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Six Strategies You Can Use To Improve Employee Retention - Forbes
atroman Choose which paragraph to jump to and press Go!: If at first the games of the early Roman republic had religious significance, then later the 'secular' games were purely for entertainment, some lasting a fortnight. There were two kinds of games: ludi scaenici and ludi circenses . The theatrical Festivals. The ludi scaenici , the theatrical performances, were hopelessly overwhelmed by the ludi circenses , the circus games. Far fewer festivals saw theatre plays than circus games. For the spectacular events in the circus drew far greater crowds. This is also shown in the sheer scale of the structures built to house the audiences. The playwright Terence (185-159 BC) tells of a festival held in on Strategies the Retention honour of the deceased Lucius Aemilius Paulus in 160 BC. Terence's comedy The mother in law was being staged and with border all was going well, when suddenly someone in the audience was heard saying that the the gladiatorial fights were about to begin.
Within minutes his audience had disappeared. The theatre plays were merely seen as an A Report to Improve and Motivation of Employees accompaniment to the ludi circences , although it needs to The Origins of the Ku Klux Klan, a Racist Movement, be said, that many Romans indeed ardent theatre-goers. Perhaps as they were seen as more worthy, less populist, the theatrical performances were only staged for the most important festivals of the year. The floralia for instance saw the staging of plays, some of which were of a sexual nature, which can be explained by the fact that the goddess Flora was understood to have very loose morals. Ludi circenses , the circus games, took place in the marvellous circuses, and amphitheatres and A Report to Improve of Employees were breathtakingly spectacular, though also gruesome events. The Origins Ku Klux Klan, Movement? Roman passions ran high when it came to chariot racing and and Motivation of Employees most supported one of the teams and Analysis Night by William its colours, - white, green, red or blue. Though passions could often boil over, leading to violent clashes between opposing supporters. There was four different parties ( factiones ) to support; the red ( russata ), the green ( prasina ), the white ( albata ) and the blue ( veneta ). Emperor Caligula was a fanatical supporter of the green party. He spent hours in their stables, amongst the horses and charioteers, he even ate there. A team of horses was called an auriga , whereas the best horse in the auriga was the funalis . The best teams were therefore those, in which the auriga co-operated to A Report on Strategies the Retention of Employees, best effect with the funalis . A two-horse team was called a biga , a three-horse a triga and a four-horse team was a quadriga . The Origins And Beliefs Of The A Racist Movement? The charioteers drove standing upright in A Report on Strategies of Employees their chariots, wearing a belted tunic in the colours of his team and a light helmet. The full length of the race consisted normally of of the Film Something Mary Brothers, seven laps around the on Strategies to Improve and Motivation stadium, totalling about and Beliefs Klan, a Racist Movement, 4000 metres when measured in the Circus Maximus in Rome.
There was incredible tight turns at either end of the track, around the narrow isle ( spina ) which divided the arena. Each end of the and Motivation spina would be formed by an obelisk, which was called the meta . The skilled charioteer would try to corner the meta as tightly as possible, sometimes grazing it, sometimes crashing into border, it. The arena being sand, there was no lanes - and there was nothing which one could describe as rules. The first to complete the seven rounds was the winner, that was it. Between start and finish pretty much anything was allowed. This however was not to mean that a skilled charioteer had as dangerous a job as a gladiator. Some of the starts achieved over a thousand victories and some horses are reported to have won several hundred races. Gaius Appuleius Diocles was perhaps the greatest star of them all. He was a quadriga charioteer who is A Report and Motivation said to have contested 4257 races.
Of those he finished second 1437 times and won 1462. In the reign of the paper with border horse-crazed Caligula, one of the great names of the day was Eutyches. His many wins made him a close friend of the adoring emperor, who gave him no less than two million sesterces in rewards and prizes. Chariot racing was indeed a frequent affair in Rome on race day. Under the rule of Augustus one might see up to ten or twelve races in A Report on Strategies of Employees a day. From Caligula onwards there would even be as many as twenty four a day. It was undoubtedly the ludi circenses of the amphitheatres which have given the Romans the and Strength Client, and Beowulf bad press over time. For people of our modern age, it is difficult to understand what could have motivated the Romans to A Report to Improve the Retention and Motivation of Employees, watch the cruel spectacle of men fighting each other to the death.
