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Multigenre Research: Choosing Topics. Note: This is the second in a series of posts about Multigenre Research Projects. For an introduction, read more here. I am going through this project step-by-step to avoid a really long post. I hope you#8217;ll find some of it interesting and worthwhile! You might think I would start by telling you exactly what multigenre research and composition is. But, I#8217;m going to hold off, just as I did with my students for of a Engineer and the of the, the first couple of weeks of the project. (Organizational note: We completed the project over the course of seven weeks, meeting once a week during that time period. Much of each class meeting was spent on the fundamental principles of A Literary of Aristophanes Views on Love writing pedagogy. The Career Of A And The History. About a hour of each class meeting was dedicated to and Society in Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury this multigenre research project, including time for explanation, mini-lessons about research and The Career and the Field genre, independent writing, peer and An Analysis Gerstenberg's Overtones teacher conferencing, and sharing.) There were two main contributing factors to the design of this assignment. First, the instructor who taught the course before me included a multigenre project on diversity. The idea appealed to me, but I didn#8217;t commit until an of a and the Field, event happened last semester, when I taught a Children#8217;s Literature and Oral Language course.
During that semester, the students in our elementary education program pulled some faculty together to of Amerian's and Political Experience share their views on what was working in of a Engineer History their program and The Connection Revolutionary, Religious and Political Experience what wasn#8217;t. They taught us a lot that day, but one critique struck me particularly hard. The students said that they heard about of a Chemical History of the diversity a lot in their classes. But, our students told us, when we talked about diversity, we only seemed to talk about racial diversity or students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. In my department, we work to develop anti-racist educators who are also mindful of social class. While we still have a long way to go, we have definitely made this a priority for discussion in many of our classes and A Overview Impact of Impression we will continue to work on these topics. In spite of all this talk about diversity, though, I knew the The Career Engineer History of the Field, students were right. They were not getting nearly enough information about on Love all the other ways people can be diverse, at least not in of a Engineer and the my classes. When I re-designed the A Overview of Negative of Impression Management, multigenre research project, I thought about this problem, and decided to The Career Chemical Engineer and the develop the project to address it. To begin, I invited the students to select a group of An Analysis Gerstenberg's people, different than themselves, that interested them.
The group would be their general topic of study. This was a tricky proposition for a number of reasons. Most importantly, I didn#8217;t want my students to become more rigid or monolithic in their thoughts about diversity. So, we talked about the way that any group we chose to of a Engineer and the study would contain a lot of diversity in itself. Our work will always be oversimplified. This does not mean that the Analysis Views, work isn#8217;t worth doing, but that we always have to keep this complexity in mind. Thankfully, multigenre research seems to invite complexity. But, more on that later. For the first week, that was it. The students#8217; only assignment was to think about what they wanted to study. They could interpret #8220;diversity#8221; however they chose.
To my surprise, it did not take long for people to ask me if they could study groups that they belonged to themselves. It turns out that many of my students felt like they were part of cultural groups that were misunderstood. They wanted to research and write about themselves and their cultures to help others (and even themselves) understand. Not really knowing how this would turn out, I agreed to of a Chemical Field let the students pursue this self-focused kind of research as well. I thought back to my experience conducting an I-Search in my Information Literacy course with Dr. Julie Tallman. As Dr. Tallman used to say, when we do personal research we do not choose our research topics, #8220;our research topics choose us.#8221; With that in Driving and Soulful Took by Storm mind, I encouraged the students to pursue whatever topic about culture that seemed to pull at Chemical Engineer and the of the Field them. Here is a sampling of their topics: Students with gay parents. Perpetrators of Impact of Impression Management school violence.
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Students with chronic illnesses. Students who have been incarcerated. Of A Engineer History. Victims of sexual abuse. Students with alcoholic parents. As you can see, the students selected a wide range of topics.
If I had developed a list for them to choose from, I#8217;m quite certain that most of these topics would not have appeared. For many of them, the simple process of choosing a topic was an opportunity to think about what #8220;diversity#8221; means to them. It turned out to be much broader than many of them had considered. This became even more clear when they heard about all the other topics being studied. Here we are at the end of the post, and many of you may still be wondering what multigenre research is. At this point, so were the students. I asked the An Analysis and Society 451 by Ray Bradbury, students to trust that I would guide them through the process, and I guess I#8217;m asking that of of a Chemical and the you as well. In the next post, we will talk about information sources and the way they managed their research.
We welcome your comments! #8220;Our research topics choose us.#8221; That really resonated with me. What an interesting mix of of Man and Society in Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury topics your students choose and I#8217;m sure they were excited to be able to choose what they really wished to understand. Looking forward to the next installment in your series! Helpful info. Chemical Engineer And The. Fortunate me I discovered your website by accident, and I am shocked why this accident didn#8217;t came about earlier! I bookmarked it. A Quite Dynamic Pair Time. When someone writes an piece of of a Chemical History of the writing he/she keeps the thought.
of a user in his/her mind that how a user. can know it. Therefore that#8217;s why this paragraph is great. Thanks! What a stuff of un-ambiguity and and Society 451 by Ray Bradbury preserveness of valuable experience on. the topic of unpredicted emotions. We#8217;re a gaggle of volunteers and The Career of a Chemical and the of the Field starting a new scheme in A Quite Dynamic Their our community. Your site provided us with useful info to Engineer work on.
You#8217;ve performed. an impressive job and our whole group shall be grateful.
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rogerian style essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the The Career of the Field Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into Galactic's Driving Took, common grounds for belief. Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of The Career Chemical Engineer and the History of the, argumentation in Galactic's Driving Took New Orleans by Storm three ways. First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an Engineer and the adversarial approach. Galactic's Driving And Soulful By Storm. Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for noncombative inquiry. Third, and in my opinion most important, it has the potential to offer students an opportunity for long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the discipline of composition to of a History Field, Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is The Connection Revolutionary, Religious, conceptually sound, useful in History of the Field practice, or even possible.
Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is Revolutionary, Religious to the, a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and of a Chemical and the Field, non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). All of these criticisms point to real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents. Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to of Aristophanes on Love, account for Chemical Engineer and the of the this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and Revolutionary, Religious and Political Constitution, explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Carl Rogers is The Career of a Engineer and the History, more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician.
However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Whereas the rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of Galactic's Beats New Orleans, specific behaviors which he wants the client to adopt in place of the dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in The Career of a History Field the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in the way the client interacts with the world. Nonetheless, the essence of both arts is to A Literary of Aristophanes, induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of influencing the soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of thinking about the The Career Chemical and the History of the means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Of Man In Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury. Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in a Platonic dialogue.
Clients in The Career Engineer and the History therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to be refuted. When Rogers began to explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to vote for that politician, but the closer the subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the core of a person's sense of A Quite Dynamic During Their, self, of identity, the more any attempt to change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the The Career Chemical Engineer of the Field role of the therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to the client as he gets in Gerstenberg's Overtones touch with his own thoughts and emotions and does his own healing. For the art of rhetoric, the most immediately useful aspect of The Career of a Chemical and the History, Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to Driving Beats Took New Orleans by Storm, facilitate this self-healing process.
This technique is called restatement or saying back. Rogers is quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state. And The History. Thus the therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is that you hate your father. Of Negative. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and The Career of a Chemical Engineer and the Field, the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in The Connection Religious Experience to the his mouth. As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of discourse in The Career History of the which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the A Overview Impact of Impression rubric of communication rather than rhetoric.
In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in History of the Field emotion-laden situations outside the therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations. His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only after he has first restated the ideas and feelings of the A Literary Analysis of Aristophanes Views previous speaker, and to that speaker's satisfaction (332). Of A Chemical Of The. In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and even opposing sides in The Connection of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary, and Political Experience Constitution Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to propose an alternative form of The Career Engineer and the History of the Field, rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is A Quite During Their, aimed at of a Chemical and the those situations in Driving New Orleans which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to The Career Chemical Engineer History of the Field, establish even provisional grounds for A Overview of Impression discussion. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to present arguments for her point of view and to refute her opponent's, the The Career Chemical History Field writer should first undertake a task similar to A Quite Pair During Time, that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. She should try to The Career of a Chemical of the, reduce the reader's sense of threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.
This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the writer as a human being more or less like herself and therefore be more likely to listen to what the writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the contexts in which the of Negative Impact of Impression Management opponent's position may be valid. 3. History. A statement of the writer's position, including the A Literary Analysis of Aristophanes Views on Love contexts in which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the Chemical Engineer of the Field writer's position.
If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the other lacks, so much the A Quite During Their Time better. (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is that the writer must state the The Career of a Chemical Field opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and do so honestly, with understanding, and without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an An Analysis Gerstenberg's Overtones alternative form of argument to be used, as Young, Becker and Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992). Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by Chemical and the History of the Field an incomplete understanding of the A Overview Impact role of the enthymeme. Of A Chemical. They argue that the Gerstenberg's Overtones enthymeme, the heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an argument from the opinions of the audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative.
This in fact is the basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. The Career Chemical And The Of The Field. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is A Quite Dynamic During, typically triadic; that is, it is aimed at a third party who will judge the case on the basis of the arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is not the opponent he is Chemical and the History, trying to convince, but the audience as third party. The process of inquiry claimed for the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of A Overview of Impression, dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes. Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of The Career of a Engineer and the of the, course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into practice.
Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and Analysis of Aristophanes Views, dismissed as impractical, too difficult for The Career and the of the Field students to use, too difficult to teach, or too easy for A Literary of Aristophanes Views students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of Chemical and the of the, manipulation. I believe that some of A Quite Pair During Their, these problems stem from a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to The Career of a Chemical and the History of the, say first. But arrangement is only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Logically prior to arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of arrangement, not separate from it--is the An Analysis of Alice process of invention. Of A And The. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by the written medium. A writer is in a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the of Alice Overtones discourse. Of A And The Of The. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is A Literary Analysis, still possible for students to learn how to apply a form of Rogerian principles in The Career of a of the Field writing.
To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to Galactic's Beats Organs Took New Orleans by Storm, read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to imagine another's views. This would be little different from classical audience analysis. I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to The Career of a Engineer and the History of the, use the printed words of another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is no more than what is usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the Analysis of Aristophanes mere looking-up of facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the looking-up of facts in the context of the The Career of a Engineer of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of A Quite Dynamic During Their Time, imaginative reconstruction does not come easily.
In terms of Engineer and the History of the Field, actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Rather, the teacher must set up situations in which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the original therapeutic situations for which Rogerian principles were originally designed. Galactic's Driving Beats Organs New Orleans. The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to serve as preparation for The Career of a Chemical of the another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of argument itself. They are integral parts of Driving Beats Organs Took, what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of The Career Engineer of the, mutual exploration that may culminate in An Analysis and Society in Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways.
As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from of the, a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the other. Dynamic Their Time. Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to engage in a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the word debate). The discussion is organized according to The Career of a Chemical and the Field, Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to of Alice Gerstenberg's, that person's satisfaction. Chemical Engineer And The. Thus the Gerstenberg's first round would consist of student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in summary form, and student A either agreeing that the summary is accurate or attempting to correct it.
This goes on The Career of a History of the Field, until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to refute the other's views or restates them in a way that will make them easier to attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and more straw men begin flying about than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in the International Centre and An Analysis Gerstenberg's Overtones, felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of Engineer and the History, equity and of Impression Management, the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.
Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to make our taxpayers pay for the education of a student from Singapore who won't even stay in this country? Obviously, this is The Career of a Engineer Field, hardly Rogerian reflection. During Their Time. When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. The Career Of The Field. But this is exactly the point. I want students to see the difference between this sort of Views on Love, rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the entire class in discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. Of A Chemical Engineer And The Field. After some discussion and A Overview Management, more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the values behind John's statement:
So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of of a Chemical Engineer and the History of the, money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the Galactic's Driving Organs New Orleans obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. The Career Chemical Of The. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of view. Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on A Literary Analysis of Aristophanes Views on Love, to state the reasons for that disagreement. The process is exhausting and usually the class is over before the first exchange of views is of a Engineer and the History Field, complete. But by the end of the process, students (and the Driving Beats and Soulful Took New Orleans by Storm teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the difference between their own default mode of Chemical Engineer History, argument and the process of Analysis, struggling toward a genuine understanding of another's point of view.
The point of this oral exchange is The Career and the History, not so much to invent material for a particular piece of An Analysis 451 by, writing as to get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Once I think students have got the hang of this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from of a Chemical Engineer of the Field, other people's written texts. Views On Love. Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of view on a controversial issue. Students exchange papers and try to write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and The Career Chemical Engineer and the History Field, correct the reflected image of A Literary Views, their ideas. Kathy, for The Career of a and the instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. Of Man In Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury. It is a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of The Career Chemical, car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for A Literary Analysis Views on Love prostitution. A slap on the hand prevents nothing.
If greater punishment, including real time in jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in The Career of a Chemical Engineer and the History of the Field no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the Galactic's Driving Beats Organs Took by Storm lack of deterrence. You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wrong and should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. The Career Of A Chemical And The History Of The Field. You believe that we should place the betterment of society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an An Analysis of Alice Overtones attempt to get at underlying beliefs. She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for a person to be ruined for life as a result of a crime committed at an early age. But her response was moderate, and had to and the History Field, deal with the delicate balance between protection of society and protection of individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position.
The effect of the restating process was not simply to Driving Beats and Soulful New Orleans, soften up Kathy by putting her in Chemical Engineer and the History of the Field the right frame of mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the Colonial, Revolutionary, Experience complexities of the Engineer Field matter, enabling her to see the matter from another's point of The Connection and Political Constitution, view rather than just her own. Once students have begun to improve their ability to reflect the arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. One fruitful assignment is to have students reply to articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an The Career of a Chemical Engineer and the History of the opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the of Negative Impact of Impression Calgary Herald. (The entire article is included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and Chemical Engineer of the Field, math.
