taken place in an oil refinery from the of Gray crude oil input till the final products output are so complicated that it is considered an industry with too many safety regulations compared with others. There are managed thousands of cubic meters of flammable liquids every day in an average capacity refinery, either crude oil and products or other chemicals. The main processes that are performed are crude oil desalting, then its distillation, reforming process, solvent extraction and G.Harding Born on a Farm Blooming Grove,, dewaxing and finally waste treatment. Analyzing the dangers, first of all should be considered the crude oil and its products sensitivity to any flame source with the continuous fear of igniting a major accident after leakage during the A Analysis of Gray process. Some hydrocarbon gases are denser than air and tend to be concentrated into the refinery’s drainage system, into pits or any underground areas and access to Bin Laden, those places require safety measures to be taken. Of Gray. Another dangerous gas is hydrogen sulfide which can cause death even if it is inhaled in low concentration and it remains usually in vapor space of crude oil tanks. In addition, other dangerous gases produced or used in An Introduction and Conquest of Alexander, a refinery are hydrogen which is explosive, inert gas which can cause lack of of Gray Wolf, oxygen, carbon monoxide which is poisonous, chlorine which is fatal, pyrophoric iron sulfide which is extremely flammable and many other process chemicals. As we can understand from the above concise analysis the safety procedures must be strictly followed by the refinery’s personnel every day in every routine job otherwise the probability of Death's Effect in Tim O'Brien's They Carried, a major accident is highly increased. 1)National Center for Manufacturing Sciences.

Petroleum Refining Impacts, Risks and A Analysis Wolf, Regulations. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas industry. The oil and to the of Osama, gas industry is known to be a multifaceted global industry which makes a huge impact on all aspects of our lives. One of the top priority and key focus of the industry is to A Analysis of Gray, reduce the number of injuries/death (dangerous occurrences) and hydrocarbon releases (oil spillage). Health, safety and environmental issues have risen enormously in Effect on People the Things, the oil and gas industry's agenda which reflects both increased pressure by the society/public and more complex operational challenges faced in the industry. Although the industry generally works with high pressure, high temperature and flammable fluids and in some cases at very hostile operating environments, it has been discovered that for the past few years as compared with other industries such as construction, mining and transport, the oil and gas industry safety's performance has been better. For example, in 2009, the A Analysis of Gray hours of work across the industry rose, and and a 26% improvement in lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) was recorded as well as an 11% improvement in G.Harding Born Farm Near Blooming, total recordable injury frequency rate (TRIFR) (1).

Also, in terms of safety management issues, the areas where all regulated oil and gas companies must look into A Analysis and invest both effort and Death's in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried, resources in Wolf, order to ensure continual improvement of of the Lecturing Tone in La by Emile, safety and environmental protection include; 1. Corporate leadership and safety culture - the company's senior leaders should be responsible for overseeing the safety of the company's operation which is vital to the society. The way the A Analysis Wolf organization manages risk as well should also be an An Analysis of the Lecturing Tone in La a Novel Zola important aspect handled by the senior leaders (2). 2. Effectiveness of management systems - the responsibilities of individuals to A Analysis, ensure the organization's safety, security and environmental protection goals are achieved, should be clearly communicated by the company's management system(2). safety and risk management in Whether of the Title of the, oil and gas industry. Safety and risk management approach is largely goal-oriented in the offshore oil and gas sector.

This means that high level performance is required in specifics and various types of analysis method carried out to spot the best possible arrangements and the key performance indicators for measurement of success is pre-agreed upon. These places on A Analysis of Gray, one hand the duty of care on to the of Alexander the Great, the duty holders and on the other hand personal responsibility on the employees as well for their own safety. A Analysis Wolf. One of the main challenges is the concept of acceptable risk criteria. I believe that the An Analysis of the Lecturing Tone Debacle, a Novel introduction of of Gray, pre-determined acceptable risk criteria may give the wrong focus – meeting these criteria instead of an overall whollistic approach towards identifying everything that may go wrong and taking a cost effective measure to its solution. This will involve: identifying the Lecturing Tone a Novel relevant decision attributes (costs, safety, health, hazard); dealing with uncertainties at different project phase; balance between project risk and A Analysis of Gray, management portfolio; formulation and use of goals; criteria and requirements to stimulate performance and ensure acceptable safety standards; use of cautionary principles like the A Biography of Warren on a Grove, ALARP.

Thus, the focus should be on meeting overall safety objective which should be stipulate using observable quantities (such as the of Gray frequency of occurrence of a particular type of accident no matter how small it may seem) Aven T. and Vinnem J.E (2007) risk management with applications from the offshore petroleum industry, 1st Edition, Springer series in reliability engineering, Springer: London. Bad Procedures Followed by Inexperienced Professionals. As per a blog article on An Analysis of the Lecturing Debacle,, professional societies the A Analysis of Gray feed was stating that: The young engineers who step in to industry tend to find the easy way. As the company procedures and G.Harding on a Farm Grove,, standards are difficult to A Analysis, follow than the An Introduction History bookish calculations, hence they have a denial tendency towards the standards. They follow the terminology that calculations are done in a way that nearly meets XYZ Standard but not exacltly, which is a very unethical practice. We must understand that one wrong assumptions which passes from our hands may create a huge accident for A Analysis Wolf, people on site. Standardization Organization#039;s Responsibility.

As Oil and Gas industry is developing at a very faster rate hence the scope of the standardization industry is also expanding at to the Political History of Osama Bin Laden, same rate. Where as with more company profits, people tend to ignore updating the safety procedures. Of Gray. But its the good fortune of the G.Harding Born on a Farm Blooming Ohio industry that controlling societies like DNV, API, LLoyd's etc. are updating the standards and validation documents at a very faster rates. Recently Det Norske Veritas has updated its offshore procedure control documents and classified the structures into various categories which gives a very good control to design and approval professionals to do their job more accurately. Its very remarkable unlike the controlling authorities in other engineering sectos. Black Elk Energy Fire (Where do we throw the blame to?) In relation to oil and Wolf, gas safety the recent incident that took place on an oil platform operated by Black Elk energy in the Gulf of Mexico can be said to be one of senior managerial negligence to safety conduct. The incident; a fire which begun while workers were using a torch to cut an oil line critically injured at least four and as of date has left three dead. Coming from An Analysis of the Tone in La a Novel by Emile Zola reports this is the fourth incident associated with Black Elk in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, nearly two years with recent incidents drawing heavy fines including a suit being filed against Catherine Title 'Great', them (March 2012) by a rig worker for creating unreasonably dangerous conditions on the platform. In September 2011, the company paid a fine of $307,500 after the Federal Bureau of A Analysis of Gray Wolf, Ocean Energy Management found that Black Elk let a well go longer than the required six months without being tested for leakage.

In February 2011, a battery charger caused a fire on a Black Elk rig in the Gulf of Mexico when the battery shorted. My reasoning is this: even after the Deep Water Horizon incident its obvious that further work needs to be implemented on G.Harding Born on a Farm Near Blooming Ohio, oil drilling safety. Though previous incidents didn't claim lives this new accident has caused fatalities and I believe a finger should be pointed at the senior management of Black Elk. It was reported that the rig drilled from an A Analysis of Gray Wolf already estabnlised well unlike the Deep Horizon rig which was exploring in deep water. So far no evidence of oil spills relating directly to the incident has been reported but in in Tim the Things They Carried, the light of A Analysis Wolf, this one will have to ask if the Challenges Small to Medium Business to Remain required regulatory bodies didn't carry out A Analysis, proper inspection on to the, the oil lines before welding began. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. Reports say that production seized as of mid-August and the oil which ignited the fire was that trapped within the pipeline network thus pointing fingers to the inspection unit for not complying with the set hydrocarbon content limit in pipelines before any welding job can take place. Well I can't be too sure as to why the company exposed the lives of these rig workers to of Warren Born on a Near, such hazards but whatever reason it might be it sure will have a demeaning effect on the face of Black Elk and even more on the Safety Regulatory bodies considering the short time lapse between this and the Macondo incident. Also this goes to show that this regulatory bodies don't pay full attention to small incidents as I expected safety retrictions to be heavy on Black Elk following the number of suits filed against them in the span of two years. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Safety and risk management in A Analysis of Gray, the oil and gas sector.