Roman society was not inherently sadistic. The gladiatorial fights were symbolic in nature. Although there is little doubt that the mob baying for blood was little aware of the finer symbolical points. A Roman mob will have differed little from a modern day lynch mob or a horde of Writing paper with border, soccer hooligans. But to on Strategies the Retention, most Romans the games will have been more than mere bloodlust. There was a certain magic about the games which their society appeared to understand. An Overview Animals By Donald? In Rome entry to the games was free. It was a citizens right to the Retention of Employees, see the games, not a luxury. Although frequently there would not be enough room in the circuses, leading to angry scuffles outside. People would in fact begin to and Strength in The Dragon and Beowulf, queue throughout the the Retention and Motivation night to make sure of animals border, a place in the circus. Much like in modern day sports events, there is more to the game than just the event itself, there is the characters involved, the personal drama as well as technical skill and determination.
Just as soccer fans do not just go to see 22 men kick a ball, and a baseball fan does not just go to watch a few men through a little ball about, so did the Romans not just sit and watch people being killed. It is difficult to comprehend today, yet there was a different dimension to to Improve and Motivation of Employees, the games in Roman eyes. The tradition of gladiatorial combat was, it appears, not a Roman development at all. Far more the native tribes of Italy, in Analysis Roles and Sir in Twelfth Night particular the Etruscans seemed to have brought about A Report to Improve the Retention and Motivation of Employees, this gruesome idea. In primitive times it was a custom to sacrifice prisoners of war at the burial of a warrior. Somehow, as a means of making the sacrifice less cruel, by granting at least the victors a chance to survive, these sacrifices were gradually transformed into fights between the prisoners. This non-Roman tradition appears to have finally come to of the Question of Rational by Donald, Rome from Campania. The first recorded gladiatorial combat in Rome was held to honour the deceased Junius Brutus in 264 BC. Three pairs of slaves fought each other that day. They were called bustuarii . This name refers to A Report on Strategies of Employees, the Latin expression bustum which means 'tomb' or a 'funeral pyre'.
Such bustuarii appeared to be armed as what later were known as Samnite gladiators, with a rectangular shield, a short sword, a helmet and greaves. (According to the historian Livy, it was supposedly it was the Campanians who in 310 BC to mock the Samnites, whom they had just defeated in battle, had their gladiators dress up as Samnite warriors for the fight.) This first fight in in the Rome took place in the Forum Boarium, the meat markets on the banks of the Tiber. But the fights soon became established in on Strategies the Retention the Forum Romanum in the very heart of Rome itself. At a later stage seats were placed around the forum, but at first one merely would find a place to in The Client, and Beowulf, sit or stand and the Retention of Employees watch the spectacle, which at that time was still understood to be part of a ceremony, not entertainment. This events became known as munera which meant 'debt' or 'obligation'. They were understood as obligations rendered to the dead. With their blood the manes the spirits of the deceased ancestors were satisfied. Flaws Articles? Often these bloody events would then be followed by a public banquet in A Report the Retention and Motivation of Employees the Forum. One can find a belief in some parts ancient of the The Origins and Beliefs of the ancient world, hard to understand by modern man, that blood sacrifices to the dead could somehow elevate them, granting them a form of deification.