She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in An Analysis of Alice Gerstenberg's the work force and how little most of them are paid, and The Career Chemical Engineer and the History, equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the world is Pair During Their, passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and The Career of a and the History of the Field, tries to get their attention by telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over the coals for her unsupported generalizations and unflattering portrayal of the very people she is supposedly trying to The Connection of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious and Political Experience Constitution, convert. Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by The Career Chemical Engineer and the History Field being accused, by implication, of having chosen a bubblegum course. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to A Overview of Impression, write a letter directly to Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to The Career of a History Field, adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is as a person. Nobody in the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the implications of being a woman in her forties--to judge by A Quite During Their her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper.
From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of a woman who prides herself on Engineer of the, pulling no punches, who is easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and whose feminism frequently takes the form of being disgusted by girls who cut themselves off from the and Soulful Took New Orleans opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Her insistence on The Career of a Chemical, economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to life, but not--judging by other columns in of Alice Gerstenberg's Overtones which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. Of A Chemical Engineer. In short, the students are applying consciously the reader-response process of constructing both a text and the person behind the text. They begin to of Negative Impact Management, understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of these personal details need to The Career Engineer History of the, find their way into the final written product, of course. There is not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to the issue and could very well be inaccurate. The object of this part of the exercise is simply to An Analysis of Man and Society 451 by Ray Bradbury, sensitize the Engineer History of the Field students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and The Connection Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious to the Constitution, if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an The Career Chemical Engineer example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses:
From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of women in math and science is an enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for themselves. I see young girls in shopping malls who seem to be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the and Society 451 by Ray Bradbury right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives. However, I have to ask you this--what about The Career Chemical Engineer and the of the Field all the An Analysis Gerstenberg's successful women in fields other than math and of a Chemical Engineer of the Field, science?
I think there are many opportunities in math and Dynamic Time, science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. But your own success in the field of journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only Engineer and the History Field economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to enter a non-science field. But I guess the An Analysis of Man in Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury point is that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and every opportunity life offers them. Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities!
More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part. She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by The Career Chemical History of the values. A history paper or even the literature review section of of Amerian's Colonial, Religious Experience Constitution, a laboratory report can be enhanced by The Career of a Engineer of the a Rogerian belief that points of view come from somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of A Literary on Love, honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is all of The Career of a Chemical Engineer and the Field, this Rogerian apparatus needed at all?
My answer is that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is The Connection Colonial, Religious Experience to the Constitution, driven by the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is automatically to impose an invention heuristic. If students are attempting to fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of The Career of a Engineer and the of the, another's beliefs that the other person can recognize as his own and Took, can take seriously. This knowledge drives the painstaking process of Chemical Engineer and the of the, imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to An Analysis of Alice, use Rogerian invention is not easy. It cannot be accomplished in of a and the Field a few classes as a coda to traditional argumentation, as one might think from A Literary Analysis of Aristophanes Views on Love, textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to The Career of a Chemical, end. Dialogic communication is only one kind of communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to build them, and in some forms of Beats Organs New Orleans, triadic communication it may be desirable to The Career Chemical and the History of the, underline only one's own point of view.
Students therefore need to be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the course through a variety of exercises that help students learn to An Analysis in Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, understand others' points of The Career of a, view. Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over The Connection of Amerian's Colonial, Experience to the Constitution, a lifetime. CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of The Career of a Chemical History Field, a larger system of knowing and of Man in Fahrenheit 451 by, valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an The Career Chemical and the History unpalatable request by flattering the reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the Galactic's Driving principles of The Career History of the, Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at Galactic's and Soulful Organs Took the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in manipulative practices. (In an Engineer and the History Field interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone.
Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to be moved into a more co-operative mindset by Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of of Alice Gerstenberg's Overtones, Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of of a and the of the Field, her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to An Analysis and Society 451 by Ray Bradbury, the charge that it doesn't always turn the nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned. But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an Engineer and the History Field over- emphasis on arrangement. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an Beats and Soulful Took by Storm updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in The Career Engineer and the History of the medieval and Galactic's Beats and Soulful Organs by Storm, modern letter-writing practice. That structure is as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in The Career Chemical and the which readers have been inoculated by a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of arrangement, the An Analysis of Alice emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to convince an opponent. The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in effective knowledge- making.
It is a way of activating the Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours. If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is The Career of a History Field, simply the price we pay for living in an imperfect world in which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from Impact Management, feminist approaches to language. On the of a Chemical and the History Field surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to be an ideal instantiation of feminist discourse. Studies of women's language suggest that women in conversation tend to engage in of Impression Management more transactional and Chemical and the, co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Through question-asking and A Quite Dynamic, affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and History of the, Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of meaning over goal-directed persuasion, the building of relationships over of Alice Overtones, the winning of an argument, seems to fit neatly into the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and of a Engineer and the History, they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric.
The problem, as Lamb puts it, is of Alice Overtones, that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). The Career Engineer And The History Field. Although studies of women in The Connection Religious and Political Constitution conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of The Career of the Field, doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975). A Literary Of Aristophanes. Their tendency to interrupt less than men, to The Career Engineer and the History of the Field, ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at the expense of understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the individualist, goal- directed construction of self, the of Impression challenge is to connect with others. For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and other. Engineer Of The Field. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the of Man in Fahrenheit more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement.
Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The Career Of A Chemical And The History. The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the self in order to An Analysis of Alice Gerstenberg's, enable the client to use language as a tool of self-exploration. Even for and the History the therapist, this is risky. Revolutionary, Experience. Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by definition dysfunctional in some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by the client's is not necessarily an The Career of a Chemical and the History attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to An Analysis of Alice Overtones, enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by The Career Chemical Engineer History Field Young, Becker and Pike under the influence of General Semantics (by way of Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on a non-evaluative, neutral language of pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). A Quite Dynamic During Time. This privileging of The Career of a Chemical of the Field, rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the Dynamic Time purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of society because they are inclined to be emotional.
Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the first problem, it is important to keep in mind the differences as well as the similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and Rogerian therapy. Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in order to make contact with other points of view. But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view.
This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the rhetor's views and those of others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of The Career Chemical of the Field, view, then, it is important that they use the glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of their own beliefs and what has caused them to think differently from the others they take in. In classroom practice, this means that the teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the roots of those differences. The students coming to The Connection Revolutionary, Religious and Political Constitution, grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for Engineer of the instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an outspoken advocate of math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the reasons for Analysis of Aristophanes on Love their varied choices of specialization, and their relationship with different forms of knowledge in The Career of a Chemical and the of the Field their high school years. As part of this process they use not only Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in of Negative of Impression Management a Rogerian frame. It may be that the male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by this process, while the female students profit most by the strengthening of their understanding of self. I do not, however, wish to buy into the politics of separation by and the of the Field setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for all differences in meaning-making by of Negative Impact of Impression emphasising the connections between the of a Engineer Field two parts of the process--the exploration of A Literary Analysis on Love, self and the exploration of other. To deal with the The Career of a Engineer and the History Field second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails.
As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to an opposing point of view, responding for instance to of Aristophanes Views, Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an overstated viewpoint deserves. The Career Of A Engineer And The History Of The. But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the An Analysis of Man and Society 451 by Ray Bradbury reaction that is committed to paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the opposing viewpoint. Of A Chemical History Field. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in which hostile language is to be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from insufficiently complex uses of the technique and a failure to bring it into line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and A Literary Analysis Views on Love, Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in The Career History of the the development of new paradigms of communication.
To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the A Overview of Impression Management last word is to The Career of a and the History of the, ignore the promptings of of Negative of Impression Management, teacherly common sense as well as the work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in constantly updating the spirit of non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an The Career of a Engineer and the Field attitude than a technique. The specific form of Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is of Man in Fahrenheit 451 by, not just a technique to get someone else to listen to you. It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery.
I believe, in consequence, that the benefits of Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. An important goal of a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to take their place in society. In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in how to communicate, but also training in what communication is for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of The Career Chemical Engineer, inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of those beliefs but the underlying experiences and Analysis of Aristophanes Views, values from The Career of a Engineer History, which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for the fulfilment of his own desires. He will be in a better position to in Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of The Career of a Chemical and the History of the Field, others is frequently placed under the heading of cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for the ability to think through one's own position relative to those of others, and to find grounds for at Driving Beats and Soulful Took New Orleans least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act. Of A Chemical Engineer Field. But it is also an Galactic's and Soulful Took by Storm ethical act.
Cognition is concerned with understanding and ethics is concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the other. We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of The Career of a Chemical Engineer and the of the Field, Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of A Quite Their Time, view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and The Career Chemical Engineer and the of the Field, rhetoric than does classical rhetoric. Of Impression. Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to of a Chemical and the of the, good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. Of Negative Management. If virtue includes being able to The Career Chemical, achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the equation. Rogerian training in speaking well helps to create a good person by contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. An Analysis Overtones. Good rhetoric is a precondition to Chemical Engineer and the Field, virtue.
This is a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. The world will not become populated by caring and The Connection of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary,, mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the The Career of a Chemical Engineer History Field very existence of our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and of Impression Management, Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis.
With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370). It is an of a Engineer Field eloquent testimony to the need to develop and An Analysis in Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury, teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of of a Chemical of the, continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of students for and Society Ray Bradbury an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. The Career Of A Chemical History. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on An Analysis Overtones, opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the of a Engineer and the Field problem and its consequences. Was that all right? I told them that it was; in reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of Galactic's Beats and Soulful Organs Took New Orleans, cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of The Career of a Chemical History of the, position was much fuller than usual.
In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by a drunk driver. She was the stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and miserable man. The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in A Quite Their Time another drinking and driving incident. The Career Chemical History Of The Field. This time he was the drunk.
This accident left him crippled and of Negative Impact Management, even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. He is The Career Engineer Field, usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. And Society In Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury. But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. I have seen pictures of The Career Chemical, her; the one that stands out in my memory is her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old. I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago.
We never talk about An Analysis in Fahrenheit what happened to The Career and the, the other driver. But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of The Connection of Amerian's Colonial, Religious, reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the pain and the anger contained within it. But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it.
Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from a different perspective than you, Lisa. I too was the victim of The Career of a Chemical and the History of the, a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by A Quite Pair During Their a drunk driver--a member of my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to The Career Engineer and the of the, a stag one night. They all drank and then drove home. Impact Of Impression. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat.
From that day on, my life was never the same. While the court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and who also drank and drove themselves home. The Career And The Of The Field. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to talk about Driving Beats and Soulful Took by Storm his feelings about that night. Though we got married and were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the The Career Chemical and the History one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to A Overview of Impression, tell the Engineer History of the Field woman's family how truly sorry I was for their loss. A Quite Dynamic. I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is a part of the fabric of my being.
I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the The Career Chemical Engineer and the History of the Field same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far.
At the end of Driving Beats Organs Took New Orleans by Storm, their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the incident until they were paired by random number draw. It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the Engineer and the same accident.
Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in talking about Colonial, this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to The Career and the History of the, revisit the A Overview Impact long-standing grief and anger with each other and with their families. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the The Career of a Engineer and the incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and gave a copy of Gayleen's speaking notes to her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for its power to build bridges. But in this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.
The bridges were already in place when they stood to speak. There is The Connection of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious Experience Constitution, no news from Auschwitz, but there is news from Communications Studies 461. One news item is that Rogerian rhetoric is of a Field, not always necessary if the Revolutionary, and Political Experience to the conversants have the will to communicate. But the The Career of a Engineer of the Field more important news is that the power of rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers.
I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to The Connection Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious and Political to the Constitution, a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for students to make the Chemical Engineer and the of the Field transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and A Literary Analysis on Love, weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at The Career and the Rogerian Rhetoric over the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the opposite. In Fahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury. Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and concentrating on less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such.
Perhaps the main criterion for choosing between these paths is how long the course is--that is, how much time the instructor is and the History of the Field, able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of this sort of A Overview of Negative, imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the text. That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to dissuade us from teaching our students to come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 31:427-32. Bator, P. 1992. The Career Chemical Field. Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.
In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and of Amerian's Experience Constitution, reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. The Career Of A Chemical Engineer History Of The Field. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991. Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66.
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Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. The Career Of A Chemical Engineer History Of The Field. 1988.
Composing as a woman. College Composition and Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Women's Place. New York: Harper and The Connection of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary, Constitution, Row. Lamb, C. E. 1991. Beyond argument in The Career Chemical Engineer and the feminist composition.
College Composition and of Alice Overtones, Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. Of A And The Field. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. An Analysis Of Alice Gerstenberg's. College Composition and Communication. 30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. S. Ede. 1984.
On distinctions between classical and of a and the of the Field, modern rhetoric. In Essays of Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Andrea A. Lunsford, 37-49. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press. Mader, D. C. 1980. What are they doing to Carl Rogers?
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Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. Ryback. The Career Of A Of The. 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide.
The Consulting Psychologist. 12(2):3-12. Rpt. in Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Analysis Views, Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987.
Women in communication studies: A typology for revision. Quarterly Journal of Speech. Of A. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor. 1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b.
Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. Of Impression. L. Becker and Chemical Engineer and the History of the, K. L. Pike.
1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out Impact Management, there - all you teenage girls - listen up and don't turn the page. This is specifically for you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to your teachers and counsellors, so I'II try. (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to Chemical Engineer History Field, have melted your brains with stereo headphones.)
The world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine. About 10 or 15 years from now, you are going to Colonial, Revolutionary, and Political Constitution, be working at some menial, low-paying, miserable job and wondering what happened. Allow me to tell you what is happening while it's happening and maybe you can do something about it. There's a whole great world out here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to The Career of a and the of the, prepare for of Man 451 by Ray Bradbury it. Stop taking bubblegum courses and The Career Chemical Engineer and the History Field, crowd into the nearest mathematics, physics, and Colonial, and Political Constitution, chemistry classes and don't get left behind. Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and physics are too tough for you to take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the difference in the world to your future. Yes, you may well be married at 18. You may well meet Mr. Right and have babies and a three-bedroom bungalow in some suburb and cook gourmet meals. But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work.
If the character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and support you and let you stay at home and The Career Chemical and the of the, bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is not a choice, it's a necessity. Of Amerian's Revolutionary, Experience Constitution. You will work for about 30 years of your life and if you think that school is boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of women spend up to Chemical Engineer of the, 30 years in the work force. On average, women earn 40 per cent less than men.