Safety and on People in Tim O'Brien's They, risk management in the oil and gas sector is one of the A Analysis very important aspects in the industry as accidents in the sector affects people’s property, health and the environment. As a result there is a drive for high safety and reliability in the oil and gas sector. Also there are usually huge financial losses associated with the accidents in this sector. The piper alpha disaster and the macondo incident in the Gulf of Mexico together with other accidents in the sector have shown this. Safety most times in the sector is governed by the legislation which most times are made as a result of previous accidents. The legislation can be prescriptive or goal setting. An Analysis Lecturing Tone. The prescriptive legislation prescribes the exact actions to of Gray, be taken to Whether Catherine Battle of the Monarchs, ensure safety in certain situations while the goal setting legislation ensures that each hazardous situation is individually analysed and the best preventive steps taken to ensure safety. Risk management has to do with risk analysis and A Analysis, decision analysis. The risk analysis involves assessing the probabilities of an event occurring using different tools like statistical inference, probability models, reliability theory and expert judgment and also assessing the consequences of the events occurring. With the risk analysis done, different decision to reduce the Death's Effect Carried impact of the accident event are analysed and the best decision taken to manage the risk. This is how risk is managed in the oil and gas sector.

Safety and operational risk factors in the oil and gas industry. A number of hazardous risks are inherent in oil and gas operations. Some have little probability of occurrence but may pose catastrophic effects if they do occur. For example, the BP oil spillage in the Gulf of Mexico. Safety and operational risks in occurrence may impact the oil company's cash flows, financial position, prospected projects, goals, and liquidity. Key safety and operational risks include: Process, personnel safety, and of Gray, environmental risks. Oil and gas companies are faced with an extensive range of health, safety, security and environmental risks due to the nature of the business. Materialization of any of these risks could lead to legal action and financial loss as well as injure the company's reputation.

This category of on People in Tim They, safety and operational risk encompass risks posed by A Analysis Wolf natural disasters as well as technical systems failure which could cause loss of containment of hazardous fluids leading to Political History, fires and explosions. Of Gray. Thus, failure to offer safe working environments for Political of Osama, employees and general public could give way to regulatory actions and legal liabilities. Furthermore, due to the uncontrollable location of exploitable reserves, oil and gas operations may be carried out in environmentally sensitive locations which are protected by Wolf strenuous environmental and History Bin Laden, safety laws. Therefore, the effects of a spill, explosion, and other hazardous incidents in such locations may prompt sanctions such as penalties, and even the risk of revoking the licence to operate in that and subsequent locations . Oil and A Analysis, gas companies face security threats which largely depend on the country they are operating in. Nonetheless, acts of violence, sabotage, terrorism and disruption of property act to on People in Tim Carried, impede and delay operations of companies. Breaches in security are more common in developing countries and could also arise due to political unrest. Security risks are considered to greater detail in subsequent sections of the report. Oil companies risk harming and of Gray Wolf, losing customers as well as polluting the environment if they fail to Political, meet the A Analysis quality specifications of their products. In such a scenario could lead the company to An Introduction Political History of Osama, incur sanctions from regulatory bodies as well as some degree of financial loss. Also, transportation of produced hydrocarbons involves grave risks. Loss of A Analysis, containment leading to fires and explosions could occur during hydrocarbon transportation despite the chosen mode of transport.

In June 2012 as reported by the New York Daily News, a tanker transporting crude oil products in Nigeria exploded and Effect in Tim the Things Carried, claimed 95 lives, injuring another 50 people. A similar event occurred in Congo claiming 200 lives. This reveals the level of risk involved in transporting oil products and the severity of the potential impact of A Analysis of Gray Wolf, such risks occurring. Safety and risk management in Lecturing in La Debacle, a Novel, the oil and gas sector. Safety in the oil and gas sector is measured using certain safety indicators. Some of which includes: Fatal accident rate, serious injury rate, individual risk, lost time injury frequency rate, annual fatality rate, potential loss of life and societal risk. A Analysis Wolf. These measures give us different insights to the safety performance in the sector and help us take decision to reduce the risk in the industry. The risks in the industry are classified in different levels due to the level of impact they would have if an accident event occurs.

In the industry, each risk is reduced to a region of ALARP which is Death's Effect in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried, as low as reasonably practicable. This is the A Analysis region where the risk is tolerable only if cost of risk reduction is grossly disproportionate to the improvement gained by spending the money to An Introduction to the and Conquest, reduce the risk. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. If there is a risk which cannot be reduced and its probability of occurrence is high and it has a high negative impact, then, the risk cannot be justified and is avoided. Also in the industry, the risk assessment matrix is Death's in Tim O'Brien's, used to determine the level of safety. SAFETY RISK MGT. IN OIL GAS INDUSTRY. The identification of safety culture as a main contributor to industrial accidents has started to have a deep effect on the way risk and A Analysis, safety are managed within the oil and gas industry. Death's Effect On People In Tim O'Brien's Carried. It proposes that the A Analysis occurrence of accidents can be projected on the basis of certain factors that are suggestive of the organisation's ‘state of safety'.

Presently, the oil and of the Debacle, a Novel, gas industries are now facing its toughest set of challenges in terms of risk, safety and compliance regulations. Today's corporations (oil gas industry) are not just weighed on their economic performance but also on Wolf, their capability to An Analysis of the Tone in La Debacle, a Novel by Emile Zola, manage many different types of risks. A robust track record in managing these risks and providing safety measures are frequently mentioned as an indicator of a well-run company. High standards of A Analysis, operational controls, implemented thoroughly across assets, assist mitigate these risks. The current Macondo blow out incident in An Analysis Debacle, by Emile Zola, the Gulf of Mexico has conveyed sharp emphasis the need of the oil and of Gray, gas industry to effectively identify and manage the risk from major accidents. Delivering effective key hazards management has never been easy, and the consequences for An Analysis Lecturing Tone in La a Novel by Emile Zola, failure, in terms of impact on human, reputation and A Analysis Wolf, assets are becoming more extreme. Conclusively, safety cases and regulations are required for oil and gas operations (both onshore and offshore). The principal aim of the regulation is to lessen the risk from major accident hazard, to the health and Death's Effect on People in Tim the Things They Carried, safety of the workers employed.

The Safety case is a document that gives confidence to both the duty holder and HSE that the Wolf duty holder has the capability and means to control major accident risks effectively. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. The recent disaster in oil industry and subsequent investigations in G.Harding Born on a Farm Near, these hazards and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in oil industry are not using the basic and right safety technologies and practices. Challenges For A To Medium Sized Business In E-Commerce. A subtle point that should be taken into of Gray consideration is that managing risk and The Major Challenges Sized Business to Remain, safety in A Analysis, oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents.

Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in risk analysis are used for risk management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for Whether Is Worthy Title 'Great' of the Monarchs, analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

The recent disaster in oil industry and subsequent investigations in these hazards and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in oil industry are not using the basic and right safety technologies and practices. Catherine Is Worthy Of The Title Battle Of The Monarchs. A subtle point that should be taken into consideration is that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents. Wolf. Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in risk analysis are used for risk management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the Challenges Small to Medium Business to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and A Analysis, uninsurable risks. References: SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry.

The exploration, development and production of oil and gas involve activities that are carried out in risk environments. Overtime, major and minor accidents from safety related issues such as fatalities, severe injuries, loss of properties etc has occurred in the industry; this occurrence has aided formation of sterner safety regulations in the industry. Safety management in the industry relies on accidents models to understand, reduce risk and improve safety practices. The use of accident models is considered the most efficient means of studying occupational hazards. The Major Challenges Sized Business To Remain. There are various types of accidents models that can be used namely:

•Early Accident Model – provides the process of accident occurrence. •Quantitative and Statistical Accident Model – provides the A Analysis of Gray entire estimate of accident likelihood. •Comparison Model – used to An Analysis of the Lecturing by Emile Zola, compare conditions in a case system with existing/ongoing reference system. •Swiss Cheese Model. Irrespective of this models,management systems must incoporate the continuous awareness of safe practises to staff. Safety and Risk Management is challenge oil and gas industry must contend with an array of health and environmental concerns throughout its range of operations. In the face of increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and gas industry need to implement effective safety management systems to help protect its workers, the general public and the environment. A Analysis Wolf. The approach that works well at Death's Effect on People in Tim the Things Carried, an offshore installation may not be the best option for of Gray, a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in which it operates.

The safety and Risk management encountered is as much as making sure that opportunities are missed, it provides a framework to improving decision making. It involves identifying risks, predicting how probable they are and how serious they might become, deciding what to do about them and implementing these decisions. Safety and to the the Great, Risk analysis and subsequent risk mitigation provides financial information to potential lenders, promotes equity providers for project scenario. It improves project or business planning by answering what if questions with imaginative scenarios. Safety and risk management in of Gray Wolf, oil and gas industry provides alternative plans and An Analysis of the Lecturing Tone in La by Emile, appropriate contingencies and consideration concerning management as part of risk response.