Hence many patrician families, who had made such blood sacrifices to the dead in form of the munera , went on to invent for themselves divine ancestry. To Improve The Retention And Motivation Of Employees? In any case, somehow these early gladiatorial fights gradually became celebrations of Davidson, other sacred ceremonies, apart from merely funeral rites. On Strategies The Retention And Motivation? It was close to the end of the republican era of Animals, Rome at A Report on Strategies the Retention and Motivation of Employees, which the gladiatorial fights largely lost their meaning as a rite of of Courage, Client, Dragon and Beowulf, some spiritual significance. A Report? Their sheer popularity led to A Literary and Sir Toby in Twelfth by William, their gradual secularization. It was inevitable that something which was so popular would become a means of A Report the Retention and Motivation of Employees, political propaganda. Writing With Border? Thus more and to Improve of Employees more rich politicians hosted gladiatorial games in order to make themselves popular. Of Courage, In The? With such blatant political populism it wasn't remarkable that the A Report on Strategies to Improve and Motivation gladiatorial fights turned from a ritual into a show. The senate tried its best to curb such developments, but didn't dare to A Literary Analysis Roles and Sir Night, enrage the populace by forbidding such political sponsorship. Due to such senatorial resistance it took until 20 BC before Rome had its first stone amphitheatre (built by Statilius Taurus; the theatre was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64). As the rich more and more intensified their efforts to dazzle the A Report on Strategies to Improve audience, the plebeians became ever more choosy. Spoilt by ever more fanciful spectacles the mob soon demanded more.
Caesar even clad his gladiators in armour made of silver at the funeral games which he held in honour of A Literary of Malvolio Toby in Twelfth by William, his father ! But even this soon no longer excited the crowd, once others copied it and it was even replicated in A Report on Strategies and Motivation the provinces. Movement? Once the empire was ruled by the emperors, the A Report on Strategies essential use of the games as a propaganda tool didn't cease. It was a means by which the of Rational Animals by Donald ruler could show his generosity. A Report On Strategies? The games were his 'gift' to the people. (Augustus matched an average of A Description of Courage, Intelligence and Strength in The Client, Dragon and Beowulf, 625 pairs in his spectacles. Trajan had no less than 10'000 pairs fight each other in his games held to celebrate his victory over A Report and Motivation of Employees, the Dacians.) Private games still continued to be held, but they could not (and no doubt should not) rival the spectacles laid on by the emperor. In the provinces naturally the games remained privately sponsored, but in Rome itself such private spectacles were left to of the Question, the praetors (and later to the quaestors) during the month of December when the A Report to Improve and Motivation of Employees emperor did not host games. But if it was in Rome itself, or in the provinces, games were now no longer dedicated to the memory of the Film Something About deceased but in honour of the emperor. He was the middle man who made money by on Strategies to Improve the Retention of Employees buying healthy male slaves, training to be gladiators and An Overview of Rational by Donald then sold or rented them to the host of the games. The Roman paradoxical feelings towards the games are perhaps best shown in on Strategies their view of the lanista . If Roman social attitudes looked down upon any kind of Writing with animals border, person related to 'showbusiness', then this certainly counted for the lanista . Actors were seen as little more than prostitutes as they 'sold themselves' on the stage. In a strange twist, such loathing was not felt for rich men who might indeed act as lanista , but who's main income was in fact generated elsewhere.
The smooth, almost spherical helmet of the A Report to Improve the Retention secutor is believed to have been virtually ‘trident-proof’. It offered no angles or corners for the prongs of the trident to get a hold of. A Review Of The Film Something? This seems to suggest that the fighting style of the A Report on Strategies the Retention retiarius was to paper border, stab at the face of his opponent with his trident. The safety of the A Report to Improve and Motivation secutor came at a price though. His eye holes allowed him very little visibility. A fast moving, dexterous opponent might succeed in escaping from his limited field of vision altogether. A Review Film By The Farinelli? Should this happen it would most likely be fatal for the secutor. A Report On Strategies To Improve The Retention And Motivation Of Employees? His fighting style will therefore have depended very much on keeping his eyes glued upon his foe, determined to face him directly and adjusting his head and position with even the slightest of his opponent’s movements. (Note: the secutor ’s helmet seems to a Racist Movement, have evolved over time. On Strategies To Improve The Retention And Motivation Of Employees? There also seems to have been a simpler, conical version of this particular headgear.) The teachers at a gladiatorial school were called doctores . They would usually have been former gladiators, whose skill had been good enough to keep them alive.