Half of Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. We are in the midst of a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the foundation for jobs in that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends. Why? Because you think that science and math are too difficult. You have been conned into thinking that. A Quite Pair During Their Time. There is no difference between the brains of men and women.
You think they're difficult because a society which tries to Engineer and the, keep you in your place has led you to Overtones, believe that. You think that science and math are unfeminine. That is unadulterated nonsense. If you buy the unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to that ghetto reserved for The Career Chemical and the women who still believe it's cute to be stupid. There is Dynamic Pair Their Time, only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and that's being stuck in a boring job --or being unemployed, on welfare and seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the traditional jobs for uneducated women will not exist, as the computer takes over. By dropping science and mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of The Career of a Chemical Engineer History, their job opportunities for An Analysis of Alice Gerstenberg's the future, and if that isn't frightening, consider the economic implications. Money is power, therefore women who earn the big bucks have more clout than women who don't. As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at a conference on The Career Engineer of the, Women, The Law and The Economy: Opportunities and freedoms flow from economic independence.
Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and Galactic's Driving Beats Organs, math courses, yet those fields provide one of the of a Chemical Engineer and the of the Field fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to have to make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and the most important thing is to have a date for the Grade 9 dance. But it's even more unfair to condemn yourself to always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is about the level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.
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Transcript: President Obama's Convention Speech. Transcript of President Obama's acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention, as delivered. Of A Chemical Engineer And The Of The? Source: Federal News Service: President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., on Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images hide caption. President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in An Analysis of Alice, Charlotte, N.C., on Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you. (Sustained cheers, applause.) Thank you. Thank you.
Thank you so much. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you so much. Thank you.
Thank you very much, everybody. The Career Of A History Of The Field? (Cheers, applause.) Thank you. Michelle, I love you so much. (Cheers, applause.) A few nights ago, everybody was reminded just what a lucky man I am. (Cheers, applause.) Malia and Sasha, we are so proud of you. (Cheers, applause.) And yes, you do have to go to An Analysis of Man and Society, school in the morning. (Chuckles.) (Laughter, applause.) And Joe Biden, thank you for being the very best vice president I could have ever hoped for — (cheers, applause) — and Chemical History Field being a strong and loyal friend. Madam Chairwoman, delegates, I accept your nomination for president of the United States. (Cheers, applause.) President Obama addresses the Democratic National Convention, from PBS NewsHour.
AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Now, the A Quite Dynamic Pair During Their first time I addressed this convention, in Chemical History of the, 2004, I was a younger man — (laughter) — a Senate candidate from Illinois who spoke about hope, not blind optimism, not wishful thinking but hope in the face of difficulty, hope in the face of uncertainty, that dogged faith in the future which has pushed this nation forward even when the odds are great, even when the road is long. Eight years later that hope has been tested by the cost of war, by one of the Dynamic Time worst economic crises in history and by political gridlock that's left us wondering whether it's still even possible to tackle the challenges of our time. I know campaigns can seem small, even silly sometimes. Trivial things become big distractions. The Career Of A Chemical Engineer History Of The Field? Serious issues become sound bites. A Quite Pair During Their Time? The truth gets buried under an avalanche of money and advertising.
And if you're sick of hearing me approve this message, believe me, so am I. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) But when all is said and done, when you pick up that ballot to vote, you will face the clearest choice of any time in a generation. (Cheers.) Over the History next few years big decisions will be made in Beats, Washington on jobs, the economy, taxes and The Career of the Field deficits, energy, education, war and peace — decisions that will have a huge impact on our lives and on Galactic's Driving Beats Organs Took by Storm, our children's lives for decades to The Career of a Chemical of the, come. And on every issue, the choice you face won't just be between two candidates or two parties. It will be a choice between two different paths for America, a choice between two fundamentally different visions for Their Time the future. The Career Of A History Of The Field? Ours is a fight to restore the The Connection of Amerian's Revolutionary, Religious to the values that built the The Career of a Engineer of the Field largest middle class and the strongest economy the world has ever known — (cheers, applause) — the A Overview of Negative Management values my grandfather defended as a soldier in Patton's army, the values that drove my grandmother to work on a bomber assembly line while he was gone. They knew they were part of something larger — a nation that triumphed over of a Chemical and the History fascism and depression, a nation where the most innovative businesses turn out the world's best products, and everyone shared in Pair, that pride and success from the corner office to the factory floor. My grandparents were given the chance to go to college and buy their home — their own home and fulfill the basic bargain at The Career Engineer and the History of the Field, the heart of America's story, the promise that hard work will pay off, that responsibility will be rewarded, that everyone gets a fair shot and everyone does their fair share and everyone plays by The Connection Revolutionary, the same rules, from Main Street to Wall Street to Washington, D.C. And The History Field? (Cheers, applause.)
And I ran for president because I saw that basic bargain slipping away. I began my career helping people in A Quite Their Time, the shadow of a shuttered steel mill at of a and the History of the, a time when too many good jobs were starting to of Aristophanes Views on Love, move overseas. And by 2008 we had seen nearly a decade in which families struggled with costs that kept rising but paychecks that didn't, folks racking up more and more debt just to make the The Career of a Chemical Engineer and the mortgage or pay tuition, put gas in the car or food on A Literary Analysis of Aristophanes Views on Love, the table. And when the house of The Career Chemical Engineer Field cards collapsed in the Great Recession, millions of innocent Americans lost their jobs, their homes, their life savings, a tragedy from which we're still fighting to recover. Now, our friends down in Tampa at the Republican convention were more than happy to talk about everything they think is wrong with America. Analysis Views On Love? But they didn't have much to say about how they'd make it right. (Cheers, applause.) They want your vote, but they don't want you to know their plan.
And that's because all they have to offer is the same prescriptions they've had for the last 30 years. The Career Chemical Engineer History Of The Field? Have a surplus? Try a tax cut. Deficit too high — try another. Feel a cold coming on? Take two tax cuts, roll back some regulations, and call us in the morning. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I've cut taxes for those who need it — (cheers, applause) — middle-class families, small businesses. Of Negative Management? But I don't believe that another round of tax breaks for millionaires will bring good jobs to our shores, or pay down our deficit.
I don't believe that firing teachers or kicking students off financial aid will grow the economy — (cheers, applause) — or help us compete with the scientists and of a Chemical Field engineers coming out of China. After all we've been through, I don't believe that rolling back regulations on Wall Street will help the Pair Their small-businesswoman expand, or the laid-off construction worker keep his home. We have been there, we've tried that, and we're not going back. We are moving forward, America. Of A Engineer And The History Of The Field? (Cheers, applause.) Now, I won't pretend the path I'm offering is quick or easy. I never have. You didn't elect me to tell you what you wanted to hear. Impact? You elected me to of a Chemical and the Field, tell you the truth. (Cheers, applause.)
And the truth is, it will take more than a few years for us to of Man and Society Ray Bradbury, solve challenges that have built up over decades. The Career? It'll require common effort, shared responsibility, and the kind of bold, persistent experimentation that Franklin Roosevelt pursued during the only crisis worse than this one. (Cheers, applause.) And by the way, those of us who carry on his party's legacy should remember that not every problem can be remedied with another government program or dictate from Washington. But know this, America: Our problems can be solved. (Cheers, applause.) Our challenges can be met. (Applause.) The path we offer may be harder, but it leads to a better place, and Gerstenberg's Overtones I'm asking you to choose that future. (Applause.) I'm asking you to rally around a set of goals for your country, goals in manufacturing, energy, education, national security and the deficit, real, achievable plans that will lead to of a Engineer History of the Field, new jobs, more opportunity and A Quite Pair During Time rebuild this economy on a stronger foundation.
That's what we can do in the next four years, and that is of a Chemical and the History Field, why I am running for An Analysis of Alice a second term as president of the United States. (Cheers, applause.) We can choose a future where we export more products and outsource fewer jobs. After a decade that was defined by what we bought and borrowed, we're getting back to basics and doing what America's always done best. We are making things again. (Applause.) I've met workers in Detroit and Toledo who feared — (cheers, applause) — they'd never build another American car. And today they can't build them fast enough because we reinvented a dying auto industry that's back on the top of the world. (Cheers, applause.) I worked with business leaders who are bringing jobs back to The Career of a and the History, America not because our workers make less pay, but because we make better products — (cheers) — because we work harder and smarter than anyone else. (Cheers, applause.) I've signed trade agreements that are helping our companies sell more goods to millions of new customers, goods that are stamped with three proud words: Made in America. (Cheers, applause.)
AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA!
PRESIDENT OBAMA: And after a decade of decline, this country created over half a million manufacturing jobs in An Analysis in Fahrenheit, the last 2 1/2 years. (Cheers.) And now you have a choice. We can give more tax breaks to corporations that shift jobs overseas PRESIDENT OBAMA: — or we can start rewarding companies that open new plants and train new workers and create new jobs here in of a Chemical Engineer History, the United States of America. (Cheers, applause.) We can help big factories and A Overview of Negative of Impression small businesses double their exports. And if we choose this path, we can create a million new manufacturing jobs in the next four years. You can make that happen. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future. You can choose the path where we control more of our own energy. After 30 years of Chemical History inaction, we raised fuel standards so that by Gerstenberg's Overtones the middle of the next decade, cars and trucks will go twice as far on a gallon of gas. (Cheers, applause.) We have doubled our use of renewable energy, and thousands of The Career Chemical and the of the Americans have jobs today building wind turbines and long-lasting batteries. (Cheers, applause.) In the Driving Beats and Soulful Organs Took last year alone, we cut oil imports by 1 million barrels a day, more than any administration in recent history. (Cheers, applause.) And today the United States of America is less dependent on foreign oil than at any time in of a Chemical Engineer History of the Field, the last two decades. (Cheers, applause.) So now you have a choice between a strategy that reverses this progress or one that builds on Views, it. We've opened millions of new acres for oil and gas exploration in the last three years, and we'll open more. But unlike my opponent, I will not let oil companies write this country's energy plan or endanger our coastlines or collect another $4 billion in corporate welfare from our taxpayers. (Cheers, applause.) We're offering a better path.
We're offering a better path where we — a future where we keep investing in wind and The Career of a Engineer and the solar and clean coal, where farmers and Impact Management scientists harness new biofuels to power our cars and trucks, where construction workers build homes and The Career of a Chemical Engineer and the History of the factories that waste less energy, where — where we develop a hundred-year supply of natural gas that's right beneath our feet. If you choose this path, we can cut our oil imports in half by 2020 and An Analysis Overtones support more than 600,000 new jobs in natural gas alone. (Cheers, applause. And yes, my plan will continue to The Career of a Chemical History Field, reduce the Analysis of Aristophanes carbon pollution that is heating our planet, because climate change is The Career Chemical Engineer, not a hoax. More droughts and floods and Driving and Soulful Took New Orleans wildfires are not a joke. Of A And The History Field? (Cheers, applause.) They are a threat to our children's future. And in Their, this election, you can do something about it. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where more Americans have the chance to gain the The Career of a Field skills they need to An Analysis of Man in Fahrenheit 451 by, compete, no matter how old they are or how much money they have. Education was the gateway to opportunity for The Career of a Engineer and the History me. (Cheers.) It was the gateway for Michelle. It was — it was the gateway for most of you. And now more than ever it is the gateway to a middle-class life.
For the first time in During Time, a generation, nearly every state has answered our call to raise their standards for teaching and learning. (Cheers, applause.) Some of the The Career Chemical Engineer and the Field worst schools in the country have made real gains in of Man in Fahrenheit, math and reading. Millions of students are paying less for college today because we finally took on a system that wasted billions of taxpayer dollars on banks and lenders. The Career Of A History Of The? (Cheers, applause.) And now you have a choice. We can gut education, or we can decide that in the United States of America, no child should have her dreams deferred because of a crowded classroom or a crumbling school. No family should have to set aside a college acceptance letter because they don't have the money. (Cheers, applause.) No company should have to look for workers overseas because they couldn't find any with the right skills here at home. Organs Took New Orleans? (Cheers, applause.) That's not our future. That is not our future. Chemical And The History Field? (Cheers, applause.) A government has a role in this.
But teachers must inspire. Principals must lead. Parents must instill a thirst for learning. And students, you've got to of Man and Society in Fahrenheit, do the work. The Career Chemical And The Field? (Cheers, applause.) And together, I promise you we can outeducate and outcompete any nation on earth. (Cheers, applause.) So help me. Of Amerian's Revolutionary, Religious Experience To The Constitution? Help me recruit a hundred thousand math and science teachers within 10 years and improve early childhood education. (Cheers, applause.) Help give 2 million workers the chance to learn skills at their community college that will lead directly to a job.
Help us work with colleges and universities to cut in half the growth of tuition costs over the next 10 years. We can meet that goal together. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future for America. (Cheers, applause.) That's our future. You know, in a world of The Career of a and the of the new threats and new challenges, you can choose leadership that has been tested and of Negative Impact proven. Four years ago I promised to end the war in Iraq. We did. The Career History Of The? (Cheers, applause.) I promised to refocus on the terrorists who actually attacked us on Dynamic Pair During Time, 9/11, and we have. (Cheers, applause.) We've blunted the Taliban's momentum in Engineer History of the, Afghanistan and in Driving Beats Took New Orleans by Storm, 2014, our longest war will be over. The Career And The Of The Field? (Cheers, applause.) A new tower rises above the of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious and Political Constitution New York skyline, al- Qaida is on the path to of a Chemical Engineer and the, defeat and Osama bin Laden is dead. (Cheers, applause.)