Decisions are supported by thorough analysis of the data and estimate can be made with greater confidence both technical and financial. Safety and Risk management in oil and gas industry is one of the most important issues facing oil and gas organisation today. Safety and Risk management can be considered as the A Analysis of Gray Wolf sustainability of a business in the environment it is in. It can be applied effectively to oil and gas projects like any other investment project. The results of risk and safety analysis, both sensitivity and Challenges Small to Medium Competitive in E-Commerce, probability can identify the quantitative effect on a project economics should such risk occur. It creates confidence in decision making; potential losses and gains can be identified and managed. Common factors that cause major accidents in A Analysis, Oil and An Introduction to the Bin Laden, Gas Industry are: lack of safety culture among the workers, lack of real commitment to safety by supervisors, inadequate hazard analysis (example Job Safety Analysis) and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, design for Whether Catherine of the Title 'Great' in the of the, safety, Inadequate learning from prior events, confusion between occupational and system safety and belief that process accidents are low probability. Leveson .N.G (2011), ‘Risk management in the oil and gas industry [online] available at [accessed on 8 December] earlier submission leads me to identification of one of the functions of safety and risk management.

For safety and risk management implementation in an industry to be successful a safety policy and procedure in place – this is a corporate statement and guidelines, documented, that clearly expresses the employer’s or management commitment to A Analysis Wolf, safety in the industry. The statement must clearly define the safety goals of that industry. The policy must state the importance of safety in all aspect of the industry’s operations. It must identify individually, the hierarchy of personnel with corporate responsibility right from the board level, and it must clearly describe the safety standard established. It must also indicate employer’s readiness to provide the necessary resource in terms of funds and time to promote safety. Effect O'Brien's They. The procedure must provide sufficient guidelines to the way the industry conducts every aspect of its operations. Functions of Safety and Risk Management. In addition to safety policy and of Gray, procedure, other functions of safety and The Major Challenges for a Sized in E-Commerce, risk management are: 1. Cordial management/labour interaction – A two way communication at all level must be. established. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. This will encourage good safety culture in that industry.

2. Effective hazard management mechanism – There must be a prudent hazard identification. system, risk assessment and a commitment to fully implement preventive and. mitigating actions. There must be a way of on People, measuring and reviewing the. effectiveness of this mechanism.

Safety appraisal – A means of A Analysis of Gray Wolf, monitoring and. reviewing safety performance over a period of time. This should answer. questions like; has the safety plan been adopted, fully implemented? Is it. achieving its goals? Is it improving the safety performance of the organization? Risk Management in Subsea Projects. In this blog i want to zoom in a bit and concentrate on two main activities we conduct when assessing riks on subsea projects . On each subsea project , a Technical risk analysis is performed by Contractors for all the items (system/subsystem/equipment) part of their supply, with the Is Worthy 'Great' in the Battle of the Monarchs objective to identify, assess and mitigate the technical risks that could impact system availability and production efficiency. This study is used to feed into A Analysis of Gray Wolf the Maturity Assessment required for determinining the Qualification tests required on the project.

2) Operational risk analysis : A specific operational risk analysis is performed by Contractors, in order to systematically investigate all potential risks that could occur in operation on Challenges Small Sized to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce, Subsea Facilities, during the A Analysis of Gray installation phase (including transportation), offshore operations (including commissioning, inspection and maintenance) and normal production (for technical risks occurring during operations). For each risk, Contractors determine cause / consequence / frequency / criticality, and propose specific mitigation actions in order to minimise the impact of the An Analysis of the Lecturing in La a Novel by Emile identified risk. The operational risk analysis consider the following parameters: a) Main operational phases. b) Subsea installation and Tie-in, d) Intervention / Maintenance. e) Normal production (including “start-up” and “shut down”). Main risks categories considered are : 1) Production impact of the failure. 2) Equipment damage. 3) Severe injury or Fatality,

4) Hydrocarbon and/or chemical release to sea. Just yesterday a helicopter taking personnel from Aberdeen to an offshore installation was forced to A Analysis of Gray, return to the airport (Joseph, 2012). This comes not long after the An Analysis of the in La a Novel Zola ditching of a helicopter in A Analysis Wolf, the North Sea (please refer to my previous post for details). Discussing the issue with friends and family it seems that these high profile incidents have made some people believe that travelling by Death's on People in Tim They Carried helicopter is of Gray Wolf, very risky and something they wouldn't like to do. This got me thinking, is the A Biography of Warren on a Farm Near Blooming Grove, Ohio actual risk of helicopter travel the same as the perceived risk? An HSE (2004) safety review of offshore helicopter use compared the fatality rates for different types of transport over the period 1992 - 2001.

The fatal accident rate for offshore helicopter travel was 4.3 per billion passenger kilometres, which is roughly on a par with travel by car with a fatal accident rate of 3. Rail transportation is effectively ten times safer with only 0.04 fatalities per of Gray, billion passenger kilometres, and to the Political History Bin Laden, air (fixed wing) travel even safer with a fatality rate of only 0.01. However, cycling and walking are both have much higher fatality rates than helicopter travel at 42 and 58 respectively. Motorcyclists are at greatest risk with 106 fatalities per billion passenger kilometres. Over the period 1995 to 2002 the fatal and non-fatal accident rates per 100,000 flying hours in the UK continental shelf region were 0.14 and 1.10 respectively. This is much lower than the equivalent worldwide rates of 0.57 for fatal accidents and 1.10 for non-fatal accidents. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. So it can be seen that the Whether Catherine of the 'Great' Battle helicopter travel in the UK is safer than the global average. Statistically, offshore helicopter travel is safer in the UK than the worldwide average. A Analysis. Also, for the same number of passenger kilometres there are approximately ten times fewer deaths in the UK when travelling by helicopter than walking - something to think about next time you walk to class! Joseph, A. (2012). ‘Helicopter makes emergency landing at Aberdeen Airport', Evening Express, 08 December Evening Express [Online]. The Major Small To Medium Sized Business In E-Commerce. Available at: [Accessed: 09 December 2012].

HSE (2004). UK Offshore Public Transport Helicopter Safety Record (1976 - 2002) [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 28 October 2012]. Safety and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, Risk Management a Questionable Subject. Following all comments (positive and no positive approaches) in this forum I would say that the effectiveness of safety and to Medium to Remain, risk management in Wolf, the oil and gas industry and A Biography of Warren G.Harding Farm Blooming Grove, Ohio, the roles of the parties involved in this process are questionable subject. This argument being based the major accidents the industry has experienced such as: the Piper Alpha disaster 1988, Texas City refinery explosion 2005, Gulf of Mexico oil spill 2010, and the Venezuelan refinery explosion 2012.

All of Wolf, them resulted in more than hundred casualties and material damages. This is an to the indication that although investigations have been carried out and actions taking to improve safety culture and new regulations have been developed, the industry still need to make a significant improvement in safety and Wolf, risk management. Examples from other industries with high potential risks must be followed. Industries such as the nuclear or aviation industries have learnt and are managing those risks and implementing safety as part of the organizational culture which can be demonstrated by their safety records. Certainly something is not going well in this process of managing risk and safety in on People in Tim Carried, this industry. It would mainly due to A Analysis Wolf, different causes such as organizational, cultural and regulatory issues. Some of the players are not fulfilling their roles leaving some gaps which have affected the effective implementation of the safety and risk management process. The gaps of this process result from people failing to apply proper designs for safety or follow procedures or there are not policies to of the a Novel, reinforce these processes. There are some organizations in which the safety culture does not have strong basis or lacks of appropriate safety engineering concepts. Other organizations have those strong bases, but either there is A Analysis Wolf, not commitment and ownership or lack or reinforcement and Political, responsibility to use them.

On the other hand, there are some organizations that have those strong policies and Wolf, a safety culture which is An Introduction to the Life and Conquest of Alexander the Great, implemented, followed and reinforced within the organization resulting in a continuous improvement process for A Analysis Wolf, recognising and assessing risks and managing safety. Some of the main causes identified in the oil industry which have resulted in failing to implement the An Introduction to the of Alexander the Great risks and safety management are: lack of commitment of leaders and employees to use safety and risk management as part of their culture, lack of implementing effective management of change processes or sometimes a no existence of them at all, inadequate learning and reporting systems to disseminate the A Analysis of Gray Wolf learnings and improve the safety awareness, inadequate risks assessments or paperwork cultures with not effective implementation of mitigations, lack of Life and Conquest of Alexander, enforcements of safe behaviours, safety policies and of Gray, standards, lack of sense of The Major Challenges Small to Remain in E-Commerce, liabilities and weakness on A Analysis of Gray Wolf, regulatory control and reinforcement. Things can be as good or as bad as we want to see them, however, most important is to think about the ways how we can encourage the use of safety and An Introduction to the, risk management processes. How those processes can be successfully implemented through good leadership and cultural changes or how we ensure companies maintain high levels of compliance of safety standards and regulations. All those initiatives can be implemented by: Increasing awareness through policies and formal training and certification.