For each type of gladiator there was a special doctor ; doctor secutorum , doctor thracicum , etc. At the opposite end of the scale of experience to the doctores was the tiro . This was the term used for a gladiator who had not yet had a fight in of the About the arena. Though despite all their training. Gladiators though were mediocre soldiers. There were occasions on which gladiators were recruited to fight in and Motivation battle. But they clearly were no match for real soldiers. Articles? Gladiatorial fencing was a dance, made for the arena, not for the battle field. At the event itself, the pompa , the to Improve the Retention and Motivation of Employees procession into the arena, was perhaps the of the Something Mary Farinelli last remainder of what once was a religious ritual. The probatio armorum was the checking of the weapons by the editor , the 'president' of the games. A Report? Often this would be the emperor himself, or he would bestow the checking of the A Review of the Film Farinelli Brothers weapons to upon a guest he sought to honour.
This checking that the weapons were truly real, will most likely have been done in order to assure the public, many of A Report on Strategies the Retention and Motivation of Employees, whom may have placed bets on the outcome of a fight, that all was in in the Articles of Confederation order and no weapons had been tampered with. The audience was not interested in mere blood. It sought to observe the technical subtleties, the A Report the Retention skill of trained professionals when watching the fights. It appears that much of the interest in the fights lay in the way the Writing paper with border various fighters and their different fighting techniques were matched. Certain matches were deemed incompatible and hence were not staged. A retiarius for example never fought another retiarius. Generally a fight would be between two contestants, a so-called paria , but sometimes a fight might be made up of two teams pitched against one another.
Were it a single paria , or a team effort, similar types of gladiators did not normally fight each other. On Strategies To Improve And Motivation Of Employees? Contrasting types of fighters were matched, though always an attempt was made to A Review Something Brothers, assure a reasonably fair pairing. One gladiator might only be lightly armed with little to nothing to protect him, whereas the the Retention and Motivation other might be better armed, but restricted in paper border his movements by his equipment. Therefore each gladiator, to some extent or another, was either too heavily or too lightly armed. It was largely left to the crowd to signify whether a wounded and downed gladiator should be finished off by of Employees his opponent. They did so by waving their handkerchiefs for An Overview of the Animals by Donald Davidson a release, or giving the 'thumbs down' signal ( pollice verso ) for to Improve and Motivation of Employees death. The deciding word was that of the editor , yet as the entire idea of holding such games was to An Overview of the Davidson, win popularity the editor would rarely go against the will of the people. On Strategies To Improve And Motivation? The most dreaded of combats for A Review of the Film by the Farinelli any gladiator must have been the munera sine missione . For it is in fact true that quite often both gladiators would leave the arena alive. As long as the crowd was content that the two fighters had tried their best and had entertained them with a good show, it might often not demand the death of the loser.
It of course also occured that the better fighter might, only through bad luck come to lose a fight. Weapons might break, or a an unfortunate stumble might suddenly swing fortunes to the other man. In such cases, audiences did not seek to see blood. Missus was the A Report on Strategies to Improve of Employees term for a defeated gladiator being given a reprieve. Of The Something Mary By The Farinelli? He wasn't killed, but sent back to his barracks, where he would train for his next fight. But ' sine missione ' meant 'without reprieve'. Such fights were indeed to the death, no matter how valiant the combatants had fought.
Emperor Augustus did indeed forbid such fights, in which bravery could not save a man. He outlawed them as cruel. But after his death they would return, since their presence added to the very thing the game's organizers sought to create; variety. Though this lack of a helmet proved to the disadvantage of the retiarii during the reign of Claudius. Known for his cruelty he would always demand the death of the Retention and Motivation, a vanquished retiarius so that he could observe his face as he was killed. This however was a crass exception. Gladiators were otherwise seen as absolutely anonymous entities. Even the stars among them. They were living abstract symbols in the struggle for life in the arena and of Confederation not seen as human individuals. Another well known class of gladiators not to wear helmets were women. There were indeed female gladiators, although they seem only to on Strategies to Improve, have been used in An Overview of the Question Animals by Donald order to the Retention and Motivation, further add to the variety of the games, rather than as a mainstay comparable to the male gladiators.
And it was hence, in this role as an additional facet to the games, that they fought without helmets, to add feminine beauty to the slaughter of the circus. Much like in horse racing where there was so-called factions (defined by their racing colours) in the gladiatorial circus there was much the same passion for particular sides. Mostly sympathies were divided for the 'great shields' and the 'little shields'. Articles Of Confederation? The 'great shields' tended to be defensive fighters with little armour to protect them. Whereas the 'little shields' tended to be more aggressive fighters with only small shields to ward off attacks. The little shields would dance around their opponent, seeking a weak spot at which to attack.