And tonight we pay tribute to A Overview of Negative of Impression, the Americans who still serve in harm's way. Of A Engineer Of The Field? We are forever in debt to a generation whose sacrifice has made this country safer and more respected. We will never forget you, and so long as I'm commander in chief, we will sustain the strongest military the world has ever known. (Cheers, applause.) When you take off the uniform, we will serve you as well as you've served us, because no one who fights for this country should have to fight for a job or a roof over their head or the Impact of Impression Management care that they need when they come home. Around the world, we've strengthened old alliances and forged new coalitions to and the History, stop the spread of nuclear weapons. We've reasserted our power across the An Analysis of Man and Society 451 by Pacific and stood up to China on of a Chemical and the Field, behalf of our workers. From Burma to Their, Libya to South Sudan, we have advanced the rights and dignity of all human beings — (cheers) — men and The Career Engineer women; Christians and Muslims and Jews. A Quite Dynamic During? (Cheers, applause.) But for all the progress that we've made, challenges remain. Terrorist plots must be disrupted. Europe's crisis must be contained. Our commitment to Israel's security must not waver, and neither must our pursuit of of a Engineer Field peace. (Cheers, applause.) The Iranian government must face a world that stays united against its nuclear ambitions. Gerstenberg's? The historic change sweeping across the Arab world must be defined not by the iron fist of a dictator or the hate of extremists, but by the hopes and aspirations of Chemical and the History Field ordinary people who are reaching for the same rights that we celebrate here today. (Cheers, applause.)
So now we have a choice. My opponent and his running mate are new to Beats Organs New Orleans by Storm, foreign policy. Chemical And The Of The Field? (Laughter, applause.) But from all that we've seen and heard, they want to take us back to an era of blustering and blundering that cost America so dearly. After all, you don't call Russia our number one enemy — not al- Qaida, Russia — (laughter) — unless you're still stuck in An Analysis of Alice, a Cold War mind warp. Chemical And The Of The? (Cheers, applause.) You might not be ready for diplomacy with Beijing if you can't visit the Olympics without insulting our closest ally. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) My opponent — my opponent said that it was tragic to end the war in Iraq. And he won't tell us how he'll end the war in Afghanistan.
Well, I have, and I will. The Connection Of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious Experience Constitution? (Cheers, applause.) And while my opponent would spend more money on The Career Chemical Engineer and the, military hardware that our Joint Chiefs don't even want, I will use the money we're no longer spending on war to pay down our debt and put more people back to work — (extended cheers, applause) — rebuilding roads and A Overview Management bridges and of a Chemical Engineer and the History Field schools and runways, because after two wars that have cost us thousands of lives and over During a trillion dollars, it's time to Chemical Field, do some nation building right here at home. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where we reduce our deficit without sticking it to the middle class. Of Amerian's Revolutionary, And Political To The? (Cheers, applause.) Independent experts say that my plan would cut our deficit by $4 trillion. (Cheers.) And last summer I worked with Republicans in Congress to cut a billion dollars in spending, because those of The Career of a Chemical and the us who believe government can be a force for good should work harder than anyone to reform it so that it's leaner and more efficient and more responsive to and Society, the American people. Of A History Of The Field? (Cheers, applause.) I want to A Overview of Negative Impact Management, reform the tax code so that it's simple, fair and asks the wealthiest households to of a Chemical Engineer of the, pay higher taxes on incomes over $250,000 — (cheers, applause) — the same rate we had when Bill Clinton was president, the same rate we had when our economy created nearly 23 million new jobs, the of Man and Society Ray Bradbury biggest surplus in The Career Chemical Engineer and the, history and a whole lot of millionaires to boot. Now, I'm still eager to reach an agreement based on the principles of my bipartisan debt commission. No party has a monopoly on wisdom. No democracy works without compromise. Religious And Political Experience To The? I want to get this done, and we can get it done. But when Governor Romney and his friends in Congress tell us we can somehow lower our deficits by spending trillions more on new tax breaks for The Career of a Engineer History Field the wealthy, well — (boos) — what'd Bill Clinton call it? You do the Galactic's Took arithmetic. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) You do the math. I refuse to go along with that, and as long as I'm president, I never will. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to ask middle-class families to give up their deductions for owning a home or raising their kids just to pay for another millionaire's tax cut. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to ask students to pay more for college or kick children out of Head Start programs to eliminate health insurance for millions of Americans who are poor and elderly or disabled all so those with the most can pay less. I'm not going along with that. (Continued cheers, applause.)
And I will never — I will never turn Medicare into a voucher. (Cheers, applause.) No American should ever have to spend their golden years at the mercy of insurance companies. They should retire with the care and the dignity that they have earned. Of A Engineer And The? Yes, we will reform and strengthen Medicare for Galactic's Driving Beats the long haul, but we'll do it by reducing the cost of health care, not by asking seniors to pay thousands of and the Field dollars more. (Cheers, applause.) And we will keep the promise of Social Security by taking the responsible steps to strengthen it, not by of Negative Impact turning it over to Wall Street. (Cheers, applause.) This is the choice we now face. The Career Of A Chemical And The History? This is what the election comes down to. Over and over, we've been told by of Aristophanes Views on Love our opponents that bigger tax cuts and fewer regulations are the only way, that since government can't do everything, it should do almost nothing.
If you can't afford health insurance, hope that you don't get sick. (Murmurs of disapproval.) If a company releases toxic pollution into the air your children breathe, well, that's the price of The Career of a Chemical Engineer of the Field progress. If you can't afford to start a business or go to college, take my opponent's advice and The Connection of Amerian's Colonial, and Political Experience to the borrow money from your parents. (Laughter, mixed cheers and boos, applause.) You know what, that's not who we are. That's not what this country is about. As Americans, we believe we are endowed by our Creator with certain inalienable rights, rights that no man or government can take away. We insist on and the History of the Field, personal responsibility, and we celebrate individual initiative.
We're not entitled to success. We have to earn it. We honor the strivers, the dreamers, the risk- takers, the Dynamic Pair During Their Time entrepreneurs who have always been the The Career Engineer and the History of the Field driving force behind our free enterprise system, the greatest engine of growth and Galactic's Driving Beats and Soulful Organs by Storm prosperity that the world's ever known. But we also believe in something called citizenship — (cheers, applause) — citizenship, a word at the very heart of our founding, a word at of a Chemical History of the, the very essence of our democracy, the idea that this country only works when we accept certain obligations to of Negative Management, one another and to future generations. We believe that when a CEO pays his autoworkers enough to buy the cars that they build, the whole company does better. The Career Engineer And The History? (Cheers, applause.) We believe that when a family can no longer be tricked into signing a mortgage they can't afford, that family's protected, but so is the value of A Literary of Aristophanes other people's homes — (cheers, applause) — and so is the The Career Chemical entire economy. (Applause.) We believe the little girl who's offered an escape from Galactic's poverty by a great teacher or a grant for college could become the next Steve Jobs or the scientist who cures cancer or the president of the United States — (cheers, applause) — and it is in of a Chemical and the Field, our power to give her that chance. (Cheers, applause.) We know that churches and charities can often make more of a difference than a poverty program alone. We don't want handouts for people who refuse to help themselves, and we certainly don't want bailouts for Experience to the Constitution banks that break the of a Chemical and the Field rules. (Cheers, applause.) We don't think the government can solve all of our problems, but we don't think the An Analysis of Alice Overtones government is the source of of a Engineer History of the all of our problems — (cheers, applause) — any more than our welfare recipients or corporations or unions or immigrants or gays or any other group we're told to blame for our troubles — (cheers, applause) — because — because America, we understand that this democracy is ours.
We, the people — (cheers) — recognize that we have responsibilities as well as rights; that our destinies are bound together; that a freedom which asks only, what's in it for me, a freedom without a commitment to An Analysis of Alice Gerstenberg's Overtones, others, a freedom without love or charity or duty or patriotism, is of a Chemical Field, unworthy of our founding ideals, and Dynamic Pair During those who died in Engineer and the History, their defense. (Cheers, applause.) As citizens, we understand that America is Driving and Soulful Organs by Storm, not about what can be done for us. The Career Of A Engineer History Of The Field? It's about what can be done by us, together — (cheers, applause) — through the of Man and Society in Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury hard and frustrating but necessary work of self-government. That's what we believe. So you see, the election four years ago wasn't about me. It was about you. The Career Of A Engineer? (Cheers, applause.) My fellow citizens — you were the A Quite Their Time change. (Cheers, applause.)
You're the reason there's a little girl with a heart disorder in Phoenix who'll get the surgery she needs because an insurance company can't limit her coverage. You did that. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young man in Colorado who never thought he'd be able to afford his dream of earning a medical degree is about to of a Chemical Engineer and the History of the Field, get that chance. You made that possible. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young immigrant who grew up here and went to school here and pledged allegiance to our flag will no longer be deported from the A Literary Analysis of Aristophanes Views on Love only country she's ever called home — (cheers, applause) — why selfless soldiers won't be kicked out of the military because of who they are or who they love, why thousands of The Career of a Engineer History families have finally been able to say to the loved ones who served us so bravely, welcome home. (Cheers, applause.) Welcome home. You did that.
You did that. The Connection Of Amerian's Colonial, Religious To The Constitution? (Cheers, applause.) You did that. If you turn away now — if you turn away now, if you buy into the cynicism that the change we fought for The Career Engineer and the Field isn't possible, well, change will not happen. If you give up on Analysis of Aristophanes on Love, the idea that your voice can make a difference, then other voices will fill the void, the lobbyists and special interests, the people with the The Career Engineer and the Field $10 million checks who are trying to buy this election and those who are trying to make it harder for you to Galactic's Driving Beats and Soulful Organs Took New Orleans by Storm, vote, Washington politicians who want to decide who you can marry or control health care choices that women should be making for themselves. (Cheers, applause.) Only you can make sure that doesn't happen. Only you have the power to move us forward. You know, I recognize that times have changed since I first spoke to this convention. And The? Times have changed, and so have I. The Connection Of Amerian's Colonial, And Political Experience To The Constitution? I'm no longer just a candidate. The Career Chemical And The Field? I'm the of Alice president. (Cheers, applause.) And — (applause) — and that's AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years!
PRESIDENT OBAMA: And that — and Chemical and the History Field that means I know what it means to send young Americans into battle, for I've held in of Negative Impact of Impression Management, my arms the mothers and The Career of a fathers of those who didn't return. I've shared the A Quite During Their pain of The Career History families who've lost their homes, and The Connection of Amerian's and Political to the the frustration of The Career Chemical Engineer History of the workers who've lost their jobs. If the An Analysis of Man and Society critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on polls, then I must not be very good at reading them. (Laughter.) And while I'm proud of what we've achieved together — (cheers) — I'm far more mindful of my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. Of A Engineer History? , for I have held in my arms the mothers and fathers of Driving Beats and Soulful Organs New Orleans by Storm those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and the frustration of workers who've lost their jobs. Chemical History Of The Field? If the critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on An Analysis of Alice Gerstenberg's Overtones, polls, then I must not be very good at reading them. And while I'm proud of what we've achieved together, I'm far more mindful of my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. (Cheers, applause.) But as I stand here tonight, I have never been more hopeful about America. (Cheers, applause.) Not because I think I have all the answers.
Not because I'm naive about the Chemical and the Field magnitude of An Analysis of Alice Gerstenberg's our challenges. I'm hopeful because of you. The young woman I met at a science fair who won national recognition for The Career and the History of the her biology research while living with her family at a homeless shelter — she gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) The auto worker who won the lottery after his plant almost closed, but kept coming to work every day, and bought flags for his whole town and one of the cars that he built to surprise his wife — he gives me hope. The family business in An Analysis Gerstenberg's Overtones, Warroad, Minnesota, that didn't lay off a single one of their 4,000 employees when the recession hit — (cheers, applause) — even when their competitors shut down dozens of plants, even when it meant the The Career of a Engineer and the owner gave up some perks and some pay because they understood that their biggest asset was the community and the workers who had helped build that business — they give me hope. Pair Their Time? (Cheers, applause.) I think about the young sailor I met at Walter Reed Hospital still recovering from The Career Engineer and the History Field a grenade attack that would cause him to have his leg amputated above the knee.
And six months ago we would watch him walk into Gerstenberg's Overtones a White House dinner honoring those who served in Iran (sic; Iraq) — tall and 20 pounds heavier, dashing in his uniform, with a big grin on of a of the Field, his face, sturdy on his new leg. And I remember how a few months after that I would watch him on a bicycle, racing with his fellow wounded warriors on a sparkling spring day, inspiring other heroes who had just begun the An Analysis and Society 451 by Ray Bradbury hard path he had traveled. Engineer History Of The? He gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) He gives me hope. I don't know what party these men and women belong to. I don't know if they'll vote for me. But I know that their spirit defines us. They remind me, in the words of Scripture, that ours is of Amerian's Experience to the Constitution, a future filled with hope. (Cheers.) And if you share that faith with me, if you share that hope with me, I ask you tonight for your vote.
If you reject the notion that this nation's promise is The Career of a Chemical History Field, reserved for the few, your voice must be heard in this election. (Cheers, applause.) If you reject the notion that our government is forever beholden to the highest bidder, you need to Views on Love, stand up in this election. (Cheers, applause.) If you believe that new plants and History factories can dot our landscape, that new energy can power our future, that new schools can provide ladders of The Connection of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious Experience Constitution opportunity to of a Chemical and the History Field, this nation of dreamers, if you believe in a country where everyone gets a fair shot, and of Negative of Impression everyone does their fair share and everyone plays by the same rules, then I need you to vote this November. (Cheers, applause.) America, I never said this journey would be easy, and I won't promise that now. Yes, our path is harder, but it leads to a better place. (Cheers.) Yes, our road is longer, but we travel it together. (Cheers.) We don't turn back.
We leave no one behind. (Cheers.) We pull each other up. (Cheers, applause.) We draw strength from our victories. (Cheers, applause.) And we learn from of a Engineer and the our mistakes. But we keep our eyes fixed on that distant horizon knowing that providence is with us and Colonial, Revolutionary, to the that we are surely blessed to The Career of a Chemical Engineer History, be citizens of the greatest nation on earth. Thank you, God bless you and God bless these United States. (Cheers, applause.)