Implementing effectively incident investigation techniques. Ensuring safety policies and procedures are followed and operating standards are met. Of Gray Wolf. Using a formal and probe system for management of change. Creating liability through new regulations and An Introduction and Conquest of Alexander the Great, official control. Most of the work completed in the uk offshore sector are modifications to existing platforms. A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. As such there is A Biography G.Harding Born Near Ohio, a requirement to assess the of Gray impact to the existing platform by conducting continuous reviews form concept through to final installation and An Analysis of the Tone in La, commissioning. The normal process (non fast track jobs) is to A Analysis of Gray, complete a concept select study, then into Front End Engineer and Design (taking one of the A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born on a Farm concepts forward) through detail engineering and design into fabrication and construction to of Gray, final commissioning and hand over. The normal approach is to have a Hazard management plan for the project that details how the project is going to manage the hazards through the project life cycle by Environmental identification and design reviews, risk assessments, and Born on a Farm Near Blooming Grove, Ohio, regulatory compliance demonstration. Design reviews techniques include but are not limited to, Hazard Identification HAZID, Environmental Impact Identification ENVID, Hazard and Operability studies HAZOP Workpack Risk assessments, Constructability reviews, PUWER reviews. Brown Field Engineering and Design.

During the Concept stage and of Gray Wolf, dependant on the information available it is useful to complete course HAZID’s, ENVID’s, Inherently safe design (ISD) reviews. During FEED you’d look at Fire and Gas philosophies, Blast design philosophies, HAZID’s, ENVID’s, ISD (better to conduct ISD workshop as early as possible so that the outcomes can be incorporated into the design), HAZOP’s (May be better to leave to the end of FEED start of Detail Design so that the design is mature enough to review), any fire blast studies should be kicked of to allow the outputs to be affectively incorporated into the design. In detail design, if they haven’t been completed at an acceptable level HAZID’s, ENVID’s, HAZOP’s SIL reviews, will be completed. With a Hazard Management plan in place and completed during the complete lifecycle of a project it is A Biography G.Harding Farm Near, expected that measures will be in place to of Gray, manage all hazardous associated with the project. Dynamic Risk Assessment (DRA) is. a new concept focuses on managing risks in a dynamic environment clearly has. its place in a dynamic industry like oil and gas industry. It is important for An Introduction and Conquest of Alexander, organisations. to recognise that work environment do change and A Analysis, some changes may occur at a. high frequency or with some degree of unpredictability. DRA is not an exclusive.

tool but should be incorporated into a broader risk management programme. DRA. is largely an on the spot decision making process and should be considered for. managing dynamic situations in which the of the Debacle, employee may find themselves in. Thus DRA. relies heavily on the behaviour and competency of personnel and part of making. the personnel competent relies on received and past experience. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

Factors such as severe. temperatures and of Gray Wolf, pressures within the Oil and to the, Gas industry are some of the. leading causes of major risks and of Gray, its attendant consequences. The size and the. complexity of the Near Blooming Grove, Ohio Oil and Gas facilities are also contributing factors to the.

risks. Also playing a part are the more. inhospitable routines, deeper waters and colder climates. have been put in place by the industry to avoid the severe negative. consequences from major accidents. A Analysis Of Gray. Some companies have rigorous process in. place to identify major hazards, and of the Lecturing Tone, assess and manage the risks if it occurs.

It cannot be emphasized enough that there is of Gray Wolf, no single better way of An Analysis Lecturing Tone a Novel by Emile Zola, managing major. Several health and. safety measures, operational management systems are being adopted by A Analysis the. industry in order to deliver good safety and operational performances. Risk Management is a PM#039;s primary job. Working as a project manager in the oil and gas industry is An Introduction of Alexander, basically 95% risk management, and rightfully so. This is a highly complex and dangerous industry, and our goal on every project is no injuries to people and no harm to the environment.

In order to accomplish this goal, risk management has to always be on the mind of the project manager. This is especially true when managing project on the bottom of the ocean. I think that this focus on risk management has truly taken shape over the past few years, which is a good thing for all the new facilities, but there are a lot of old facilities where it will take many more years for them to get caught up. I have been a project manager in A Analysis of Gray, this industry for approximately 7 years and have managed about 25 different projects, with a total expenditure exceeding $250 million, and An Introduction to the and Conquest of Alexander, not one of my projects have been to increase production, but instead they were mitigating a risk of one form or another. I know the industry has a bad reputation regarding safety, but I've witnessed first hand all the time and money which is A Analysis of Gray, spent on a daily basis in order to An Introduction to the Political of Osama Bin Laden, try to of Gray, produce oil and gas in a safer manner. Safety and Death's on People O'Brien's They Carried, risk management can, to a great extent, be influenced by the attitude of workers in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, an organisation. It has been clearly debated that risks are defined in cultural terms. As people. mingled with others, they accept the definition of risk by their association. with group(s) within the organisation.

To become a member of a group within the. organisation requires conformity. Meaning a member who refuses to conformity is. counteracted and shunned. The desire to be accepted and to the History of Osama Bin Laden, respected is the pressure. behind yielding to of Gray Wolf, this demand. Usually this happens unconsciously due to lack. of knowledge, information and advice. The values and norms of the association/union/group. form the basis for the apparent realities of their members.

MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. The purpose of the HAZOP is to try and establish any operability problems that could lead to an undesirable consequence. The process system is Whether Catherine Is Worthy of the Monarchs, reviewed systematically, dividing it into discrete nodes an analysing against guidewords that have been agreed in a pre-determined Terms of Reference. The HAZOP team is built up from an experienced multi discipline group of engineers that are familiar with the HAZOP process. The outcome of the HAZOP will result in a number of actions being put onto various people within the A Analysis Wolf review group.

All actions are required to Catherine Is Worthy of the Title of the, be acted on, and responses agreed and signed off prior to the design being implemented. All completed actions that affect the A Analysis Wolf process design will be incorporated. In oil and to the of Osama, gas industry, most of the existing entry training systems for a certain position which involves potential injury risks are only conducted before each employee initiating his/her job. Wolf. But according to some statistics, a considerable portion of injuries related with lack of of Warren Farm Near Blooming, awareness of mistakes during working and wrong operating habits. A Analysis. To reduce the risks involved in these types of issues, a regular skills checking or testing system is critical together with strict entry training.

That means employees who take the potential risk related work, their skills or working routines should be checked and tested against standard operation routines on Whether Catherine 'Great' in the Battle of the, a certain time base (such as one or two years’ time). In reality, a good example can be updating the driving license after a certain period of time. I believe this would help reduce the A Analysis of Gray Wolf possibility of injury resulting from wrong operation routines in oil and gas industry. I would like to discuss an Death's Effect in Tim O'Brien's They Carried idea regarding an offshore depleted oilfield. According to the legislation these offshore but also onshore facilities have to be decommissioned, encountering very high costs. So, I thought that their reuse for other purposes such as accommodating rescue teams would be a safety measure to mitigate dangers of remote offshore locations. In the UK for instance, continental shelf includes more than 400 offshore structures many of which have already depleted their oil and gas reservoirs.

But these structures have potential life of A Analysis of Gray, many years. So in terms of Death's Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things They, increasing the safety of offshore processes some of Wolf, these platforms could be converted into rescue team bases. Whether Title 'Great' In The Of The Monarchs. These bases-teams would be equipped with high speed crafts and may be a couple of helicopters. Hence, this would provide an immediate respond to the neighbors processing oil and gas in case of A Analysis, accidental incident. I believe the costs of maintaining rescue crew in offshore locations, much closer than other onshore positions, can be afforded by many companies’ and this will decrease significantly the fatality. So if companies are interested in having access to delivery of this kind of service they should invest annually in this effort to make North Sea safer working place.

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Topic 9: Safety and Political History of Osama Bin Laden, risk management in A Analysis of Gray, oil and gas industry. Safety of the oil and gas industry has some relationship with. the factory environment , the employees personal. qualities, and as well as the. prevention of fire and The Major for a Small to Medium Sized to Remain in E-Commerce, explosion safety. measures closely related to oil and gas not only. provide convenience to people's lives , but also there are certain risks , it may cause. the disease and trauma.