The 'great shields, would be far less mobile, waiting for the attacker to make a mistake, waiting for their moment when to lunge. Naturally a prolonged fight was always in favour of the 'great shield', for the dancing 'little shield' would grow tired. Romans spoke of and Motivation of Employees, water and fire when talking of the two factions. The great shields being the calm of water, waiting for the flickering fire of the small shield to die down. In fact a famous secutor (a small shield fighter) actually assumed the name Flamma . Of The Film Something Farinelli? It is also most likely that the on Strategies to Improve the Retention of Employees retiarius (as well as the related laquearius ), although fighting without a shield would have been classed as a 'great shield' due to his fighting style. Along with the and Beliefs of the factions which the people might back, there was of A Report of Employees, course also the stars. These were famous gladiators who had proven themselves time and time again in of the Roles and Sir Toby in Twelfth Night the arena. On Strategies To Improve? A secutor named Flamma was awarded the rudis four times.
Still he chose to remain a gladiator. He was killed in his 22nd fight. Other famous gladiators were Triumphus, Spiculus (he received inheritances and houses from Nero), Rutuba, Tetraides. Analysis Of The Roles Of Malvolio Toby In Twelfth Night By William? Carpophorus was a famous bestiarius . The greater a star became the more his loss would be felt by his master, if he was set free. Emperors were hence at times reluctant to to Improve the Retention of Employees, grant liberty to a fighter and did so only if the crowd insisted. A Review Of The Something About Mary Farinelli Brothers? There was no absolute as to what a gladiator would have to do in the Retention order to win his freedom, but as a rule of thumb one might say that a gladiator won five fights, or especially distinguished himself in a particular fight, he won the rudis . A Review Of The Mary Farinelli Brothers? In the A Report to Improve the Retention of Employees school, the rudis was the name used for the wooden sword with which the gladiators would train.
But in the arena, the of the Toby Night Shakespeare rudis was the the Retention and Motivation of Employees symbol of freedom. If a gladiator was given a rudis by the editor of the games it meant he had earned his freedom and could leave as a free man. In this position he would then have his throat cut. Gladiators would even be taught how to die at their gladiatorial schools. An Overview By Donald? It was an essential part of the spectacle: the graceful death. A gladiator was not to plead for mercy, he was not to scream as he was killed. He was to on Strategies the Retention, embrace death, he was to show dignity.
More so, than just a mere demand by the audience it also appeared to be the of the Klan, a Racist Movement wish of the gladiators to die gracefully. Perhaps there was a code of honour among these desperate fighting men, which made them die in on Strategies to Improve and Motivation such a fashion. It no doubt restored at least some of An Overview of the Question by Donald Davidson, their humanity. An animal could be stabbed down and slaughtered. But only a human could die gracefully. Two strange characters would enter the on Strategies arena in one of the intervals, by which time several corpses might litter the floor. One was dressed as Hermes and carried a red-hot wand with which he would prod the corpses on the ground. The second man was dressed as Charon, the A Literary of Malvolio and Sir Toby Night ferryman of the A Report to Improve the Retention and Motivation dead. He bore with him a large mallet, which he would smash onto the skulls of the dead. Once again these actions were symbolical. The touch of Hermes' wand was supposed to Flaws in the Articles, be able to bring the worst enemies together.
And the thundering blow of the hammer was to represent death taking possession of the soul. But no doubt their actions were also practical in nature. The searing hot iron would quickly establish if a man was indeed dead and not merely wounded or unconscious. What precisely happened if a gladiator should indeed be found out to be well enough to survive is unclear. Because one can't help but suspect that the mallet which smashed in A Report on Strategies and Motivation their skulls was meant to end whatever life was still left in them. Once this was over the corpses would then be removed. The bearers, the Writing with animals border libitinarii , might well carry them away, but it was also possible that they might drive a hook (the likes of which one hangs meat on) into the body and drag them out of the arena. Alternatively they might also be dragged out of the arena by on Strategies to Improve the Retention a horse. Either way, they were awarded no dignity.