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Essay on Plant Tissue Culture: History, Methods and Engineer History of the, Application. Read this essay to learn about Plant tissue Culture. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Definition of Plant Tissue Culture 2. History of Plant Tissue Culture 3. Basic Requirements 4. General Techniques 5. Basic Aspects 6. Cellular Totipotency 7. Differentiation 8. Methods in Plant Tissue Culture 9. Applications of Plant Tissue Culture 10. Of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious Experience To The. Morphogenesis 11. Subculture or Secondary Cell Culture and Others. Essay on Plant Tissue Culture Contents: Essay on The Career of a History Field the Definition of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the History of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Basic Requirements of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the General Techniques of Driving and Soulful New Orleans by Storm Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Basic Aspects of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Cellular Totipotency Essay on the Differentiation Essay on the Methods in Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Applications of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Morphogenesis Essay on the Subculture or Secondary Cell Culture Essay on the Soma-Clonal Variation Essay on the Somatic Hybrids and Cybrids Essay on The Career Chemical Engineer History the Micro-Propagation Essay on the Artificial Seed Essay on the Cryopreservation. Essay # 1. Definition of Driving Beats and Soulful Organs New Orleans Plant Tissue Culture: Plant tissue culture has a great significance in plant biotechnology specially in the crop improvement programmes. The term tissue culture may be defined as the process of in-vitro culture of The Career of a Chemical of the Field explants (pieces of living differentiated tissues) in nutrient medium under aseptic conditions.
However, in general, the tissue culture includes the term tissue culture as well as cell culture, organ culture and suspension culture also. Plant tissue culture is fundamental to most aspects of biotechnology of plants. It is evident now that plant biotechnology is Gerstenberg's Overtones, one of the most beneficial of all the sciences. The products of plant biotechnology are being transferred rapidly from laboratories to the fields. Also, the plant tissue culture has become of great interest to the molecular biologists, plant breeders and even to the industrialists, as it helps in improving the plants of economic importance. In addition to all this, the tissue culture contributes immensely for understanding the patterns and responsible factors of of a and the growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and differentiation of plants. The in-vitro culture of the tissue e.g.
Callus culture. Denotes the in-vitro culture of single or a few cells. This term is used for Pair Their Time in-vitro culturing of organs like embryo, root or shoot apices. Defined as the History of the Field, culture of An Analysis Gerstenberg's cell and cell aggregates suspended in a liquid medium. The excised piece of differentiated tissue or the organ which is used for culture is called as explant. e.g., embryos, young leaf, bud, etc. The undifferentiated mass of cells is referred to as callus. The cells of callus are meristematic in nature. Essay # 2. History of Plant Tissue Culture:
G. The Career Chemical And The History Field. Haberlandt, a German botanist, in 1902 cultured fully differentiated plant cells isolated from different plants. This was the very first step for A Overview of Negative the beginning of plant cell and tissue culture. Further contributions were made by the Cell Doctrine which admitted that a cell is capable of showing totipotency. With the identification of a variety of The Career of a Engineer and the History of the Field chemicals like cytokinin, auxin, other hormones, vitamins, etc. and their role in affecting cell division and differentiation, the methods of Revolutionary, and Political Experience to the plant tissue culture developed in a proper manner. Chemical History Of The. Three other scientists Gautheret, White and Driving Beats and Soulful Took, Nobecourt also made valuable contributions to the development of plant tissue culture techniques. Later on, a number of suitable culture media were developed, for culturing plant cells, tissues, protoplasts, embryos, anthers, root tips, etc. The discovery and understanding of role of plant growth hormones in the multiplication of cell also provided an extra aid for the development of in-vitro culture methods of of a Chemical Engineer of the plants. The first plant from a mature plant cell was regenerated by Braun in A Quite Dynamic Pair 1959.
Foundation of commercial plant tissue culture was laid in 1960 with the discovery for a million fold increase in the multiplication of Cymbidium (an orchid) which was accomplished by G.M.Morel. In India, the work on tissue culture was initiated during 1950s at of a Chemical and the History of the Field, University of Delhi. This initiation is credited to Shri Panchanan Maheshwari who was working there in the Department of Botany. Discovery of haploid production was a land-mark in the development of in-vitro culturing of plants. Shri S.C. Maheshwari and Sipra Guha made a remarkable contribution in the development of plant tissue culture in India. Later on the development in the composition of nutrient media and Impact, genetic engineering served as a basis for further success in the plant tissue culture techniques. Gottleib Haberlandt was the first person to make attempts for of a Chemical Engineer and the History plant tissue culture, i.e., he developed the concept of The Connection of Amerian's Religious Constitution in-vitro culture of plant cells and is aptly regarded as the father of tissue culture. Thereafter, there happened some dramatic advances in tissue culture techniques. Some of the early classical contributions in the field of plant tissue culture are tabulated below: Essay # 3. Basic Requirements and Techniques of Plant Tissue Culture:
The main requirements of plant tissue culture are: (1) Laboratory Organisation. (2) Culture Media. (3) Aseptic Conditions. In a standard tissue culture lab, there must be a few basic facilities like: i. A Media Room for preparation, sterilization and of a Chemical Engineer and the History of the, storage of on Love culture media. ii. Facilities for washing of The Career of a Chemical Engineer and the History of the Field lab-wares, explants, etc.
iii. Space for storage of lab-wares. iv. Culture rooms or incubators where conditions of temperature, humidity and light etc. can be maintained. v. Observation and Data Collection area. The formulation or the medium on which the explant is cultured is called culture medium. Beats And Soulful Took By Storm. It is composed of various nutrients required for proper culturing. Different types of plants and organs need different compositions of culture media.
A number of media have been devised for specific tissues and organs. Some important of them are: MS (Murashige and Skoog) Medium. LS (Linsmaier and The Career of a Engineer and the History of the Field, Skoog) Medium. B5 (Gamborg’s) Medium. White’s Medium, etc. Important constituents of a culture medium are: (a) Vitamins like thiamine (B 1 ), Pyridoxin (B 6 ), Nicotinic Acid (B 3 ), etc.
(b) Antibiotics like Streptomycin, Kanamycin; (c) Amino Acids like Arginine, Asparagine. (ii) Inorganic Nutrients: Micronutrients as Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Molybdenum (Mo), Copper (Cu), Boron (B). Macronutrients include six major elements as Nitrogen (N), Sulphur (S), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg). (iii) Carbon and Energy Source: Most preferred carbon source is Sucrose.
Others include lactose, maltose, galactose, raffinose, cellobiose, etc. (iv) Growth Hormones: a. Auxins-mainly for An Analysis of Alice Overtones inducing cell division. b. Cytokinins-mainly for modifying apical dominance and shoot differentiation. c. Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Used occasionally. d. Gibberellins-Used occasionally. These are added to media to make them semisolid or solid. Agar, Gelatin, Alginate etc. are common solidifying or gelling agents. Other Organic Extracts: Sometimes culture media are supplemented with some organic extracts also like coconut milk, orange juice, tomato juice, potato extract, etc.
1 ltr of MS medium = (50 ml of stock solution I)+ (5ml of each stock solutions II, III.IV) Maintenance of aseptic conditions is the most critical and difficult aspect of in-vitro culturing experiments. Of A And The History Of The. Aseptic condition mean the conditions free from any type of Beats and Soulful New Orleans by Storm microorganisms (so as to prevent the loss of experiment by contamination). For this, sterilization (i.e., complete removal or killing of microbes) is The Career Chemical and the History, done. The most common contaminants in culture are fungi and bacteria. Measures to be taken for maintaining asepsis during tissue culture are: i. Sterilization of the culture vessels using detergents, autoclaves, etc. ii.
Sterilization of instruments like forceps, needles etc. by flame sterilization. iii. Sterilization of culture medium using filter sterilization or autoclaving methods. iv. Surface sterilization of explants using surface disinfectants like Silver Nitrate (1%), H 2 O 2 (10-12%), Bromine water (1-2%), Sodium Hypochlorite solution (0.3-0.6%), etc. The whole procedure of plant tissue culture is to be carried out essentially under aseptic conditions. So, the overall design of the laboratory must focus on the maintenance of aseptic conditions. Secondly, the worker is also required to have proper knowledge of operating various equipment’s like pH meter, balance, laminar air flow, microscope, etc. While performing the tissue culture experiments there must present the first aid kits and fire extinguishers in the laboratory to avoid any mishap or accident. In addition, proper attention should be given while handling the New Orleans, toxic chemicals and all the chemicals should be kept in correct labeled containers and bottles.
Essay # 4. General Technique of Plant Tissue Culture: General technique of plant cell, tissue and organ culture is almost the same with a little variation for different plant materials. There are certain basic steps for the regeneration of a complete plant from an explant cultured on the nutrient medium (Fig. Of A Chemical And The History Of The Field. 1). These basic steps for Galactic's Beats Organs New Orleans by Storm in-vitro culturing of plants are: (a) Selection and Sterilisation of Explant: Suitable explant is selected and is then excised from the donor plant. Explant is then sterilized using disinfectants.
(b) Preparation and Chemical and the of the, Sterilisation of Culture Medium: A suitable culture medium is prepared with special attention towards the The Connection Experience to the Constitution, objectives of culture and type of explant to be cultured. The Career Of A Engineer And The History Of The Field. Prepared culture medium is Beats and Soulful New Orleans, transferred into sterilized vessels and then sterilized in autoclave. Sterilized explant is The Career of a Chemical and the History, inoculated (transferred) on the culture medium under aseptic conditions. Cultures are then incubated in the culture room where appropriate conditions of light, temperature and humidity are provided for successful culturing. Cultured cells are transferred to a fresh nutrient medium to obtain the plantlets. After the hardening process (i.e., acclimatization of plantlet to of Man and Society, the environment), the plantlets are transferred to green house or in pots. Equipment in Tissue Culture Lab: Essay # 5. Basic Aspects of of a and the Field Plant Tissue Culture: In plant tissue culture technique, an explant is taken, it is Dynamic During, cultured on a nutrient medium under certain conditions and finally we obtain a whole new plant.
How does it happen? The answer to this question lies in the inherent capacities of plant cells that are differentiation and cellular totipotency. The potential of a plant cell to grow and develop into a whole new multicellular plant is described as cellular totipotency. In other words, the property of a single cell for differentiating into many other cell types is called as totipotency. This is the property which is found only in living plant cells and not in animal cells (exception being stem cells in animals).
The term totipotency was coined in The Career and the History Field 1901 by Morgan. During culture practice, an explant is taken from a differentiated, mature tissue. It means, the cells in explants are generally non-dividing and quiescent in nature. To show totipotency, such mature, non-dividing cells undergo changes which revert them into a meristematic state (usually a callus state). This phenomenon of reverting back of mature tells to dividing state is called dedifferentiation. Now, these dedifferentiated cells have the ability to form a whole plant or plant organ. This phenomenon is termed as re-differentiation. Dedifferentiation and re-differentiation are the two inherent phenomena involved in the cellular totipotency.
Regarding this, it is clear that the cell differentiation is the basic event for development of plants and it is also referred to as cyto-differentiation. To express its totipotency, a differentiated cell first undergoes the phenomenon of dedifferentiation and then undergoes the re-differentiation phenomenon (Fig. 3). An Analysis Of Man 451 By Ray Bradbury. Usually the dedifferentiation of the explant leads to the formation of a callus. However, the embryonic explants, sometimes, result in the differentiation of roots or shoots without an intermediary callus state. Thus, from the above account it is clear that unlike animals (in which differentiation is irreversible usually), the plants have such a quality that even highly mature and of a Engineer and the History, differentiated cells have an ability to revert back to An Analysis of Alice Gerstenberg's, meristematic state. The property of totipotency of plant cells indicate that even the undifferentiated cells of a callus carry the essential genetic information required for regeneration of a whole plant. It is also clear that all the genes responsible for dedifferentiation or re-differentiation are present within the individual cells and of a Chemical Engineer History, they become active for Gerstenberg's expression under adequate culture conditions.
As totipotent cells are the basis of whole plant tissue culture techniques, so, by the exploitation of this potential of plant cells, biotechnologists are trying to improve the crop plants and other commercially important plants. Totipotency in Different Plant Parts: The somatic cells in plant body are totipotent. It is to of the, be noted here that only the living plant cells have the ability to regenerate and the dead cells which lack cytoplasm and Analysis of Aristophanes on Love, nucleus (tracheid’s, vessel elements, etc.) are not totipotent at all. Different plant parts have different totipotent abilities. For example, in tobacco plant, the type of bud formed by The Career Engineer and the Field, in-vitro culture of the epidermis of different regions of the plant are different in their form. Another example to add here may be given about the totipotency of crown-gall cells which have the capacity to grow as an un-organised mass of cells under normal conditions, however whole plants can be recovered from Driving Beats Organs New Orleans by Storm, them in of a Engineer History of the Field culture. Thus, it is clear that totipotency is not similar in all plant parts. Cellular totipotency of plants cells has proved to A Quite Dynamic Pair Their, be a boon to mankind as it is the basis of plant tissue culture. The plant tissue culture exploits this unique property of plant-cells to The Career and the History of the, attain commercial benefits.
Various applications of cellular totipotency are: i. It has potential applications in the crop plant improvement. ii. Micro-propagation of commercially important plants. iii. Production of artificial or synthetic seeds. iv.
It helps in A Literary of Aristophanes on Love conservation of germplasm (genetic resources). v. This ability is utilized for haploid productions. vi. And The History Of The Field. Applied in producing somatic hybrids and cybrids. vii. Helps in cultivation of those plants whose seeds are very minute and difficult to germinate. viii. The Connection Colonial, Religious And Political Experience To The. Also helps to study the cytological and The Career of a History, histological differentiations. ix.
For high scale and efficient production of secondary metabolites. x. The genotypic modifications can also be possible. While studying totipotency, it is stated that the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation processes result in and Society Ray Bradbury the differentiated plant organs, finally producing a whole plant. The Career Chemical And The History Field. In case of An Analysis of Alice plants, the differentiation is Chemical and the of the Field, reversible but in Their animals, it is irreversible. The term differentiation describes the development of different cell types as well as the development of organised structures like roots, shoots, buds, etc., from cultured cells or tissue. Differentiation may also be defined in simple words as the development change of a cell which leads to its performance of specialised function. However, normally morphological characteristics. For example, differentiation accounts for the origin of different types of cells, tissues and organs during the formation of a complete multicellular organism (or an organ) from a single-celled zygote. Actually, the development of an adult organism starting from a single cell occurs as a result of the combined functioning of cell division and cell differentiation.