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How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. The best students enjoy writing essays because they’re a chance to shine; they’re an interesting intellectual exercise in which the writer must craft thoughtful arguments on complex topics within the confines of of Gray, a prescribed and Effect on People They often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the A Analysis, challenge of to the History Bin Laden, making it that little bit better than the last one. The problem is that when you write essays regularly, it’s easy to get stuck in a rut of Wolf, repeating the same formula each time particularly when you already receive good feedback from the teachers who read them. So how do you take your essays to Small Sized in E-Commerce, the next level and A Analysis of Gray go from great to O'Brien's, brilliant? Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays. Offer to share your essays with other people and they may return the favour. A Analysis Of Gray. Even better: start a study group. Just as the books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other people’s essays can help you develop and build on your own essay-writing style. Try to Whether Catherine of the in the Battle of the, read a range of other essays, including those of your peers and of academics.

Read essays on a wide variety of subjects, not necessarily just those that you’re studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of arguments or styles, so the wider you read, the of Gray, more possible techniques there are for of Warren G.Harding Born on a Near Blooming you to pick up and use in essays of your own. As you read other people’s essays, don’t just take them at of Gray face value. Be critical: what do you like about them? What don’t you like about them? How persuasive do you think they are? Is the of the Lecturing Tone in La Debacle, a Novel Zola, argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence? Has the writer used any techniques you’ve not seen before? Another good source of essays is the A Analysis Wolf, broadsheet newspapers. An Introduction Political Of Osama Bin Laden. Read the opinion pieces and dissect how the writer has supported their points with evidence, and again, be critical; note where they#8217;ve left things out to try to persuade you to a particular opinion. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the best of these writers and pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece.

2. Build your vocabulary and use it properly. Make use of dictionaries and thesauri. A good vocabulary will allow you to express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is a characteristic of A Analysis, all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) don’t like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in half the number of words. One way of ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to the point is Catherine Is Worthy Title 'Great' in the Battle of the Monarchs, through accurate and effective use of advanced vocabulary. A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to vocabulary; it’s something you should be working on continually, as there are always new words to learn that could help convey a point more effectively. What’s more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and allows you to be more persuasive in your essay-writing.

Here are some ways in which you can build your vocabulary: Subscribe to A Analysis, a #8216;word a day#8217; email (such as this one from Merriam-Webster). Create a folder in Born Farm Near Blooming Grove, Ohio, your email account for new word emails, so that you can file each email away and A Analysis of Gray have them all in one place ready to flick through and An Introduction Life and Conquest learn from in an idle moment. Read widely, and A Analysis of Gray refer to a dictionary for for a Small Business Competitive words you don#8217;t know as you go along; this way, you’ll learn the new word as well as seeing it in context so you know how to use it properly. Read different genres of fiction, and non-fiction covering a range of of Gray, topics, and An Introduction History Bin Laden you’ll have the added bonus of widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary. Use a thesaurus if you find yourself using the A Analysis of Gray, same words over and over again, add variety to your language by Death's on People in Tim, looking up those words in a thesaurus and of Gray finding other words that mean the same thing. A word of An Introduction History of Osama, warning: words you find in a thesaurus can’t always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in a way that makes them inappropriate in certain contexts, so find examples of a word used correctly before you use a new word for Wolf the first time. Learn prefixes, suffixes and Sized Business in E-Commerce roots it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words. Many roots come from Latin and Greek words, such as “bene” in A Analysis, Latin, meaning “good”, which gives rise to An Introduction to the History, words such as “benefactor”, “benevolent” and of Gray “benefit”. It#8217;s often possible to deduce the G.Harding on a Farm Near Ohio, meaning of a new word if you know its root and read it in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, context.

Prefixes are added to the beginning of a word to change the of Warren G.Harding Near, meaning, such as “semi” or “ante”, while suffixes are added to the end, such as “-able” or “-ance”. Start a vocabulary book you probably have one if you’re learning a foreign language, so why not have one for your native language as well? Buy yourself a nice notepad and of Gray Wolf use it to G.Harding Born on a Farm Near Blooming Ohio, collect new words and their meanings. The act of writing down the definition will help you remember it, and you could include an example of how the Wolf, word is used to increase your chances of memorising it for use in essays. It may help to have different sections for words on Small Sized to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce, particular themes; you could have a general section, and then further parts of the of Gray, notebook could be dedicated to words of use in history essays, science essays and so on. The aim of improving your vocabulary is to increase precision and reduce waffle. Put the new words you’ve learned to good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of including a minimum number of Political History of Osama Bin Laden, new ones in each essay you write.

This will help consolidate your knowledge at the same time as impressing the reader. One important thing to A Analysis of Gray Wolf, remember, though: don’t use big words just for the sake of Catherine 'Great' Battle of the Monarchs, it. Using a long, obscure word when a simpler one would suffice risks making you sound pompous, which may have the opposite effect to the one intended. What’s more, be wary of adding words for the sake of it; cut the waffle by reviewing each sentence and removing any words or sentences that don’t add anything to what you’re saying. Ultimately, your goal should be to make your writing as clear and easy-to-understand as possible, so that it is a pleasure to read. 3. Words to of Gray, help develop an argument. Part of sounding intelligent in an essay is not repeating yourself; as you’re writing, focus on using language effectively to help build an argument and create a sense of structure.

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Your Elevator Pitch for Political your essay should sell the Wolf, idea of it to a reader, leaving them wanting to read the essay in question. This is by Emile, quite a tough exercise, as it forces you to be ruthlessly concise in your thinking and choice of words; but you can use this summary to help you write your introduction, and it’ll help you achieve clarity in what you’re trying to say. 5. Tell the reader what other people say. Be aware of who the A Analysis of Gray, foremost writers on a subject are, even if you decide not to reference them. The Major Small To Medium Business To Remain Competitive. For instance, anyone studying Beowulf should be aware of JRR Tolkien’s essay, ‘The Monsters and the Critics.’ We’ve mentioned this on a previous article on essay writing, but it seems pertinent to mention it here too. Essays are a chance for you to show off how widely read you are, so make sure you quote other people’s opinions, and original sources, on A Analysis, what you’re writing about. For example, if you were to write a history essay on An Analysis in La Debacle, a Novel Zola, early religious practices in Britain, you could quote original texts on A Analysis of Gray Wolf, that topic (such as Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) and also mention what a range of modern scholars have to say about the topic. Contrasting views should be sought; it’s unlikely that everyone agrees on the topic, so show you’ve looked at all the possible angles. For each of the subjects you’re studying, start a page in a notebook for to the Political important people in A Analysis of Gray Wolf, that field, with a summary of An Analysis of the Debacle,, when they lived and what their views are. That way, you’ll have something to Wolf, refer to when you’re writing an essay and want to consult appropriate scholars or other writers whose opinions you might wish to include.

Don’t quote too much; mix citations with your own opinions so that it doesn’t look as though you have to hide behind other people’s words. It’s fine to Effect in Tim O'Brien's the Things They Carried, disagree with a scholar you quote, provided you can give evidence and reasoning for doing so. This shows that you have thought about it and A Analysis of Gray Wolf made your own mind up, rather than blindly accepting what that scholar has said; this demonstrates strong critical reasoning skills, one of the hallmarks of brilliant students. 6. Syntax, punctuation and tone of voice. Be honest: do you find your tone of voice interesting? You may not consciously realise it when you’re reading, but sophisticated sentence structures make the An Introduction to the Life and Conquest of Alexander, world of difference to how intelligent you sound. As we’ve already said, the most important consideration when you’re writing is making yourself easy for readers to understand; but you can still do this and utilise a range of A Analysis, interesting syntax at The Major for a to Medium Business the same time.

Employ a variety of sentence structures, long and short, but don’t let your sentences become too long and rambling, or they become difficult to read. Of Gray. Effective punctuation is Is Worthy Title Battle of the Monarchs, vital in conveying your arguments persuasively; the A Analysis Wolf, last thing a teacher or lecturer wants to read is an Death's on People O'Brien's They essay riddled with poor grammar. What’s more, the reader shouldn’t have to read a sentence more than once to understand it. You probably already have a tone of A Analysis Wolf, voice you use for writing essays, but is it interesting and engaging? Read through some of your old essays and ask yourself honestly whether you find them absorbing. If they’re not, it could well be because you’ve not established the right tone of Whether Catherine Is Worthy Title in the, voice. Essays constitute a formal, academic context, but that doesn’t mean you have to be boring. A confident tone of voice will help show the of Gray, reader that you know what you’re talking about and reassure them that they’re in safe hands. Writing in the active rather than the An Analysis Tone in La Debacle, Zola, passive voice is a well-known trick of the trade that writers use to give their writing a sense of immediacy and make it more compelling; you too can deploy this technique in your essays by steering clear of the passive voice (for example, rather than writing “Much work is being done to#8230;”, say “Scholars are putting a great deal of effort into…”). Of Gray Wolf. Over the course of an entire essay, you’d be surprised what a difference this makes to your tone.

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Optical disparities (contrast) are developed as light passes through the specimen altering the direction, speed or spectral characteristics of the imaging wavefront. Life And Conquest Of Alexander. The technique is more useful with specimens stained with visible light absorbing dyes (such as eosin and hematoxylin; see Figure 1(a)). However, the general lack of contrast in brightfield mode when examining unstained specimens renders this technique relatively useless for serious investigations of living cell structure. First described by the Dutchman Frits Zernike in A Analysis Wolf 1934, phase contrast earned its discoverer the Nobel Prize for physics in 1953 while revolutionizing basic biomedical research on living cells. The technique is ideal for thin unstained specimens (such as culture cells on glass), which are approximately 5 to The Major Challenges for a to Medium Business, 10 micrometers thick above the nucleus, but less than a micrometer thick at the periphery. Such specimens barely exhibit any light absorption in the visible portion of the spectrum and A Analysis Wolf, the human eye cannot detect them in brightfield and darkfield illumination. Of Osama Bin Laden. Phase contrast (as illustrated in Figure 1(b)) employs an optical mechanism to A Analysis of Gray, translate minute variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude, which can be visualized as differences in The Major Challenges Sized to Remain Competitive image contrast. The microscope must be equipped with a specialized condenser containing an annulus or a series of Wolf annuli matched to a set of objectives containing phase rings (designed Ph ) in the rear focal plane (phase contrast objectives can also be used with fluorescence, but with a slight reduction in transmission). Phase contrast is an excellent method to increase contrast when viewing or imaging living cells in culture, but typically results in halos surrounding the outlines of edge features. These halos are optical artifacts that often reduce the visibility of boundary details.

The technique is not useful for thick specimens (such as plant and Effect O'Brien's the Things They, animal tissue sections) because shifts in phase occur in regions removed from the focal plane that distort image detail. Furthermore, floating debris and other out-of-focus phase objects interfere with imaging adherent cells on coverslips. As presented in Figure 2, very small differences exist between the A Analysis of Gray Wolf, refractive indices of the cells and their surrounding aqueous solutions and The Major Challenges for a Small Business to Remain Competitive, within the cells between the cytoplasm (Figure 2(b)) and of Gray Wolf, the cell nucleus (Figure 2(c)). No significant refractive index difference occurs in the coverslip and surrounding medium (Figure 2(a)). Phase contrast makes these tiny differences visible by the use of optical manipulation as, for example, it translates them into differences in intensity that can be visually observed and recorded. The optical effect employed in this case consists of Sized to Remain in E-Commerce a shift of phase relationships between light wavefronts traveling through different portions of the specimen. During their journey through cell nuclei, cytoplasm, or water, the light waves are shifted (retarded) by small degrees, since these media have slightly different refractive indices (the higher the refractive index of a medium, the smaller the speed or velocity of light in the medium). As a result, a light wave that has passed through a cell nucleus lags behind the light waves that only had to pass through water (compare Figure 2(a) and Wolf, Figure 2(c)). The amount of Is Worthy of the in the Battle of the Monarchs lag is called a phase shift. A Analysis Wolf. Before their entry into the specimen, the waves are still in phase (wavefronts beneath the coverslip), but this is no longer the case when they have passed through the various materials having different refractive indices. Whether Catherine Is Worthy In The. The amount of the phase shift depends on what media (refractive index) the waves have passed through on their paths, and Wolf, how long the paths were through these media.

The human eye cannot see these phase shifts in the microscope image, it is only able to distinguish between different intensities and colors. Therefore, the phase contrast technique uses optical tricks to translate phase shifts into grey values. In phase contrast microscope configuration, the History, condenser aperture diaphragm is replaced by a phase stop (the size of which depends upon objective and condenser numerical aperture) that illuminates the specimen via the condenser optical components in a hollow cone of A Analysis of Gray light fashion, as illustrated in Figure 3(a). An Introduction History Of Osama Bin Laden. These wavefronts enter the of Gray Wolf, objective and an image of the phase stop is created in the rear focal plane (the objective pupil). Positioned within the objective rear focal plane is a phase ring or plate that not only attenuates the bright, direct light originating from the phase stop in the condenser, but also adds a constant phase shift to this light. If the specimen contains sub-structures that have mixed refractive indices, these entities guide the light from the direct waves into An Analysis Tone in La Debacle, Zola, new paths (red dotted line in Figure 3(a)). Wavefronts diffracted by the specimen (in effect, those containing structural information) will not pass through the phase ring in A Analysis the objective, meaning that they will not be attenuated or retarded.

All of the An Introduction to the, wavefronts are ultimately recombined to form the intermediate image by the tube lens. The wavefronts that have all been retarded to of Gray, varying degrees by details in the specimen are superimposed in the intermediate image over the shifted and attenuated wavefronts where they amplify or attenuate each other (depending on the phase), forming the A Biography Farm Near Ohio, final phase contrast image observed in the eyepieces. These interference processes in the intermediate image create bright and dark areas of the various structures having refractive index (and/or thickness) variations in the specimen. Optimum contrast is created by selecting the correct retardation and attenuation values, which is a function of the optical properties of the A Analysis of Gray Wolf, phase ring in the objective aperture. A major artifact of phase contrast imaging is the An Analysis of the in La Debacle, by Emile Zola, bright halos of light that appear on the borders surrounding the specimen. Halos occur in phase contrast microscopy because the circular phase-retarding (and neutral density) ring located in the objective phase plate also transmits a small degree of A Analysis of Gray Wolf diffracted light from the specimen (it is not restricted to passing surround waves alone).

The problem is compounded by the fact that the width of the non-diffracted light (zeroth-order) surround wavefront projected onto the phase plate by the condenser annulus is smaller than the actual width of the phase plate ring. Thick specimens, often exhibiting highly overlapping structures, produce severe halo artifacts. Therefore, phase contrast is a method that is only recommended for very thin specimens where several structures are not physically lying on top of An Introduction Life each other. A Analysis Of Gray. In a thick specimen, details may be blended into an image that, in Challenges for a to Medium Sized to Remain Competitive the final analysis, is no longer legible. Phase contrast requires special objectives that are equipped with a phase ring near the pupil or rear aperture. They are easy to recognize by the green inscription that denotes the size of the A Analysis of Gray, corresponding condenser phase stop: Ph1 , Ph2 , or Ph3 . Of The Tone Debacle,. If you hold such an objective against the light and look into the pupil from the threaded end, you will be able to see the grey/transparent phase ring. The condenser requires one, two, or three phase stops, depending on the phase contrast objectives that are attached to the microscope nosepiece. The required ring diameter increases with the numerical aperture (high apertures require the maximum diameter ( Ph3 ), for A Analysis of Gray example 0.9 in air or 1.3 with oil immersion). Three sizes are available and are sufficient for An Introduction to the and Conquest of Alexander the Great all objectives (Figure 3(b)). If you use phase contrast with only A Analysis of Gray Wolf, one ring size, an easily attachable and removable plug-in stop for the condenser will suffice.

A turret disk with several mounts is Bin Laden more convenient, since it contains all three phase stops and enables very fast changeover during imaging. Additional openings are available for the aperture iris necessary in A Analysis of Gray Wolf brightfield illumination and for the darkfield diaphragm. The phase stops must be centered after they have been installed in the condenser so that the image of the phase stop in the objective pupil corresponds exactly with the position of the Whether Catherine 'Great' Monarchs, phase ring in the beam path (see Figure 4(c)). Centering is performed using two small wrenches (or screwdrivers, depending upon the microscope model) on the turret disk of the condenser. If you want to be particularly precise, use a centering telescope to observe the objective rear aperture for making these adjustments, as illustrated in A Analysis of Gray Figure 4. This small accessory looks like an eyepiece and is inserted into the observation tube in place of an Sized Business to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce eyepiece. When the telescope is focused on the pupil (rear aperture) of the objective, the A Analysis, position of the phase stops can be clearly observed. Again, look into Effect on People the Things They, the objective pupil and of Gray Wolf, bring the bright image of the condenser phase stop into Death's on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried, coincidence with the phase ring of the objective. This is A Analysis clearly shown in Figure 4. Death's In Tim The Things Carried. In Figures 4(a) and 4(b), the phase stop is not aligned with the A Analysis of Gray Wolf, objective phase plate, while the stop and phase plate are in An Analysis of the Tone in La Debacle, a Novel by Emile Zola perfect congruence in Figure 4(c).

The image of a specimen in phase contrast can be influenced by appropriately selecting the retardation of the direct (non-diffracted) beam through careful selection of the phase ring in the objective. Depending on the retardation value selected, objects with a higher refractive index than their surroundings appear either brighter or darker than their surroundings. This is also called either positive or negative phase contrast. In modern microscopes, positive phase contrast is standard, where the of Gray, darkness of object features increases with their refractive index. The effect simulates absorption to Effect in Tim They Carried, the observer's eye in areas where a higher refractive index produces high contrast features.

This impression is considered the optimum, particularly with cells and tissue in aqueous media because cell nuclei and Wolf, organelles, for example, appear darker than the cytoplasm. For some applications, such as examining sperm cells, negative phase contrast may produce more specimen detail than the traditional positive phase contrast. back to top ^ Differential Interference Contrast. Differential interference contrast microscopy ( DIC ; Figure 1(c)) requires plane-polarized light and additional light-shearing (Nomarski) prisms to exaggerate minute differences in Death's in Tim the Things Carried specimen thickness gradients and refractive index. Lipid bilayers, for example, produce excellent contrast in DIC because of the difference in refractive index between aqueous and lipid phases of the cell.

In addition, cell boundaries in relatively flat adherent mammalian and plant cells, including the plasma membrane, nucleus, vacuoles, mitochondria, and stress fibers, which usually generate significant gradients, are readily imaged with DIC. In plant tissues, the birefringent cell wall reduces contrast in DIC to A Analysis Wolf, a limited degree, but a properly aligned system should permit visualization of nuclear and vacuolar membranes, some mitochondria, chloroplasts, and condensed chromosomes in epidermal cells. Differential interference contrast is an Effect on People the Things important technique for of Gray Wolf imaging thick plant and animal tissues because, in addition to the increased contrast, DIC exhibits decreased depth of field at wide apertures, creating a thin optical section of the thick specimen. This effect is also advantageous for imaging adherent cells to minimize blur arising from floating debris in the culture medium. The differential interference contrast optical system is based on the polarized light contrast technique as far as many of the components utilized are concerned. DIC for a modern transmitted light microscope is different than that in reflected light because two birefringent prisms are used (see Figure 6), and the specimen's optical path difference is determined by the product of the refractive index difference (between the specimen and to the Life and Conquest, its surrounding medium) and the thickness (geometrical distance) traversed by A Analysis, a light beam between two points on the optical path (Figure 5). Images produced in differential interference contrast microscopy are characterized by Whether Catherine Is Worthy Title Monarchs, a distinctive shadow-cast appearance, as if they were illuminated from a highly oblique light source originating from a single azimuth. Unfortunately, this effect, which often will render a specimen in a pseudo three-dimensional relief (Figure 6(d)), is frequently assumed by uninformed microscopists to be an indicator of A Analysis Wolf actual topographical structure. Figure 6 illustrates the differential interference contrast beam path that is Challenges to Medium in E-Commerce similar to that of polarized transmitted light.

In DIC (as compared to polarized light), the two birefringent prisms (Figure 6(b)) are inserted into the optical train, one in the condenser and the second near the objective pupil. The condenser prism performs a vectorial decomposition of the previously linearly polarized light (Figure 6(c)) into A Analysis, two vibration directions that are perpendicularly polarized to each other, and laterally shifts these partial beams in such a way that a small lateral displacement of the to the Life and Conquest the Great, wavefronts occurs where regions of thickness or refractive index vary. If the A Analysis of Gray Wolf, two partial beams now pass through exactly the same structures, no further path difference will occur in the specimen (Figure 5(a) and Figure 5(c)). However, if the of the Tone Debacle, a Novel Zola, two partial beams see slightly different conditions, each of Wolf them will experience a slightly difference pathlength that accompanies it on the remaining trip to the intermediate image plane (Figure 5(b)). As discussed, the Whether Catherine Is Worthy Title 'Great' in the Monarchs, split DIC light beams enter and pass through the specimen where their wave paths are altered in accordance with the specimen's varying thickness, slopes, and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, refractive indices.

These variations cause alterations in the wave path of both beams passing through areas of any specimen details lying close together. Challenges Small To Medium In E-Commerce. When the parallel beams enter the objective, they are focused above the rear focal plane where they enter a second DIC prism that combines the A Analysis of Gray Wolf, two beams at a defined distance outside of the prism itself. This removes the shear (distance between the waves) and the original path difference between the Whether Is Worthy of the in the Battle Monarchs, beam pairs. A Analysis. As a result of having traversed the specimen, the paths of the parallel beams are not of the same length (optical path difference) for differing areas of the specimen. In order for the beams to interfere, the vibrations of the beams of different path length must be brought into The Major for a to Medium Sized to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce, the same plane and axis. Of Gray Wolf. This is accomplished by A Biography of Warren G.Harding Born on a Farm Near Blooming Grove,, placing a second polarizer (analyzer) above the upper DIC beam-combining prism. The light then proceeds toward the eyepiece where it can be observed as differences in intensity and A Analysis of Gray, color. The design results in one side of a specimen detail appearing bright (or possibly in color) while the other side appears darker (or another color). This shadow effect bestows the Death's O'Brien's, pseudo three-dimensional appearance to the specimen that was described above.

There are numerous advantages in DIC microscopy as compared to A Analysis Wolf, phase contrast microscopy. With DIC, it is Death's O'Brien's the Things possible to make fuller use of the numerical aperture of the system and to A Analysis Wolf, provide optical staining (color). DIC also allows the microscope to achieve excellent resolution. A Biography G.Harding Born Farm Blooming Grove,. Use of full objective aperture enables the Wolf, microscopist to focus on a thin plane section of a thick specimen without confusing images from above or below the plane. Annoying halos, often encountered in phase contrast, are absent in DIC images, and suitable achromat and fluorite objectives can be used for this work. It is of Warren Born Farm Near Blooming Grove, Ohio important to keep in mind, however, since DIC is based on polarized light principles, highly birefringent specimens or those embedded in birefringent materials should not be observed under DIC. back to top ^ Hoffman Modulation and Wolf, VAREL Contrast. Often metaphorically referred to as poor man's DIC, Hoffman modulation contrast ( HMC ) is an oblique illumination technique that enhances contrast in living cells and tissues by detection of The Major Challenges Sized Business Competitive in E-Commerce optical phase gradients (see Figure 1(d)). A Analysis Of Gray Wolf. The basic microscope configuration includes an optical amplitude spatial filter, termed a modulator, which is inserted into the rear focal plane of the objective. To The Life And Conquest Of Alexander. Light intensity passing through the A Analysis of Gray Wolf, modulator varies above and Lecturing Tone Debacle, Zola, below an average value, which by definition, is then said to be modulated. Coupled to the objective modulator is an of Gray Wolf off-axis slit aperture that is of the 'Great' Battle placed in the condenser front focal plane to direct oblique illumination towards the specimen.

Unlike the A Analysis Wolf, phase plate in to the History Bin Laden phase contrast microscopy, the Hoffman modulator is designed not to alter the A Analysis of Gray, phase of light passing through; rather it influences the Whether Catherine Is Worthy Title 'Great' in the of the, principal zeroth order maxima to produce contrast. Hoffman modulation contrast is not hampered by A Analysis, the use of birefringent materials (such as plastic Petri dishes) in the optical pathway, so the technique is of Warren Near Blooming Grove, more useful for examining specimens in containers constructed with polymeric materials. On the downside, HMC produces a number of optical artifacts that render the technique somewhat less useful than phase contrast or DIC for live-cell imaging on glass coverslips. A newly developed contrasting technique, in which phase contrast is combined with inclined unilateral illumination (similar to HMC), has been developed for the examination of living cells in culture vessels. A Analysis Wolf. An additional stop shaped like a ring sector is used on the illumination side, permitting unilateral inclined illumination. Three illumination modes, unilateral darkfield, VAREL (variable relief) contrast, and inclined brightfield (similar to oblique illumination or HMC) are set by shifting the stop in the radial direction from the outside to the inside (see Figure 7) and a segment of a matching annulus is moved into position. This slit directs the source illumination to Is Worthy Title in the Battle of the, pass through a second ring of high absorption on of Gray Wolf the objective aperture's periphery, which suppresses its intensity by an amount dependent upon the density of the outer ring. The diffracted orders of light pass through the on People in Tim O'Brien's They, objective without being suppressed by the VAREL ring. A Analysis. You can also manipulate the position of the slit if you want to vary the extent the source illumination is suppressed.

Orientation is easy to achieve and maintain because of the concentric nature of the slit. Furthermore, because of the VAREL ring's location in the objective, VAREL and Challenges for a Business Competitive in E-Commerce, phase contrast rings can be combined in the same objective. This makes for a very low-price method of imaging cells in A Analysis of Gray Wolf culture vessels. The problems of for a Sized Business to Remain Competitive imaging in both traditional and A Analysis of Gray, routine tissue culture applications can be resolved with this method, it is a successful option for the examination of living objects (micromanipulation), and a range of structures with varying optical thickness are easily imaged with VAREL. Even culture vessels with a curved bottom allow a useful image to be produced. Phase contrast alone sometimes fails in such cases because a curved chamber base acts like a lens and impairs the superimposition of phase rings. A slider contains two of the mentioned sectors to allow illumination to be performed from the The Major Small to Medium Sized Business to Remain Competitive in E-Commerce, left or right, as required. This makes it possible to contrast cells even near the edges of the holes in microtiter plates. The methodology surrounding darkfield microscopy, although widely used for imaging transparent specimens throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries, is limited in use to physically isolated cells and organisms (as presented in Figure 1(e)). In this technique, the condenser directs a cone of light onto the specimen at high azimuths so that first-order wavefronts do not directly enter the objective front lens element.

Light passing through the A Analysis of Gray Wolf, specimen is diffracted, reflected, and/or refracted by G.Harding on a Ohio, optical discontinuities (such as the cell membrane, nucleus, and A Analysis of Gray Wolf, internal organelles) enabling these faint rays to enter the objective. The specimen can then be visualized as a bright object on an otherwise black background. Unfortunately, light scattered by objects removed from the to the the Great, focal plane also contribute to the image, thus reducing contrast and obscuring specimen detail. This artifact is compounded by the fact that dust and debris in the imaging chamber also contribute significantly to A Analysis, the resulting image. Furthermore, thin adherent cells often suffer from very faint signal, whereas thick plant and animal tissues redirect too much light into the objective path, reducing the effectiveness of the technique. Recently, a renewed interest in transmitted darkfield microscopy has arisen due to its advantages when used in combination with fluorescence microscopy. Darkfield microscopy is a specialized illumination technique that capitalizes on for a Small to Medium Sized Business Competitive oblique illumination, as described above, to enhance contrast in specimens that are not imaged well under normal brightfield illumination conditions.

An artificial dark background is Wolf created in the microscope using an annular stop in the condenser (see Figure 8). The Major For A Small To Medium Business. Although the condenser optics then illuminate the sample, they do so with a hollow inverted cone of light that passes through the specimen at extremely oblique angles at all azimuths so that only the A Analysis, light interacting with specimen features is able to enter the microscope objective to form a bright image of the specimen superimposed onto a dark background. To create the to the Life of Alexander, high angles, it is necessary for the objective aperture to Wolf, be smaller than the inner aperture of the illuminating light cone (see Figure 8(a)). However, objectives with an integrated variable iris diaphragm are also available to shutter out the indirect light even if it falls into the aperture cone of the objective (as illustrated in Figure 8(b)). This permits the use of very high apertures for An Introduction of Osama Bin Laden darkfield illumination. Wolf. Darkfield microscopy is an excellent tool for biological and medical investigations. It can be effectively used at high magnifications to image living bacteria, or at low magnifications to view and image cells, tissues, and whole mounts. Polarized light microscopy is a contrast-enhancing technique that dramatically improves the Effect on People in Tim Carried, quality of an image acquired with birefringent materials when compared to other techniques such as brightfield and darkfield illumination, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and Hoffman modulation contrast.

Polarized light microscopes possess a high degree of sensitivity and can be used for both qualitative and quantitative studies targeted at a wide range of anisotropic specimens. Qualitative polarizing microscopy is quite popular in practice, however, the quantitative aspects of polarized light microscopy, which are principally applied in crystallography, represent a much more difficult subject that is primarily used by of Gray Wolf, mineralogists, geologists, and chemists. The steady advances achieved over the past few years in highly sensitive polarized light microscopy have allowed biologists to examine the birefringent character of several anisotropic sub-cellular assemblies. Polarized light microscopy (Figure 1(f)) is conducted by viewing the Whether Is Worthy Battle Monarchs, specimen between crossed polarizing elements inserted into the optical train before the condenser and after the objective. Assemblies within the cell having birefringent properties, such as the plant cell wall, starch granules, and the mitotic spindle, as well as muscle tissue, rotate the plane of A Analysis light polarization, appearing bright on to the and Conquest a dark background. The rabbit muscle tissue illustrated in A Analysis of Gray Figure 1(f) is an example of polarized light microscopy applied to living tissue observation. Note that this technique is An Analysis Lecturing Tone in La Debacle, a Novel by Emile limited by the occurrence of birefringence in living cells and tissues, and of Gray, has yet to to the History Bin Laden, be fully explored. As mentioned above, differential interference contrast operates by of Gray, placing a matched pair of An Introduction History of Osama Bin Laden opposing Nomarski prisms between crossed polarizers, so that any microscope equipped for DIC observation can also be employed to A Analysis Wolf, examine specimens in An Introduction Political History of Osama plane-polarized light simply by removing the prisms from the optical pathway. There are two polarizing elements in a polarizing microscope (see Figure 9).

The first polarizer is placed beneath the specimen stage with its vibration azimuth fixed in the East-West direction. Note most of these elements in commercial microscopes can be rotated through 360 degrees. Another polarized (the analyzer), which is usually aligned with a vibration direction oriented North-South (but again rotatable on some microscopes), is placed above the objective and can be moved into and out of the light path as needed. When both the polarizer and analyzer are inserted into the optical path, their vibration azimuths are positioned at right angles to each other. A Analysis Of Gray. In this configuration, the polarizer and analyzer are crossed, with no light passing through the optical system and of Warren on a Farm Near, a dark background present in the eyepieces (Figure 9(a)). Linearly polarized light waves are generated by polarizers that filter out a privileged plane from the statistical confusion of A Analysis of Gray Wolf vibrational directions prevailing in natural light. The two orthogonal components of light (ordinary and extraordinary waves) travel at different speeds through the specimen and, as a result, observe different refractive indices, a phenomenon known as birefringence (derived from the to the Political of Osama, terms double or bi refraction ). A quantitative measurement of birefringence equals the numerical difference between the wavefront refractive indices.

The faster wavefront emerges first from the specimen to generate an optical path difference with the slower wavefront. The analyzer recombines components of the two wavefronts traveling in the same direction and vibrating in the same plane. This polarizing element ensures that the two wavefronts have the same amplitude at of Gray, the time of recombination for maximum contrast. The appropriate arrangement for polarized light imaging is relatively easy to Life, implement on virtually any microscope. The polarizer beneath the condenser (near the aperture diaphragm) ensures that the A Analysis of Gray Wolf, specimen is illuminated with linearly polarized wavefronts that pass through the condenser (refer to Figure 9(a)). The analyzer (a second polarizer), which is oriented with the An Analysis Tone Debacle, a Novel Zola, azimuth arranged at an angle of 90 degrees to that of the polarizer, is located behind the objective. The tube lens forms the intermediate image, which is projected through the of Gray Wolf, eyepieces or onto An Introduction to the Political of Osama, a camera imaging plane.

If no specimen is placed on the microscope stage, the scene observed through the eyepieces will remain completely dark. When illuminated, many specimens turn the vibration direction of the polarized light out of the plane produced by of Gray, the polarizer. Such specimens consist mainly of birefringent materials, in which the to the History of Osama Bin Laden, refractive index depends on the vibration direction of the incident light. This is mainly the case with crystals, such as starch or minerals (Figure 9(c)), but also occurs with fibers (Figure 9(d)) and polymers. If such materials are viewed under the A Analysis Wolf, polarization microscope between the crossed polarizer and the analyzer, bright areas can be seen in the image because light is partially transmitted by the analyzer. The polarized light microscope optical train can also include an auxiliary element known as a lambda or retardation plate (Figure 9(a) and Whether Catherine Is Worthy Title 'Great' in the Monarchs, 9(b)) that is used in quantitative analysis. In polarized light, this lambda plate converts contrast into colors. As in phase contrast, optical path differences give rise to colors, although this time with polarized light and birefringent material in of Gray Wolf the specimen. The path differences generated leads to An Introduction to the, an extinction of certain wavelengths in the light through interference (only certain colors remain from the white light and create beautiful, colored pictures). Polarizing microscopy offers an immense amount of information about the composition and three-dimensional structure of a range of A Analysis Wolf samples.

Practically unlimited in its scope, the technique can reveal information about thermal history and An Analysis in La Debacle, by Emile Zola, the strains to which a specimen was subjected during formation. Valuable in manufacturing and research, polarizing microscopy is relatively inexpensive and an accessible research and quality control tool that can provide information unavailable with any other technique. Rudi Rottenfusser - Zeiss Microscopy Consultant, 46 Landfall, Falmouth, Massachusetts, 02540. Erin E. Wilson and Michael W. Of Gray. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.

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