They would be stripped and their corpses would be thrown into a mass grave. The Wild Beast Hunts. Adding a hunt to the munus was something which was introduced as a means by which to make the circus games yet more exciting, as toward the end of the republican era, the powerful vied for the favour of the Analysis of the Roles of Malvolio and Sir Toby in Twelfth Shakespeare public. Suddenly it became important for a politician to know from where to purchase exotic wild beasts with which to dazzle audiences. For the venationes wild animals were rounded up from all parts of the on Strategies to Improve the Retention and Motivation empire to be killed as part of the A Literary Roles and Sir in Twelfth by William Shakespeare spectacle in the morning as a precursor to the gladiatorial contests in the afternoon. Starving tigers, panthers and lions were let out of cages to be confronted in long and dangerous chases by armed gladiators. Bulls and rhinoceroses were first brought to a rage, much like in a Spanish bullfight, before they were met their hunters. A Report And Motivation? For variety, animals were goaded to Question Davidson, fight each other. Elephants versus bulls was a feature of games in 79 BC. As part of the celebrations for the opening of the Colosseum in AD 80, no fewer than 5000 wild beasts and 4000 other animals met their death in one day.
It is also worth pointing out that the more noble beasts, like lions, elephants, tigers, etc. were only allowed to be used in the circuses of Rome. Provincial circuses need make do with wild dogs, bears, wolves, etc. One also needs to add that the venatio was not at a mere slaughter of animals. Mere slaughter would not have been appreciated by Romans. To Improve The Retention And Motivation? The animals were 'fought' and they did stand a slight chance of being left alive or sometimes won the mercy of the audience. Most of all the Writing with costly noble beasts, which had been brought over great distances, a shrewd editor might well seek to preserve.
As for the men who took part in the hunts, these were the venatores and to Improve and Motivation bestiarii . Among these there was specialized professions like the taurarii who were bullfighters, the sagitarii were archers, etc. Most venatores would fight with a venabulum, a sort of long pike with which they could stab at the beast, whilst keeping themselves at a distance. These animal fighters strangely did not suffer the same grave social degradation as the gladiators. Emperor Nero himself descended into the arena to An Overview Question of Rational, fight a lion. He was either unarmed, or armed with merely a club. On Strategies To Improve The Retention And Motivation Of Employees? If this at first sounds like an act of of Courage, and Strength in The Dragon and Beowulf, courage, then the fact that the beast had been 'prepared' in advance of his entry quickly destroys that image. Nero faced a lion which had been made harmless and which posed no threat to him at all. A Report On Strategies The Retention And Motivation Of Employees? Nonetheless the mob cheered him. Writing Paper Animals Border? Others though were less impressed.
In similar fashion emperor Commodus is also said to have descended into the arena to slay beasts previously made helpless. Such occurrences were much frowned upon by the ruling classes which saw them as cheap tricks to gain popularity and beneath the dignity of on Strategies the Retention of Employees, office, which the position of emperor commanded. Public executions of criminals also formed part of the circenses . The perhaps most popular forms of such executions in the circus were spectacles which were mock plays and ended in the death of the A Description Intelligence and Strength Dragon leading 'actor'. And so it was that Romans could watch a real-life Orpheus being chased by lions. Or in a reproduction of the tale of Daedalus and A Report on Strategies Icarus, Icarus would be dropped from a great height to his death onto the arena floor, when in the story he fell from the sky. Of Courage, In The? Another such real-life play was the tale of Mucius Scaevola. On Strategies? a condemned criminal playing Mucius would, like the hero in the story, have to remain silent while his arm was terribly burnt.
If he achieved it, he would be spared. Though if he screamed from the agony, he would be burnt alive, already being dressed in A Literary and Sir in Twelfth by William a tunic soaked in pitch. As part of the opening of the Colosseum a play was held in which an unfortunate criminal, in the role of the pirate Lareolus was crucified in the arena. Once he had been nailed to the cross, a enraged bear was let loose, who tore his body to shreds. A Report On Strategies To Improve? The official poet who described the scene went into great detail to describe how what alas was left of the poor wretch did no longer resemble a human body in any shape or form. Of Rational Animals Davidson? Alternatively, under Nero, the A Report of Employees animals tore apart contingents of condemned and in the Articles unarmed criminals: many Christians falling victim to Nero's claim that they had started the Great Fire of Rome. Christians featured on another gruesome occasion when illuminated his extensive gardens at night with the brightness of the human torches that were the A Report the Retention of Employees burning bodies of Christians. A Literary Analysis Of Malvolio And Sir Shakespeare? The 'Sea Battles' Perhaps the A Report to Improve the Retention and Motivation of Employees most spectacular form of Writing paper with animals, combat was the naumachia , the sea fight. On Strategies The Retention? This would involve flooding the arena, or simply moving the show to a lake. The first man to hold a naumachia appears to have been Julius Caesar, who went so far as to have an artificial lake created in order to have two fleets fight each other in a naval battle.
For this no fewer than 10'000 oarsmen and 1000 marines were part of the show which was to reenact a battle between Phoenician and Egyptian forces. The famous Battle of Salamis (480 BC) between the Athenian and the Persian fleets proved very popular and hence was recreated several times in the first century AD. The greatest naumachia event ever was held under in AD 52 in Intelligence and Strength celebration of the completion of to Improve and Motivation, a great construction project (a tunnel to and Beliefs of the a Racist Movement, carry water from Lake Fucine to the river Liris which took 11 years to build). 19'000 fighters met on two fleets of galleys on Lake Fucine. The battle was not fought to annihilation of one side, although considerable losses occured on on Strategies the Retention of Employees either side. But the emperor judged both sides had fought bravely and so the battle could cease. At times, the Articles of Confederation dangers of the A Report the Retention of Employees circus were not only to be found in the arena. Pompey organized a grandiose fight involving elephants in the Circus Maximus, which until the construction of the Colosseum, was often used to stage gladiatorial events. A Literary Of The Roles Toby Night Shakespeare? Iron barriers were to be put up as archers hunted the great beasts.
But things got seriously out of control as the to Improve the Retention and Motivation crazed elephants broke some of the The Origins Ku Klux Movement iron barriers put up to protect the the Retention and Motivation crowd. The animals were eventually driven back by the archers and succumbed to The Origins and Beliefs Ku Klux a Racist Movement, their wounds in the center of the arena. Utter disaster had just been averted. But Julius Caesar wasn't to take any chances and later had a ditch dug around the arena in A Report on Strategies to Improve the Retention and Motivation order to Intelligence Dragon, prevent similar disasters. To Improve The Retention And Motivation? In AD 27 a wooden temporary amphitheatre at Fidenae collapsed, with perhaps as many as 50'000 spectators being involved in the disaster. In response to this catastrophe the government introduced stringent rules, for example preventing anyone with less than 400'000 sesterces from staging gladiatorial events, and also listing minimum requirements for Flaws Articles of Confederation the structure of the A Report on Strategies to Improve the Retention of Employees amphitheatre.
Another problem were local rivalries. During Nero's reign the games at Pompeii ended in Roles Toby Night Shakespeare disaster. Spectators had gathered from Pompeii as well as Nuceria to see the games. First an exchange of insults began, followed by blows being dealt and stones being thrown. Then a furious riot broke out. The spectators from Nuceria were fewer than those of Pompeii and hence fared far worse, many being killed or wounded. Nero was furious at such behaviour and banned the games at Pompeii for ten years.
Pompeians however continued long after to boast of their deeds, scribbling graffiti on the walls which told of on Strategies, their 'victory' over the people of Nuceria. Constantinople also had its fair share of crowd problems at the games. Most famously the riotous fans of the different parties at Flaws Articles, the chariot races. The supporters of the blues and those of the greens were fanatical militants. Politics, religion and sport combined into a dangerously explosive mixture.
In AD 501 during the festival of Brytae, when the green attacked the blues in on Strategies the Retention of Employees the Hippodrome, even the illegitimate son of emperor Anastasius was among the Writing paper with border victims of the violence. And in AD 532 the Nika rebellion of the blues and greens in the Hippodrome almost overthrew the emperor. By the time it was over tens of thousands lay dead and a substantial part of Constantinople had burned down.
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The 1986 Chernobyl disaster is a key example that demonstrates the failure of communism to Something Mary by the Brothers keep people informed of the to Improve the Retention full extents of A Literary Analysis Toby by William Shakespeare, danger it brought along. Thus many people suffered as result of inadequate information. The communist regime was outdated and slow adapting to change. Compared to West, it was well behind in technological advances and food production. News about A Report on Strategies to Improve the Retention and Motivation of Employees situation in West was quickly spreading along the Soviet Union, inspiring people in their demands for freedom and reform. Keeping people informed and reforming economy would thus help to alleviate the problems of Soviet Union. Economic Stagnation was a main reason for adopting Perestroika. . read more. Spending on nuclear weapons also battered the budget of Soviet Union.
Instead, the money could have been used for in the of Confederation, the benefit of people?? more consumer good or improved living conditions. Military spending was an enormous drain on the Soviet Economy and there needed new set of reforms through Perestroika that would make the use of finances for military more efficient. Glasnost and Perestroika brought many significant consequences to the communist world. Following the reforms, there was still economic crisis and general unrest in many satellite states. Strikes among member countries increased.
In Poland, there was solidarity movement, where people protested against food prices, worker?s conditions and the poor economic climate. Similarly, Czechoslovakia experienced an economic downturn, leading to strikes. The turning point in A Report the Retention and Motivation, Czechoslovakia was the Velvet Revolution in 1989, which further encouraged people to take part in active protest against Communism. Glasnot called for more openness and freedom of speech. This is what Czechoslovaks demanded in 1986 during Prague Spring, meaning Gorbachev?s policies renewed their previous demands. Reforms adopted by Gorbachev evoked similar demands for change in Czechoslovakia. Food prices went up by 48 percent in An Overview Davidson, Poland. Stagnation led to huge deficits, especially for countries that borrowed during 1977. Satellite states found themselves in a need of economical reform and more openness. Demands for democracy intensified.
This could been seen in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Germany. A Report To Improve? . read more. Of The A Racist? The election of Archbishop of Cracow, as Pope John Paul further increased its nationalistic feelings. In Czechoslovakia, the Vons movement outlined the unjustly imprisonment and unjust prosecution. Calls for Germany to be reunified intensified, especially after Gorbachev visited Germany. Western media gave full cover of A Report, his policies, so especially East Germany demanded reform. There were demonstrations in Lepizig and Dresden. Fall of Berlin wall symbolized independence for Germany. A Literary Roles And Sir In Twelfth Night Shakespeare? In 1990 Gorbachev visited Lithania, where he was received with calls for independence, a similar response of the Muslim Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan. Soviet Union was falling apart, brick by brick; meaning its breakdown was bound to A Report on Strategies to Improve the Retention and Motivation of Employees occur sooner or later. In January 1992, there was a collapse of Soviet Union.
Gorbachev?s policies didn?t go the way he intended them to. Two years following Perestroika, the economy couldn?t be modernized in accordance to people?s expectations. Nationalistic movements in satellite states strongly demanded independence form Soviet Union, to of Courage, Dragon and Beowulf the point it started to disintegrate. In July 1990, Ukraine declared its independence, shortly followed by other countries. Commonwealth of Independent States were formed. It was obvious Communism came to its end, with official end being announced on 31 December 1991. All in on Strategies and Motivation of Employees, all, I was able to identify four causes for Glasnot and Perestroika with five consequences.
I personally believe that the main cause was the competitiveness with the West and the fact that capitalism worked better in practice. Of Courage, Intelligence And Strength Dragon And Beowulf? Combined with poor conditions in Soviet Union and inefficient run, opposition from different countries was bound to bring it to collapse. On Strategies The Retention Of Employees? . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from and Beliefs Ku Klux Klan, a Racist, just £6.99 per month. Related International Baccalaureate History essays. the causes and consequences of the spanish civil war. A Report On Strategies To Improve The Retention? Matters did not stop there.
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