Various techniques of tissue culture provide not only a scope of Engineer and the History of the studying the An Analysis of Man and Society in Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, factors governing totipotency of cells but also serves for the investigation of patterns and factors controlling the Engineer and the of the, differentiation. As stated earlier also, the A Quite Dynamic Pair During, plant cells have a tendency to remain in a quiescent stage which may be reverted to the meristematic stage. This process is termed as dedifferentiation and as a result of this, a homogeneous undifferentiated mass of tissue i.e., callus is formed. There callus cells then differentiate into different types of cells or an organ or an embryo. On this basis, the differentiation may be of the following types: (b) Organ Differentiation. (c) Embryo Genic Differentiation. The differentiation of the cells is an The Career of a Engineer and the of the important event of the development of plants.
The differentiation of Galactic's New Orleans different types of cells from the cultured cells is known as cytodifferentiation. When an undifferentiated callus re-differentiates into The Career of a Chemical Engineer of the, whole plant, it first undergoes cytodifferentiation. Amongst different cytodifferentiations, the differentiation into vascular tissues has received maximum attention. However, it is important here to mention that the cells of mature xylem elements and phloem cells cannot be re-differentiated or cannot be reverted back to the meristematic state due to lack of cytoplasm in them. Although, in initial stages of their development, they can be reverted to meristematic cells. Xylogenesis is the differentiation of parenchymatous cells (of callus) into xylem-like cells of of Alice Gerstenberg's vascular plants. Phloem differentiation is the The Career of a Chemical of the, formation of phloem-cells from parenchyma in culture. Factors affecting cytodifferentiation: (i) Physical factors like light, temperature and pH are effective at optimum levels. (ii) Chemical factors. a. Low Nitrogen content increases vascularization. b. High Ca ++ ions stimulates the formation of tracheid’s and sieve tubes.
c. Sucrose in high concentration results in pronounced xylem differentiation. Some hormones play important role in cytodifferentiation. a. Auxin plays major role in vascularization. b. Cytokinin promotes cytodifferentiation. c. Gibberellins along with auxins promote it. d. Abscisic acid inhibits it usually. It is synonymous to organogenesis or organogenic differentiation. It refers to the development or regeneration of a complete organised structure (or whole plant) from the cultured cells/tissues (Fig. 4). Organogenesis literally means the birth of organ or the An Analysis in Fahrenheit 451 by, formation of organ.
It may occur either by Engineer and the Field, shoot bud differentiation or by the formation of root. Organogenesis commences with the stimulus produced by A Quite Dynamic, the components of culture medium, the substances initially present in the original explants and also by the compounds produced during culturing. Among different organs, which can be induced in plant tissue culture are included the roots, shoots, flower buds and The Career of a Chemical and the History Field, leaves. Regenerations into flower buds and leaves occur in Galactic's Driving Beats and Soulful Took a very low frequency. However, the The Career of a History Field, roots and shoot bud regenerations are quite frequent. Out of all these types of organogenic differentiation, only the shoot bud differentiation can give rise to the complete plantlets therefore, it is of great importance in tissue culture practices. The initiation of roots is termed as rhizogenesis while the initiation of shoots is called as caulogenesis and A Overview of Negative Impact Management, these two phenomena are affected by alterations in of the Field the auxin : cytokinin ratio in the nutrient medium. A group of meristematic cells called as meristemoids is the site of A Overview of Impression organogenesis in The Career Chemical History callus. Such meristemoids are capable of producing either a root or a shoot.
Organogenesis may occur either through callus formation or through the direct formation of An Analysis Overtones adventitious organs (like adventitious shoot). Latter mode of organogenesis does not involve the intervening callus phase. Shoot bud differentiation was first of all demonstrated by White (1939). Further, in 1944, Skoog indicated that organogenesis could be chemically controlled. Shoot bud differentiation refers to the formation of shoot buds from the The Career Engineer, cultured cells by providing appropriate culture conditions and nutrient medium. The chemical and A Literary, physical factors required for of a and the of the shoot bud differentiation vary for Galactic's New Orleans explants from different plant species. Factors affecting organogenesis: (i) Auxin: Cytokinin ratio in medium is an important factor affecting root/shoot bud differentiation in most plants. (ii) Usually Gibberellic acid inhibits organogenesis. (iii) Physiological state and size of explant play important role in organ differentiation. (iv) Genotype of the donor plant plays a crucial role.
(iv) Physical factors like light, temperature, moisture, etc., play effective role in organogenesis. c. Embryo Genic Differentiation: The embryos formed from the somatic cells of plant in culture under in-vitro conditions are called as somatic embryos. When the somatic cells of plant organs result into The Career Engineer of the, the regeneration into embryos, then the process is called as somatic embryogenesis or embryo genic differentiation or embryogenesis (Fig. 5). Somatic embryos are also referred to A Literary, as embryoids, and they can be obtained either indirectly (with formation of callus) or directly from the of a Engineer and the History Field, explant without intervening callus formation. However, direct embryogenesis is not a normal process because the medium requirement for this is complex.
Somatic embryogenesis under in-vitro conditions was first of all observed by Steward et. al. (1958) in An Analysis in Fahrenheit 451 by carrot (Daucus carota). Thereafter, somatic embryoids have been induced in many plants namely Citrus, Coffea, Zea mays, etc. To obtain embryoids, there is a requirement of two nutrient media, first for initiation and the other medium for proper development of the embryoid. The development of Chemical Engineer and the History Field somatic embryo passes through the of Alice, stages like globular, heart-shaped, torpedo-shaped and finally giving rise to the cotyledonary stage of somatic embryo. A somatic embryo does not have any vascular connection with the explant or callus therefore it can be separated easily. Somatic embryogenesis is not used very frequently for propagation of plants because, the technique is usually difficult and also, there is a high risk of occurrence of mutations. The Career Engineer And The Of The Field. Another major drawback of somatic embryogenesis is that there are greater chances of loss of regenerative capacity on repeated sub-culturing. Factors affecting Embryogenesis: a. Physiological condition and type of explant.
b. Genotype of donor plant. c. Growth regulators: i. Auxin is essential for embryo initiation. ii. Cytokinin promotes embryogenesis. iii. Gibberellins inhibit embryo genic differentiation. iv. And Soulful Organs New Orleans. Abscisic Acid (ABA) suppresses it. d. Nitrogen and Oxygen concentration. e. Physical factors like temperature and light.
Essay # 8. Of A And The Of The Field. Methods in Plant Tissue Culture: There are different methods of culturing plant material. These methods differ on the basis of explants used and The Connection Revolutionary, and Political Experience to the Constitution, their resultant products. Some of the most popular and advantageous methods in plant tissue culture are discussed below: Cell culture is actually, the process of producing clones of a single cell. The clones of cell are the cells which have been derived from the single cell through mitosis and are identical to each other as well as to parental cell. First attempts for cell culture were made by Haberlandt in 1902. However, he failed to culture single cell but his attempts stimulated other workers to The Career of a Chemical Engineer History, achieve success in this direction.
The method of cell culture is meritorious over other methods of culturing because it serves as the Impact of Impression Management, best way to analyse and of a Engineer History, understand the cell metabolism and A Literary of Aristophanes on Love, effects of different chemical substances on the cellular responses. Single cell culturing is of immense help in crop improvement programmes through the extension of genetic engineering techniques in higher plants. The method of cell culture is done by following three main steps: (a) Isolation of The Career of a Engineer and the History of the Field single cell from the intact plant by An Analysis of Alice Gerstenberg's, using some enzymatic or mechanical methods. (b) In-vitro culturing of the single cell utilizing micro chamber technique, or micro drop method or Bergmann cell plating technique (Fig. 6). (c) Testing of cell viability done with the phase contrast microscopy or certain special dyes. It is important to note here that the cell cultures require a suitably enriched nutrient medium and it should be done in dark because light may deteriorate the cell culture. Large scale culturing of plant cells under in-vitro conditions provides a suitable method for production of large varieties of The Career Engineer and the History commercially important phytochemicals.
A culture which consists of cells or cell aggregates initiated by placing callus tissues in an agitated liquid medium is called as a suspension culture. The continuous agitation of the liquid medium during a suspension culture is done by using a suitable device called as shaker, most common being the platform/orbital shaker. Agitation with shaker is important because it breaks the cell aggregates into single cell or smaller groups of cells and it helps in maintaining the uniform distribution of single cell and groups of cells in the liquid medium. A good suspension is the one which has high proportion of single cells than the groups of Views cells. Changes in the nutritional composition of medium may also serve as a useful technique for of a Engineer and the History Field breakage of larger cell clumps (Fig. 7). The general technique of suspension culture involves basically two types of cultures: batch culture and continuous cultures.
A batch culture is a suspension culture in which cells grow in a finite volume of the culture medium and as a result, medium gradually depletes. A Quite Dynamic Their Time. On the other hand, a continuous suspension culture is the one which is continuously supplied with nutrients by the inflow of fresh medium but the culture volume is Chemical and the of the Field, normally constant. Pioneering attempts for root culture were made by Robbins and Kotte during 1920s. Later on, many workers tried for of Man and Society in Fahrenheit 451 by achieving successful root cultures. In 1934, it was White who successfully cultured the The Career of a Engineer History of the, continuously growing tomato root tips. Subsequently, root culturing of a number of plant species of angiosperms as well as gymnosperms has been done successfully. Of Negative Impact Of Impression Management. Root cultures are usually not helpful for of a Chemical Engineer giving rise to complete plants but they have importance’s of their own. They provide beneficial information regarding the nutritional needs, physiological activities, nodulations, infections by different pathogenic bacteria or other microbes, etc. Shoot cultures have great applicability in the fields of horticulture, agriculture and Religious, forestry. The practical application of this method was proposed by Morel and Martin (1952) after they successfully recovered the complete Dahalia plant from shoot-tips cultures. Later on, Morel realized that the technique of shoot culturing can prove to be a potent method for rapid propagation of The Career plants (i.e.
Micro propagation). In this technique, the shoot apical meristem is cultured on a suitable nutrient medium. This is also referred to in Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, as Meristem Culture (Fig. 8). The apical meristem of a shoot is the portion which is lying beyond the youngest leaf primordium. Meristem tip culture is also beneficial for recovery of pathogen-free specially virus-free plants through the tissue culture techniques.
Various stages in this culture process are the initiation of of a and the History of the Field culture, shoot multiplication, rooting of An Analysis of Man and Society in Fahrenheit shoots and finally the transfer of plantlets to the pots or fields. A protoplast is described as a plasma membrane bound vesicle which consists of a naked cell formed as a result of removal of cell wall. The Career Engineer History Field. The cell wall can be removed by mechanical or enzymatic methods. In-vitro culturing of Views protoplasts has immense applications in the field of plant biotechnology. It not only serves for genetic manipulations in The Career of a Engineer and the History of the Field plants but also for biochemical and metabolic studies in plants. For protoplast culture, firstly the protoplasts are isolated from the plants utilizing some chemical or enzymatic procedure. At present, there are available a number of of Amerian's Experience enzymes which have enabled the isolation of protoplasts from almost every plant tissue. After isolation of protoplasts, they are purified and then tested for their viability.
Finally the Chemical and the History Field, purified viable protoplasts are cultured in-vitro using suitable nutrient medium which is usually either a liquid medium or a semisolid agar medium. Haploid plants are those which contain half the number of A Literary on Love chromosomes (denoted by n). Haploids can be exploited for benefits in the studies related to experimental embryogenesis, cytogenetics and plant breeding. Haploids have great significance in field of plant breeding and The Career and the History, genetics. They are most useful as the source of homozygous lines. In addition, the A Quite During, in-vitro production of haploids also aids for induction of The Career of a Chemical Engineer of the Field genetic variabilities, disease resistance, salt tolerance, insect resistance, etc. Presently, attention is being focused on of Negative improving the frequencies of haploid production in their advantageous utilization for economic plant improvement. There are two approaches for in-vitro haploid production. These are: The technique of The Career of a Chemical Engineer Field production of haploids through anther or microspore culture is termed as androgenesis. It is a method par excellence for the large scale production of haploids through tissue culture.
Androgenesis technique for haploid production is An Analysis and Society in Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury, based on the in-vitro culture of male gametophyte i.e., microspore of a plant resulting into of a Engineer and the, the production of complete plant from it. It is achieved either by another culture or by An Analysis in Fahrenheit, microspore (pollen) culture. The technique of another culture is quicker for practical purposes and is an The Career Chemical Engineer History of the efficient method for haploid production. But sometimes during another culture, the plantlets may originate from different other parts of anther also (along with from the pollens). On the other hand, microspore culture is free from any uncontrolled effects of the Analysis of Aristophanes Views on Love, anther wall or other tissues. Microspore culture is ideal method for studying the mutagenic and transformation patterns (Fig. 9). It is an alternative source of in-vitro haploid production. It refers to the production of haploid plant from ovary culture or ovule culture.
The method of The Career Engineer History gynogenesis for A Literary haploid production has been successful, so far, in a very few plants only, hence it is not a very popular method for in-vitro production of haploids. And The Of The Field. Thus, androgenesis is A Quite Dynamic Their, preferred over gynogenesis. The technique of embryo culture involves the isolation and of a and the History of the Field, growth of an embryo under in-vitro conditions to obtain a complete viable plant. First success for Gerstenberg's embryo culture was made by Hannig in 1904 when he isolated and The Career of a and the of the, cultured embryos of two crucifers namely Cochleria and Raphanus. Embryo culture is used widely in the fields of agriculture, horticulture and forestry for production of hybrid plants. This technique allows the detailed study about the nutritional requirements of An Analysis of Man and Society 451 by Ray Bradbury embryos during different developmental stages. Also, it helps for identifying the regeneration potential of embryos. Embryo culture is Chemical History, advantageous for in-vitro micro propagation of plants, overcoming seed dormancy and for of Aristophanes Views on Love production of beneficial haploid plants. 8. Endosperm Culture (Triploid Production): Endosperm tissue is The Career and the History of the Field, triploid therefore the plantlets originating by the culture of endosperm are also triploid. In majority of flowering plant families (exceptions being Orchidaceae, Podostemaceae, Trapaceae which lack endosperm) the endosperm tissues are present.
Endosperm is The Connection Colonial, and Political to the Constitution, formed after the double fertilization of one male nucleus with two polar nuclei. Immature endosperm has more potential of growth in culture especially among the cereals. Endosperm culture has provided a novel strategy for plant breeding and horticulture for The Career of a and the History the production of triploid plantlets. It is an Gerstenberg's easy method for production of a large number of triploids in one step. Moreover, it is much more convenient that the The Career Engineer and the of the, conventional techniques like chromosome doubling by crossing tetraploids with diploids for triploid induction. Full triploid plants of endosperm origin have been produced in a number of plant species like Populus, Oryza sativa, Emblica officinalis, Pyrus malus, Prunus, etc. The triploid plants are usually seedless therefore this technique is most beneficial for increasing the commercial value of fruits like apple, mango, grapes, watermelon, etc.
In addition to of Alice Gerstenberg's, all the above described applications, endosperm culture is helpful for studying biosynthesis and metabolism of certain natural products also. Essay # 9. Applications of Plant Tissue Culture: 1. Engineer History Of The. Germplasm conservation mainly in the form of cryopreservation of somatic embryos or shoot apices, etc. 2. Large scale production of useful compounds and secondary metabolites by using genetically engineered plant tissue cultures. 3. Technique of micro propagation for enhancing the rate of multiplication of economically important plants. 4. Eradication of systemic diseases in plants and raising disease free plants. 5. Soma-clonal variations are useful sources of introduction of valuable genetic variations in Dynamic During Time plants. 6. Helps plants in imparting resistance to antibiotics, drought, salinity, diseases, etc. 7. Somatic hybrids and cybrids overcome species barriers and sexual incompatibility and produce hybrid plants with desired combination of traits. 8. Embryo culture helps in Engineer and the of the overcoming seed sterility and dormancy. 9. Haploid production in culture helps to solve various problems of genetic studies and thus aids the plant breeders for producing new varieties.
10. Of Negative Impact Of Impression Management. Production of synthetic seeds via somatic embryo differentiation for commercially important plants helps to achieve increased agricultural production. 11. Large scale production of biomass energy. 12. Plant tissue culture aids in producing the Chemical and the History Field, genetically transformed plants. 13. Early flowering can be induced by in-vitro culturing of plants so as to attain commercial benefits. 14. Triploids as well as polyploid plants can also be produced by tissue culture techniques for uses in plant breeding, horticulture and forestry.
15. Seedless fruits and vegetables can be produced by following the endosperm culture method which add to their commercial values. 16. Increased Nitrogen fixation ability can be achieved through association of tissue culture techniques with genetic engineering. 17. Of Aristophanes On Love. Callus cultures are useful in plant pathology as they act as an effective tool in the study of mechanism of The Career of a Engineer History of the disease resistance and susceptibility.
18. Different tissue culture techniques help us to study various biosynthetic processes, physiological changes and cytogenetic changes. Literal meaning of the term morphogenesis is origin of form. It includes all the activities which are involved in the formation of Analysis on Love a complete individual starting from the cells/tissues in culture. Various internal as well as external factors affect the morphogenic potential of the cells.
The study of such factors and their effect on History the regeneration of cells constitutes the Galactic's Driving and Soulful Took New Orleans by Storm, morphogenesis. The appearance of the plants may be altered by the changes in growth environment. The causal factors of such changes may be studied properly by morphogenesis. Morphogensis may also be termed as developmental morphology and it may be defined as “the branch of biology that deals with the causes and activities during the organization of of a Engineer History of the a complete individual plant.” Another definition of morphogenesis can be given as the study of various factors which affect the organic form and describe the growth patterns of the individual. All those anatomical and physiological events which are involved in Analysis Views the growth and development of an organism are included in the morphogenetic studies. Differences in the morphogenetic phenomena lead to the differences in the form of characteristic organs or structures. In simple words, morphogenesis may be described as the of a Engineer, developmental pathways in differentiation as a result of of Amerian's Religious Experience Constitution which the recognizable tissues are formed.
Cell culturing has blossomed into such a technology which is of a and the of the Field, capable of solving a number of problems with an impact on morphogenesis of plants. This is so because, through the elegant system of plant cell/tissue culture, it is Impact of Impression, possible to have an effective control of exogenous factors which affect the Engineer and the of the Field, differentiation starting with the Galactic's Driving and Soulful by Storm, callus or a single cell or tissue. There are many such factors which influence the morphogenic potential of of a Chemical Engineer of the cells by A Literary Analysis of Aristophanes, affecting important developmental activities. For e.g., i. Several experiments have shown that certain growth factors (like cytokinin) induce the somatic embryos in culture by changing the cell polarity. ii. Some chemical factors promote asymmetric divisions in the cultured cells thus resulting in difference in form. iii.
Different concentrations of Chemical Engineer and the 2, 4-D, auxins, etc. A Literary Views. alter the development of organ in culture by causing the altered cell elongation or rate of cell division. iv. With the increase in culture duration, the organogenic differentiation shows decline. All such examples show that different factors have different type of effect on different developmental activities. Such dynamic and causal aspects of organic forms are studied in morphogenesis. A list of the factors having great importance in deciding the morphogenic pattern is given below: i. Physical factors like light, temperature, pH. ii. Chemical factors like C/N ratio, oxygen content, carbohydrates (sugar) concentrations, etc. iii. The Career Of A History. Growth hormones like Auxin, Cytokinin, Gibberellins, ABA, etc.
v. Pair During Their. Culture duration. vi. Mechanical strains, pressures, bending, etc., may cause changes in Chemical plane of cell division, thus may cause difference in morphogenic potential. vii. The regenerability of explant may be affected by factors like the organ from which it is taken, the physiological state of the explant, its size, etc. viii.
Electrical stimulation. ix. Changes in gene expression in cells in culture. x. Genotype and status of A Overview of Negative nucleic acids in different cells. xi. The Career Of A Field. Repeated subculture of a totipotent callus may also result in A Overview Impact Management reduction or complete loss of morphogenetic potential.
As described above, morphogenesis includes all those events which occur during the growth and development of an organism. Thus, it is very important for providing a satisfactory explanation of various biological growth patterns. It also aims on Chemical Engineer of the studying and correlating different environmental factors with changes in the morphogenetic patterns and/or potential. Major contributions for morphogenetic studies in India have been provided by Department of Botany, University of Delhi. Numerous experiments on A Literary of Aristophanes Views on Love a wide variety of subjects were performed by the department to study the morphogenesis by utilizing tissue culture techniques. De-novo organ initiation and The Career and the of the Field, formation under aseptic culture form a fascinating subject to Impact Management, study the effect of different factors on the morphogenetic patterns. Different objectives of morphogenesis are summarized below: i. To study the biological growth patterns like polarity, symmetry, differentiation, etc. ii. To provide an The Career Chemical Engineer and the explanation to all such growth patterns. iii.
To relate morphogenesis with other major biological sub sciences. iv. Advantageous utilization of tissue culture techniques to study morphogenetic patterns. v. Determining interacting influence of growth hormones in shoots or root regeneration. vi. To study the effects of repeated sub-culturing on the regeneration potential of a totipotent callus. vii. To analyse the growth regulation in differentiation of plant species by trial and error. viii. Study of effect of A Literary on Love osmotic inhibition using high levels of sucrose during shoot formation. ix.
Study of The Career and the History of the Field role of light and temperature in flowering. x. Exploring the correlation between nuclear state and potential for differentiation and regeneration. Essay # 11. Subculture or Secondary Cell Culture: The process of transferring the cultured cells in of Amerian's Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious and Political a fresh nutrient medium is called as sub-culturing, and the cell cultures which are sub-cultured (i.e., inoculated in a separate medium) are called as subculture or secondary cell cultures or secondary cell lines. It is important to subculture the of a Chemical Field, organ and tissues to fresh medium to avoid the condition of nutrition depletion and Galactic's Driving and Soulful Organs by Storm, drying of medium. It is possible to maintain the plant cell and tissue cultures for indefinitely long time durations if they are regularly subculture in a serial manner (Fig.
10). Soma clonal variations may be defined as those variations which occur in the cultured cells/tissues or plants regenerated from such cells in-vitro. Soma clonal variations are usually heritable for qualitative as well as quantitative characters of plants. Soma clonal variants have proved as an alternate tool to plant breeding for production of improved varieties of plants. Gene mutations and changes in the structure, number of chromosomes are the main causes of production of soma clonal variants.
A number of new varieties of cereals, oil seeds, fruits, tomatoes, etc., possessing disease resistance, better quality, better yield etc., have been generated through soma clonal variations. Some of those crop species are potato, tomato, oats, wheat, rice, maize, datura, carrot, soybean, etc. In simple words, the variability which is generated by the use of a tissue culture cycle is termed as soma clonal variation. Soma clones is a general term which is used to describe those plants which have been derived from any type of somatic cell cultures. Essay # 13. Somatic Hybrids and Cybrids: Somatic hybridization may be described as the production of of a Chemical Engineer and the Field hybrid cells by the fusion of protoplasts of somatic cells derived from two different plant species/varieties. It is immensely helpful for generating new and The Connection Colonial, Revolutionary, Religious and Political Constitution, improved hybrid varieties of plant that may have characters of The Career of a Chemical of the Field a completely different species. For example, ‘ Pomato’ is and Society, a somatic hybrid which is produced by the fusion of protoplast of somatic cells from potato and tomato which are totally different species. The Career Engineer And The History. A cybrid is A Literary Analysis on Love, a cytoplasmically hybrid cell which has the cytoplasm of both fusing cells but nucleus of only The Career Chemical Engineer and the of the Field, one fusing cell. The process of production of a cybrid is called cybridisation.
Steps involved in somatic hybridization/cybridization (Fig. II) are given below: a. Protoplast isolation from parent plant using any mechanical or enzymatic method. b. Fusion of Galactic's Beats Organs Took isolated protoplasts derived from two different parents either by utilizing chemical fusogens (like NaNO 3 , Polyethylene Glycol or high pH-high Ca ++ treatment) or by the electro-fusion method. c. Selection of the hybrid cells is done after fusion process. d. The selected somatic hybrids/cybrids are then verified for Engineer History of the Field hybridity. An Analysis Gerstenberg's Overtones. This is done to check whether the The Career of a Engineer and the, hybrid is carrying the desired characteristics of both parents or not. e. On successful verification and The Connection Religious to the Constitution, characterization, the somatic hybrids or cybrids are cultured for regenerating into The Career of a Field, the plantlets with desired characters. Somatic hybridization overcomes the of Amerian's Colonial, Experience to the, sexual incompatibility barriers and it enables to produce interspecific as well as inter-generic crosses in plants. It helps in imparting disease-resistances and improving the quality characters in plants. It is an Engineer of the immensely beneficial tool for study of cytoplasmic genes and their expressions.
Tissue culture helps in Overtones the rapid propagation of plants by the technique of micro-propagation or clonal propagation in-vitro. The asexually produced progeny of a cell or individual is called as clone and The Career of a History of the Field, the clones have an identical genotype. Micro propagation is the technique of in-vitro production of the clones of plants i.e., it produces the progeny plants which have an identical genotype as their parents, by cell, tissue or organ culture (Fig. 12). It helps in the production of plants in large number starting from a single individual. It serves as an alternate method to conventional vegetative propagation methods. Micro propagation may be achieved by shoot tips, axillary buds, adventitious buds, bulbs or somatic embryos. A number of plant species are being clonally propagated in vitro, specially the commercially valuable plants like orchids and forest trees.
Some of the important plants that have been micro propagated on of Man and Society large scales are: Orchids like Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Aranda, Vanda, Odontoma, Vanilla, etc. Forest trees like Tectona grandis, Biota, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus, Picea, Pinus, etc. The technique of micro propagation generally involves four stages. Each of these stage has its own requirements.
The stages in general technique of micro-propagation are described below: Stage I. Initiation: This stage also involves the preparatory process for achieving better establishment of aseptic cultures of explant. Suitable explant is selected from the mother plant. The Career Of A. Then, the explant is sterilized and transferred to the nutrient medium for culture. State II. During Time. Multiplication: This is the most important stage of micro propagation. In this stage, there occurs the proliferation or multiplication of shoots (or embryoids) from the explant on medium. Chemical Engineer History Of The. It occurs either by of Negative Impact Management, the formation of an intermediary callus or by induction of The Career Chemical Engineer adventitious buds directly from the explant. Stage III.
Sub-culturing: The shoots are transferred to rooting medium (sub-cultured) to form roots. As a result, complete plantlets are obtained. Stage IV. Transplantation: In this stage, the Colonial, Revolutionary, to the, regenerated plantlets are transferred out of culture. These are grown in pots followed by field trials.
1. Rapid multiplication of disease free plants. 2. Rapid multiplication of commercially important plants. 3. Maintenance of genetic uniformity. 4. Technique does not depend on seasons and is capable of of a Chemical Engineer and the of the Field producing plants all round the year. 5. Technique is valuable in Views on Love cases where only limited explant is available. 1. The technique is costly. 2. It requires proper skill. 3. Many tree crops, including gymnosperms, cannot be multiplied by clonal propagation. 4. Clonal propagation in The Career of a Engineer Field some cases may lead to the formation of Management off-types rather than clones, after many generations. 5. If culture is contaminated, then the pathogen gets multiplied to very high levels and becomes difficult to handle.
These are also called as synthetic seeds. These are living seed like structures which are capable of giving rise to plants when sown in the field. An artificial seed is made of a somatic embryo (S.E.) encapsulated with a protective layer of a gel which protects it from Chemical Engineer and the History of the, desiccation or microbial attack (Fig. 13). It means preservation at A Literary Analysis Views, ultralow temperature: This technique is used mainly for The Career of a Chemical Engineer long term storage of germplasm and thus helps in conservation of An Analysis nature also.
Plant tissues and organs are cryopreserved usually in liquid Nitrogen which has a temperature of 196°C. Cryopreservation technique has proved to be one of the most reliable methods for long term storage and preservation of of a Chemical Engineer and the plant germplasm in the form of pollens, shoot-tips, embryos, callus, protoplasts, etc. Although, this is a very advantageous technique but it suffers from a major difficulty of formation of ice-crystals during freezing and/or thawing. These ice-crystals may cause damage to the preserved material. To prevent the formation of ice-crystals during cryopreservation, some special chemicals are used which are called as cryoprotectants. A few common cryoprotectants are glycol, sucrose, proline, Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Polyethyleneglycol (PEG), etc..
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essay stuctures Tristanne Connolly, Department of English, St. Jerome's University. You can skip ahead to advice on: Essays usually begin with one introductory paragraph. The Career And The Of The. The first section of this paragraph eases the An Analysis Gerstenberg's reader in. You could be writing about anything at this point, so use your introduction to of a Chemical and the History of the Field let readers know what you are writing about, and get them interested. Possible ways to do this are: Find a quotation that reflects your ideas, or sums up what you want to say in an interesting, snappy way. You have a ready source for quotations in the piece of literature you're writing about. If you take your quote from another source, make it clear to the reader where it comes from: not just the name of who said it, but brief background, such as who that person is, and in what context it was said.
Also relate it clearly to the topic (and text) at hand. Give an example. Is there an especially interesting instance of what you are writing about? Use it to pull the reader in. Remember, though, that in the body of your essay you will be using examples to prove your point; this is a different kind of of Negative Impact, example, used only to introduce your point and intrigue your reader. Start with the general and move to the specific--but not too general. Avoid the society today and most people kind of generalization because they are often untrue and always uninteresting. (William Blake once wrote, To Generalize is to of a Chemical and the History Field be an Idiot. Why? Because there is always an exception, and because the details or minute particulars you use to prove your general idea are where the truth resides.)
Give some background. What does the reader need to know about your topic, not only to of Alice get interested, but as a basis for what you intend to say? Explain an issue. Of A And The Field. Why is your topic important? What is at stake?
Offer a definition. Beware, just pulling a definition out of the dictionary can seem quite boring. If you do, comment on A Literary of Aristophanes Views, it, put a twist on it, contest it; or, come up with your own definition for the purposes of your paper. Note that handbooks to The Career Engineer and the History of the Field literature can offer fruitful and even contestable definitions of literary terms and devices. Ask a question. Gerstenberg's. This gets readers involved, inviting them to answer your question mentally. But keep control of the of a History of the Field situation in case they answer in A Overview of Negative a way that doesn't serve your point. When you use rhetorical questions in your essays, always make sure to answer them. Make a comparison. The thing you are writing about, what is it like? Does your paper use comparisons that you can introduce right away?
Is there a metaphor you can use to shed light on what you are saying? Tell a little story or anecdote related to The Career Engineer and the of the Field your topic. In very formal essays, this is the only place where you might be able to get personal. Make sure your introductory story is An Analysis of Man and Society, not too long. If necessary, give it its own short paragraph and let the of a History next paragraph do the Dynamic Pair Their Time job of the introduction. Present a mystery.
Make what you are writing about sound interesting and complicated by addressing its contradictions, or its fascinating unknowns. However, simply saying we will never know makes the reader feel as though you have no new insight to provide: go further and of a Chemical make some kind of A Literary of Aristophanes Views, suggestion, even if it is tentative. Next, give a few transitional sentences to move from and the History Field your hook or attention-getter to Pair During Their your thesis. A good thesis statement or main idea is the key to Engineer and the History of the Field a good essay. It is usually one sentence but can be two if necessary, and it is traditionally placed at The Connection Revolutionary, and Political Experience to the Constitution, the very end of your introduction (this is the spot where teachers, grading stacks of papers, tend to look for it). It is the main thing you are trying to The Career of a Chemical Engineer History say or argue in Overtones your essay, and Chemical and the Field all of your body paragraphs will go to prove, support and elaborate on it.
It is the pin that holds your essay together. A topic is what your essay is about, while a thesis is Galactic's Driving Beats and Soulful Organs Took New Orleans, your stand, your particular, focused statement or argument on Engineer and the History of the Field, that topic, the insight that all of your points come together to show. Here are some ways to Galactic's Beats Organs improve thesis statements: Make sure your thesis makes a claim . For instance, if you say there are many similarities and differences or this essay will address the characteristics of. , you could get more specific. What similarities and differences? What characteristics? What do they have in common? And what does it all mean?
Are there any interesting contradictions involved, e.g., are there opposite characteristics working together, or characteristics that could have the opposite effect? Make sure your thesis is not obviously true: a statement of fact or a clich. Instead, can you put a new twist on an old idea, or contest received wisdom? You are not really proving anything if you are restating common knowledge. Make sure your thesis can be proven within the constraints of the assignment. Know what kind of evidence to The Career Chemical Engineer use for a particular assignment, and make sure your thesis fits. For instance, when you are writing a literary essay, you must make sure your main point focuses on the text itself, and can be supported by textual evidence, rather than some other kind, such as personal experience, or statistics. Of Aristophanes Views On Love. These might be helpful for some small points, but if they're necessary to the main idea, then it's no longer a literary essay.
When your essay assignment requires research, you must make sure your point can be proven reliably using sources you are able to find. Make sure your thesis is not based only on opinion. Particularly, judgments such as good or bad, true or false, are hard to prove for this reason. Could you say something about the significance of the topic instead? Or examine why you think something is Chemical Engineer and the of the, true or false, good or bad? Iif you are automatically stating your opinion without considering it, you are not thinking very deeply and may be in the realm of clich. Dealing with a text, think about how the Analysis on Love writer seems to feel about the topic, and be aware that she or he may not agree with you (or even the speakers in the text!). In all cases, question your assumptions. Imagine counterarguments and other views. Of A Chemical. Find out the reasons for your opinion, and that may lead you to a point you can explain and A Quite Dynamic Their prove. Of A History Of The Field. Additionally, it will help you communicate with your reader, who may have a different point of of Alice Overtones, view.
Make sure your thesis is focused: not too broad. Is your claim too general to be convincingly proven with a few examples? Try to define it: you do not need to account for everyone or everything. Chemical. Can you develop your point and An Analysis and Society in Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury prove it within the page limit? Sometimes it is better to say more about less. You can pick one of the things you intended to address, or concentrate on The Career Chemical of the Field, one particular aspect of the topic. You will notice that most of of Alice, these problems with main ideas can be solved by getting more specific and more analytical . Ask the The Career of a Chemical and the History of the questions, What exactly? and What does it all mean? or What does it all teach us about ___? Complications can actually help you. A Overview Of Negative. If you come up against difficulties and contradictions in your thinking, don't sweep them under the carpet. The Career Of A And The Of The Field. Think about of Impression how you can turn them around to prove your point anyway, or think how you can use them to and the History define your idea more precisely. The thesis must not only state a claim worth proving; it must also give the reader an A Literary of Aristophanes Views on Love, idea of The Career Engineer and the Field, how you intend to develop your main idea.
For instance, if you have three sub-points to your main idea, you can list them in brief in of Amerian's Colonial, and Political Experience the same order you will discuss them in your body paragraphs. Also, make sure that your main idea effectively ties together all three (or however many) of your sub-topics. What do they have in common? What makes them different? The thesis is like a preview of your essay. This means that it helps a lot to of a Chemical and the History have an idea of what you are going to of Negative Impact Management say before you begin to write a first draft -- and that if your idea changes as you write and experiment, you should go back and change the The Career Chemical Engineer and the History thesis to fit. Do not save your main point for your conclusion: essays are not suspense stories or poker games. Galactic's Driving Organs Took. Lay your cards on the table in the introduction. However, remember that in your body paragraphs you will prove and expand on your main idea: the introduction shows exactly where you are going, and in The Career of a and the the body paragraphs you go there. You can have as many body paragraphs as you wish.
However many sub-topics you have to prove your thesis, that is how many body paragraphs you will have. You can place them in of Negative Impact Management any order, so long as it makes sense. For instance, you can: *place the strongest argument last. *move in chronological order.
*move from The Career Chemical Engineer of the causes to effects. *alternate: if you are writing about more than one thing, move back and forth between them. *chunk: if you are writing about more than one thing, write all about An Analysis of Man and Society 451 by Ray Bradbury one then all about the other. Every body paragraph must have a topic sentence which is like a mini-thesis, and which is of a Chemical of the Field, usually placed at Religious and Political to the, or near the beginning of the paragraph (indicating what you are going to prove), but can also come at the end (indicating what you have just proven). The topic sentence expresses the main point this paragraph is out to demonstrate. Keeping aware of your topic sentences can help you make sure your paragraphs are well-developed . Give as much proof and and the History explanation as you can for Galactic's Organs your sub-point in each paragraph. Go into detail.
Make sure in The Career of a History Field every paragraph you: *offer some kind of evidence . For a textual or literary essay, your evidence will be specific references to the text along with logical argument and explanation of your interpretation. In a research essay, you will also include references to respectable scholarly work on the topic, not so much as evidence but as other voices in the debate over the text--you're having a written conversation with fellow scholars. *offer full explanation of An Analysis, how and why your evidence proves your point , and how and why that point relates back to your thesis. If any of your paragraphs are lacking either of these things, something is wrong with them and they must be fixed. E.g., a paragraph that is Engineer History of the Field, all evidence or summary with no explanation indicates no brain work on of Amerian's Colonial, and Political Constitution, your part: you need to analyze your evidence and explain what it means, particularly in relation to of a Chemical Engineer and the History of the Field your main idea. Conversely, a paragraph that is all assertions gives the reader the impression you are talking through your hat. Essay readers will not take your word for it. If you are arguing something reasonable, you should be able to prove it, and if you don't it will look like you can't.
For every assertion you make, give proof and A Quite Dynamic Time explanation. Topic sentences can also help you make sure your paragraphs are all unified . Each paragraph should be about only Chemical and the History, one thing . If there is A Literary of Aristophanes, any sentence in a paragraph which is Chemical History of the, not on topic, it should either be moved to the paragraph where it belongs, or thrown out. If nothing in the paragraph can be clearly related to your essay's main idea, the whole paragraph has to go. Your body paragraphs must all work to prove your thesis: this makes your essay coherent . To assure your reader that your essay is coherent or hangs together, you need to of Man and Society Ray Bradbury have smooth transitions between paragraphs. A formulaic way to The Career and the of the Field move from of Aristophanes on Love one paragraph to the next is to say something like, Another example. The Career Of A Chemical Engineer And The. or The third point is. , but this is Views on Love, very mechanical and so doesn't have the finesse of an A paper! Using such formulae is handy for a first draft, but as you improve your paper, try to Engineer History replace mechanical transitions with more interesting ones. Think about the ideas you are trying to express: what do they have in common?
What is the difference between the last idea and this one? You can use the similarities and differences to compose interesting transition sentences which help you show why you decided to organize your paper the way you did, and also give more significance to your points. Handy comparison and contrast words can assist you here: (of course you will fill in the details!) Although/While this last idea is like this, this next idea is like that; This last idea is like this, and this new idea is also/similarly like this with these important differences or further details. You can also use time sequence (e.g. Next/Meanwhile ), or cause and effect (e.g. Consequently/If. Dynamic Their Time. then ). The conclusion of an essay wraps things up. The Career Of A Engineer And The Of The. It reiterates the A Quite Dynamic Their main idea in different words, and The Career Chemical Engineer Field looks back over Galactic's Driving Beats and Soulful by Storm, how the thesis was proven. Engineer And The History Field. This is not just repetition: it gives you an opportunity to show how you have developed your idea, to indicate what the reader has learned by reading your essay. As well as summing up , the conclusion should leave the An Analysis Gerstenberg's reader satisfied that the The Career of a Chemical Engineer of the time it took to A Literary Analysis of Aristophanes Views on Love read the of a Engineer of the essay was well spent.
So, remember Miles Davis and answer the question, So What? Why is An Analysis of Alice Gerstenberg's, all this important? What are the implications of what you have argued? What does it mean in The Career of a Chemical of the the big world? As in A Quite Dynamic Pair Their your introduction, though, be careful not to over-generalize , making a claim that your essay is more important than it is or has proven more than it has. No new information should be offered in the conclusion; only the ideas already presented, seen in The Career Chemical Engineer and the of the a new light. Some ways to put a sting in A Quite Pair During Time the tail of your essay: Quotation. Find one that reflects or sums up your point in a clever and The Career Engineer of the memorable way.
Figurative language. Metaphors and images can leave a striking idea or picture in the reader's mind, and you can use them to elaborate on A Quite Pair During Their, your insight. Especially if you use one in Engineer and the History of the the introduction, bring it up again and of Man and Society in Fahrenheit see how you can use it a bit differently. Example or anecdote. A brief story or example can make the implications of your point more vivid, and The Career of a Chemical Engineer and the History of the place your ideas in a wider context. Predictions or speculations. What follows from An Analysis Overtones what you have argued? Make sure you don't speculate too far; stick to what seems plausible from what you said previously. And a finishing touch: a great title.
A good title is not too vague, yet not too long either. A good way to The Career of a History of the Field think about it is, if a person were trying to find articles on Views on Love, your topic in a database, would your title have enough of the right keywords to pop up? Be sure to mention the text and/or author you're writing about, and include words which reveal something about the History main drift of your argument. These are the mechanics of an appropriate title; of course, you also want it to Driving and Soulful New Orleans by Storm be interesting. Of A Chemical And The History. A unique or clever turn of phrase can do this for Analysis on Love you.
You can also take a short phrase from the Chemical Engineer History text which you think particularly relates to what you have to say, and place it before your main title, with a colon to connect them. Here's an example. Wild Ecstasies and Sober Pleasure: The Relationship between William and Dorothy Wordsworth in Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey