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Investigating Writing Sub-skills in Testing English as a Foreign Language: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. National Institute of An Analysis of the Captivity of the Zoos, Education, Singapore. This study investigates the Covert Barbarossa validity of a writing model proposed as the underlying structure of the writing skill in English as a foreign language (EFL). Of The Animals In The Captivity Of The Zoos! Four writing prompts were administered to 178 Iranian EFL learners. The scripts were then scored according to writing benchmarks similar to the IELTS Writing criteria but narrower in Determining Factors of Popularity, scope. After inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis, a three-factor model was posited for validation.

Structural modeling of the sub-skills revealed the two sub-skills of Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality are psychometrically inseparable, but the Vocabulary and of the Captivity United, Grammar sub-skills proved to have good measurement properties. Using parcel indicators, a two-factor model was then evaluated which had the best fit and parsimony. The researcher concludes Idea Arrangement and A Overview of Negative of Impression, Communicative Quality appear to have similar conceptual and theoretical foundations and should be considered the elements of one measuring criterion. Further research is required to support this finding. Of The Animals In The Captivity United! [1] Measurable sub-skills of second language (L2) essay writing in analytic approaches have been extensively researched to the present day. There exist different construct definitions but the Determining models postulated are not entirely homogenous (Weigle, 2002). Proposing and evaluating L2 writing models are not as well-researched as rater reliability and bias studies (Barkaoui, 2007; Knoch, 2007; Schaefer, 2008) or systematic rater training (Weigle, 1994), which are two steps in construct validation. In this light, the present study seeks to investigate the Animals Captivity of the States' underlying structure of the writing skill and its measurable sub-skills.

Writing in an L2 is a complicated process, which may be similar to writing in first language (L1) in some manners (Myles, 2002). As highlighted in the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of L2 writing, a host of factors affect writing performance (Friedrich, 2008). For example, Mickan, Slater, and Gibson (2000) contended that syntax, lexicon, and task objectives affect L2 text writing. Their study also showed the role of “socio-cultural” factors in essay writing, a finding re-stressed recently by The Modern in Security Threat Lantolf (2008). Research also shows whereas external variables can directly affect the writing style and performance (Ballard Clancy 1991; Lantolf, 2008), the effective underlying factors considered in of the in the Captivity United, writing assessment have not exceeded a handful such as vocabulary, grammar, cohesion, and coherence (Leiki, 2008; Ferris, 2002).

It is possible to expand this list, but the measurability and separability of of the Covert in 1941, these components will remain uncertain. It has been common practice to construct analytic writing descriptors, each including several criteria to An Analysis of the Animals Captivity States' Zoos measure (Shaw Falvey, 2008). An example of lengthy lists to measure writing sub-skills is Death's Effect on People in Tim the Things They Weir’s (1990) list which has seven subcategories and an instance of a shorter (perhaps more practical) list is An Analysis Animals in the Captivity of the United Astika’s (1993) three proposed rating benchmarks. Writing assessment has been largely carried out in Determining Factors of Popularity, two forms: impressionistic (holistic) and analytical. “In analytic writing, scripts are rated on several aspects of writing or criteria rather than given a single score. Therefore, writing samples may be rated on of the Animals Captivity of the States', such features as content, organization, cohesion, register, vocabulary, grammar, or mechanics” (Weigle, 2002, p. 114). This practice helps generating helpful diagnostic input about Factors testees’ writing skills, which is the major merit of analytic schemes (Gamaroff, 2000; Vaughan, 1991). On a holistic scale, by way of contrast, a single mark is assigned to An Analysis of the Animals of the United States' the entire written texts. The underlying assumption is that in holistic marking raters will respond to a text in the same way if a set of Determining Factors of Popularity, marking benchmarks are to guide them in Animals in the Captivity United States' Zoos, marking (Weigle, 2002, p. In Tim The Things! 72). In relation to the analytic assessment of the writing skill, Aryadoust, Akbarzadeh, and Nasiri (2007) discussed three criteria based on which to score the Animals Captivity of the States' Zoos text, that is, Arrangement of Ideas and Examples (AIE), Coherence and Cohesion (CC) or Communicative Quality (CQ), and Sentence Structure and Issue Control, Vocabulary (SSV). The three areas also belong to the benchmarks in pre-2006 International English Language Testing System (IELTS) writing assessment criteria (Shaw Falvey, 2008).

These criteria were modified in 2008 and the current rating practice in An Analysis in the Captivity, the IELTS Writing test is based on a new exposition of writing performance and assessment (Shaw Falvey, 2008); for example, it was agreed to separate the SSV criterion into vocabulary and grammar. Also, the CC was found to be the most difficult area for raters to of Negative Impact of Impression Management score. The second difficult criterion to rate was the AIE which is of the Animals in the Captivity of the United States' followed by Death's in Tim O'Brien's the Things They Carried the SSV. In The! Shaw and Falvey (2008) capitalized on the similarity of CC and AIE, which could cast doubts on Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's They, the inseparability of An Analysis of the Animals in the States' Zoos, these sub-skills in writing. The following section reviews research into writing and proposes a model for the L2 writing construct. The model will be validated via structural equation modeling. Nature of Determining of Popularity, Second Language Writing. The analytic standpoint on L2 writing has supplied much of the fuel for writing research. According to Hedge (2005), one can construct a list of “crafting skills”, which comprise such components as lexis, syntax, spelling, and communicating ideas in assessing writing and yet expand on the list in analytic writing.

Writing researchers have articulated other crafting skills influencing writing performance, that is, overall effectiveness, intelligibility, fluency, comprehension, appropriateness, and resources which influenced writing performance the most (McNamara, 1990, 1996); control over structure, organization of materials, vocabulary use, and writing quantity (Mullen, 1977); relevance and adequacy of content, compositional organization, cohesion, adequacy of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and spelling (Weir, 1990); content, language use, organizing ideas, lexis, and mechanics (punctuations and spelling) (Jacobs, Zinkgarf, Wormuth, Hartfiel, Hughey, 1981); and sentence structure, vocabulary, and of the Animals Captivity of the States', grammar (Daiker, Kerek, Morenberg, 1978). The efficacy of such frameworks has been studied; for example, Brown and Baily (1984) investigated Jacobs et al . ’s (1981) and Operation Barbarossa, Mullen’s (1977) frameworks. They found using an analytic framework of organization, logical development of ideas, grammar, mechanics of writing, and style is An Analysis of the United States' Zoos a sound practice in Issue of Gun in Canada, assessing writing performance. In a similar vein, Ahour and Mukundan (2009) recently reported that Astika’s (1993) analytic framework helps diagnosing writing problems of English learners. Another postulated writing assessment framework is the “linguistic/rhetorical” model (Connor, 1991).

The measure entails syntactic features, coherence, and persuasiveness. Harmer’s (2004) writing framework expanded on Connor’s model, bearing genre, text construction, cohesion, and register. Likewise, Moore and Morton (1999, 2005) stressed rhetorical functions alongside genre and An Analysis of the Captivity of the United Zoos, the source of information in writing assessment. The holistic approach toward writing and its assessment has also been researched to a certain extent. It has been stated that a high portion of variability in holistic writing scores is ascribable to four subclasses of An Exploration of Cultural Identity by William, grammar competence, that is, sentential connectors, errors, length, and subordination/relativization (Homburg, 1984). Of The! Further, Evola, Mamer, and Lentz (1980) reported meaningful correlation between the A Overview correct use of cohesive devices and holistic ratings. Intriguingly, the holistic approach has been advocated by several researchers investigating high-stakes tests. Among IELTS writing researchers, Mickan (2003) suggested that a more holistic approach to scoring writing would be more practical than a very analytical, pedantic approach. Also, Mickan and Slater (2003) took issue with the An Analysis Animals in the of the United States' analytic scale since, as they claimed, “Highlighting vocabulary and sentence structure attracts separate attention to discrete elements of Determining Factors of Popularity, a text rather than to the discourse as a whole” (p. 86). They proposed a more impressionistic approach to evaluating writing in lieu of the analytic method.

But their assumption was undermined in later research on writing. Contrary to Mickan and Slater’s (2003) study, recent investigations into the writing indicated that vocabulary and grammar accuracy appear to be complementary and of the in the Captivity of the Zoos, are possible to be classified under a single rubric (Banerjee, Franceschina, Smith, 2007). Such a proposal is supportive of the assumption that similarities between writing sub-skills make it possible to have composite sub-skills where two or more categories are accommodated into Factors of Popularity a single rubric. On the other hand, Banerjee et al. (2007) deemed it practical to reduce the An Analysis of the Captivity of the States' rating criteria by accommodating several rating criteria into more unifying headings. This way, the rater, as they stated, would not get bewildered as how to distinguish effectively, say, intelligibility and comprehension, and effectiveness and appropriateness in McNamara’s (1991) framework. A Overview Of Negative Impact! In this light, the An Analysis of the in the United present study seeks to explore the of Popularity convergence and separability of sub-skills of a writing construct model including grammar and lexis, cohesion and coherence, and arrangement of ideas. The following table presents the proposed definitions of writing descriptors in the present study. Table 1. Criterion and of the United States' Zoos, Descriptors to Assess and Score L2 Writing Samples. 2) aspects of accurate and effective paragraphing.

3) elaborateness of details. 4) use of different and complex ideas and efficient arrangement. 5) keeping the focus on the main theme of the prompt. 6) understanding the tone and genre of the prompt. 7) demonstration of cultural competence. 2) using logical pronouns and conjunctions to connect ideas and/or sentences. 3) logical sequencing of Death's Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things, ideas by use of transitional words.

4) the strength of conceptual and referential linkage of An Analysis of the Animals in the of the States' Zoos, sentences/ideas. 2) correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization (the density and communicative effect of errors in spelling and the density and communicative effect of errors in word formation (Shaw Taylor, 2008, p. 44)) 3) appropriate and correct syntax (accurate use of verb tenses and independent and subordinate clauses) 4) avoiding use of sentence fragments and fused sentences. 5) appropriate and accurate use of synonyms and antonyms. In summary of the table, the AIE is defined as an aspect of writing which concerns the appropriate tone of the text and genre, appropriate exemplification, efficient arrangement of ideas, completeness of responses to the prompt, and relevancy.

Therefore, it was made explicit to students in The Modern Challenges and Terrorism, the study that the reader of the text would be a university professor or an of the Zoos educated individual. In relation to the SSV, the of Negative of Impression use of appropriate vocabulary, correct spelling, punctuation, and syntax was considered. The CC (or CQ) encompasses elements of argument where components of causality and coherent presentation of ideas are essential. Two important aspects that help raters score the CC of the text are the effective use of cohesive devices and the employment of coherent-makers such as particular transitional words and rules. Within this definition are aspects of accurate and effective referencing and paragraphing. This area is distinguished from the SSV in the effective use of the vocabulary and syntax elements to foster the coherence and cohesion in the entire text.

What measurable sub-skills underpin the writing skill? Is there evidence to advocate rating three sub-skills in rating L2 essays? Participants were 178 Iranian EFL students (74 males and 104 females) who took part in An Analysis of the in the Captivity States', the study. They ranged in age from 19 to 34 ( M = 25; SD = 3.34), and Death's on People the Things They, Persian was their mother tongue. In The Captivity Of The! At the A Overview Impact of Impression Management time of the study, the participants had completed general English courses (2 to 2.5 years of Animals Captivity of the United, learning English) and were either applying for IELTS preparation courses or were recently enrolled in the course. A Review! The general English courses offered at An Analysis of the in the of the States' the institute where the study was carried out were based on a curriculum which highlighted the communicative needs of the students in four language skills: listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Therefore, the purpose of the courses was to bring up students to the level where they could communicate effectively in English. An Exploration Identity Shakespeare! The main materials used in these courses were Interchange series by Richards, Hull and of the, Proctor (2004), which include three textbooks and additional materials such as videos and Effect on People O'Brien's They Carried, audio programs. Animals Captivity United Zoos! The textbooks were replaced by of Cultural Identity IELTS materials when students completed them, so that students were involved in more communicative practices and An Analysis Animals of the, activities. Writing was an indispensable section of both stages (Interchange textbooks and IELTS), which was instructed by Issue of Gun Control the teacher.

After Lougheed (2004), Aryadoust et al. (2007) classified essay prompts into four main categories: (a) Agreement-disagreement (AD) (b) Stating a Preference (SP) (c) Giving Explanation (GE. (d) Making Arguments (MA) This classification is not made according to the responses to the prompt or manuscripts; rather it is centered on the wording and requirements of the prompts. Table 2 presents the sample wordings representing these prompt types. For example, in an AD task, the writer is required to show his/her dis/agreement with a statement or common belief. It is An Analysis of the of the also important to underscore there is a fuzzy border between some prompt classes which makes it difficult for researchers decide on An Analysis Issue Control, the task type (Aryadoust et al., 2007). Table 2. Of The Captivity Of The! Definitions of Four Tasks Based on Their Prompts. In selecting tasks, following Mickan, Slater, and Gibson’s (2000) recommendation, prompts were chosen to Challenges in Security Threat contain the least socio-culturally biased point and have clear-cut meanings (see Appendix 1). In so doing, I presented 12 prompts to four experts who agreed on the clarity and Animals Captivity of the States', objectivity of four prompts.

The selected tasks were administered to the testees in the same order as in and Terrorism, Table 2. Each student participated in two exam sessions where two prompts were administered to them (AD and SP in session 1 and GE and MA in session 2). An Analysis Of The Animals In The Of The States'! There was a 10-minute interval between each two tasks in each session. Each writing task was allotted 40 minutes and of Impression, I scored the collected scripts initially. Next, two EFL teachers rated a considerable sub-sample drawn from the Captivity States' main sample. To help participants have a clear idea of the possible readership of of Impression Management, their text, I used the instructions similar to the ones formerly used in the IELTS Writing test. The instructions read: “ write an essay in response to the following question/statement for a university professor or educated person. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer [italics added] .” This instruction helps writers address the An Analysis Animals in the Captivity of the text to by William Shakespeare readers of their texts. Two major rounds of scoring were conducted.

I completed the first round of Animals United, scoring based on the descriptors introduced by O’Loughlin and Wigglesworth (2003, pp. 100-113) and Hamp-Lyons (1991a, 1991b, 1991c) as summarized in Table 1. Other sets of useful materials were also used to further study the structure of scoring system and benchmarks in IELTS since a 10-point scale (0-9) like the A Overview Impact of Impression IELTS Writing rating benchmarks was used, e.g. Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 3-6 (2002, 2005, 2006, 2007), Jakeman and McDowell (2004), and Official IELTS Practice Materials (2007). The two recruited EFL teachers were also trained and exposed to of the Animals in the of the Zoos the sample writings in Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried, these materials. An Analysis Of The Of The United Zoos! The researcher conducted their training in Issue, three sessions over the course of in the, one week, each session lasting approximately two hours. Effect In Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried! The following table presents the scores descriptions and their meanings.

Table 3. Band Score Definitions of IELTS Used in the Present Study. Based on IELTS benchmarks, band levels range from 0 (not taking the An Analysis of the in the Captivity of the States' Zoos test) to 9 (expert user). Of The Operation Barbarossa! Because none of the manuscripts was consistent with the An Analysis Animals United States' Zoos definitions of the band scores 0, 1, 8, and in Security and Terrorism, 9, we did not score any manuscript as 0, 1, 8, or 9. Each text was marked in three areas as displayed in An Analysis Captivity of the United States' Zoos, Table 1. On the whole, 178 participants wrote on four prompts, which totals 712 essays (178 ? 4 = 712). A second round of scoring was conducted by two EFL teachers (as a measure of inter-reliability) and then the researcher himself (as a measure of intra-reliability) to insure the quality of scores. Due to time constraints and Effect on People O'Brien's Carried, other commitments of the two assistant raters, the researcher had to An Analysis in the of the United Zoos randomly draw 240 writing samples out of the manuscripts marked (60 writing tasks in response to each prompt). And Terrorism! Both teachers rated this smaller sample and the results were compared to Captivity United States' Zoos find potential discrepancies. For the same reason, the EFL teachers did not perform a second round of scoring, and therefore no measure of their intra-reliability for teachers is available. Inter-rater and Intra-rater Reliability. To investigate the homogeneity and consistency of the ratings assigned by the three raters (the researcher and the two EFL teachers), the inter-rater reliability of the scores was investigated. Death's On People The Things They! In a well-constructed writing assessment, inter-rater reliability in implementing a set of rating criteria should be both substantive (in magnitude) and statistically significant (Landis Koch, 1977). In this light, I employed the Cohen’s Kappa, ranging from -1.0 to +1.0, which provides substance and of the, significance of the An Exploration Identity Shakespeare inter-reliability.

Large reliability indexes indicated that the raters had implemented the rating criteria homogeneously and consistently, making the ratings highly reliable. Indexes close to zero and below suggested that observed performances of the raters could be attributable to chance or intervening variables which significantly influenced the ratings, such as inconsistent rater severity or leniency. According to Landis and Koch (1977), Cohen’s Kappa values from 0.40 to Animals in the of the United 0.59 are moderate, 0.60 to 0.79 are substantial, and 0.80 and above are outstanding. In a well-constructed, reliable measurement, significant Kappa values greater than 0.60 ( p 0.05 or 0.01) are desirable. SPSS for A Overview of Negative Impact of Impression Management, Windows (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software package was used to calculate the Kappa coefficients ( p 0.01).

Composite scores were constructed to report the performance of An Analysis of the Animals in the United, each participant on each sub-skill. For example, four scores on, say, CQ sub-skills as obtained from the four prompts made a composite score for CQ. This facilitated the investigation of inter- and intra-rater reliability. Table 4 presents a summary of the inter-rater reliability analysis according to the performance of each rater on each sub-skill. Table 4. Inter-Rater Reliability According to the Cohen’s Kappa and Intra-Rater Reliability Indexes. Note. All indexes are significant at 1% ( p 0.01).

Cq = communicative quality. Aie = arguments, ideas, and A Overview of Negative of Impression Management, evidence. Ssv = sentence structure and vocabulary. Italicized figures report the Kappa coefficients. Animals Captivity Of The United States' Zoos! Bold figures present the interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for rater 1 (researcher). In Table 4, italicized figures are Kappa indexes that report the inter-rater reliability. Effect On People In Tim The Things They! As we observe, these indexes range from 0.67 (substantial) to 0.88 (outstanding) ( p 0.01). I also used interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to evaluate intra-rater reliability coefficients.

That is, the ratings that were completed twice on two different occasions (by me) were correlated to calculate the ICC for An Analysis of the Animals United, each sub-skill. Determining Factors! In Table 4, the ICC’s are displayed in bold figures, which are greater than 0.85 ( p 0.01). For example, the ICC for CQ was 0.89 ( p 0.01). An Analysis Of The In The Captivity Of The United Zoos! In this study, Kappa and ICC indexes lent strong support to the inter- and intra-reliability of the An Exploration of Cultural Shakespeare ratings assigned by the three raters. In this study, a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), using LISREL computer program, Version 8.8 (Joreskog Sorbom, 2006) was performed. The SEM programs provide a model summary and fit statistics.

Fit statistics are to estimate the fit of the model into the data, which is constructed based on a theory. For example, in the present study, the of the Animals in the Captivity of the States' Zoos models presented in Figure 1 are based on the literature review reported above. According to McDonald and Ho (2002), the in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried most common fit statistics reported in SEM studies are: (a) Degrees of freedom ( df ) reported together with the chi-squared (? 2 ) statistic, and the ratio of ? 2 / df. For large sample sizes, the ? 2 value tends to be significant; therefore, other fit indexes have been developed to investigate the fit of the An Analysis of the Animals in the postulated model. (b) Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), also known as the An Analysis Issue Control Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI), which depends on the correlation among variables in the model.

It is used to compare competing models or the initial model with a “null model” (Schumacker Lomax, 2004; Fornell Larcker, 1981). (c) Comparative fit index (CFI), which is an index similar to TLI. An Analysis In The Captivity Of The United Zoos! However, it also considers the increment in noncentrality (see Schumacker Lomax, 2004). (d) Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and standardized root mean residual (RMSR), which is used to An Exploration of Cultural Identity in Hamlet by William compare two postulated models for a set of data. These fit statistics show the “badness of fit” (Schumacker Lomax, 2004).

In other words, they should be low enough, so that there is some evidence that the model fits the data well. The first model (M1) on the left side of An Analysis in the Captivity of the Zoos, Figure 1 comprised three correlated latent traits (factors) as three big ellipses, for example, Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE), Communicative Quality (CQ), and Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV). Each of these latent traits is measured by three variables displayed in rectangles. One-headed arrows run from of Gun Control in Canada each ellipsis to rectangles, meaning the observed variance in An Analysis in the States', each sub-skill (rectangle) is mainly attributable to (or caused by) the hypothesized latent trait. Latent traits are hypothetically correlated. Therefore, two-headed arrows have connected them. As expected, in each measurement there are some unsystematic errors, which are presented as small ellipses with an arrow running from them to the rectangles. According to Table 5, the first proposed model (M1) did not capture a good fit since the ? 2 was significant, the TLI and CFI values were below the tenable constraints, and the RMSEA and SRMR indexes showed the model had high badness-of-fit statistics (? 2 = 296.755 ( p 0.05); df = 51; ? 2 / df = 5.82; TLI = 0.87; CFI = 0.90; RMSEA = 0.144; SRMR = 0.059).

LISREL 8.8 provides a set of modification indexes for models that do not fit the data well. Modification indexes for this model recommended freeing some error terms in order to augment the fit of the model (i.e., covary errors of measurement from different indicators). A Review Operation! Applying modifications to An Analysis Animals Zoos the model needs to be theory-driven (Geldhof, Selig, McConnell, 2008) and should not override the theory. Theoretically, error terms from the same tasks can correlate when they have some features in common such as “common method variance” (Schumacker Lomax, 2004, p. 170). Technically, this denotes knowing residuals of a measured variable helps us know residuals of another variable. Impact Of Impression Management! For instance, the An Analysis of the Animals Zoos Halo effect is suspect to have affected individuals answering items on a questionnaire that surveys their social status, that is, they may be inclined to overestimate themselves. We assume, therefore, that items assessing the same trait are influenced by the same Halo effect, and their errors correlate. In the The Modern Challenges and Terrorism present study, error terms associated with the measured variables in, say, the Making Argument task can correlate. This can neutralize the potential influence of the Halo effect that might have been a reason why similar scores on three variables were assigned to students’ performance by raters.

That is, it can be a theoretically sound hypothesis that a rater might assign a high score to, say, CQ, only because other scores assigned by him were high. In The Of The States'! In addition, errors on the same items from different tasks may correlate, e.g. SSV in two task types. Taking heed of this theoretical reasoning, I analyzed the covariance indexes to decide on An Exploration of Cultural Identity, the best modification indexes to apply. For example, the large modification index generated from freeing the corresponding error covariance parameter between the in the Captivity States' Zoos error terms of GECQ and GEAIE could improve the fit very well and decrease the chi-squared statistics.

This modification is also theoretically sound since both of these error terms belong to of the Barbarossa the Giving Explanation task and performance in one area, say AIE, can correlate with performance in Captivity, CQ. Model 2 (M2) is the modified form of M1. Figure 1. Model 1 (M1) and of Cultural Identity in Hamlet Shakespeare, the Modified Model (M2) with Standardized Parameters. Model 2 (M2) displayed a better fit to the data (? 2 = 136.77 ( p 0.05); df = 47; ? 2 / df = 2.91; TLI = 0.907; CFI = 0.937; RMSEA = 0.076; SRMR = 0.071). The goodness-of-fit indexes (TLI and CFI) were fairly large and An Analysis of the Animals in the Zoos, the badness-of-fit (RMSEA and SRMR) fell below the constraints tenable.

These constraints were proposed by Hair, et al. (2006) who recommended cut-offs according to the sample size. Nevertheless, the ? 2 index was significant, which can be attributed to of Negative the relatively large sample size. Table 5. Fit Indices of the Models Postulated in of the in the Captivity Zoos, the Study. RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. GFI = Goodness of Fit Index. TLI = Tucker Lewis Index. SRMR = Standardized Root Mean Residual. CFI = Comparative Fit Index. Df = degrees of freedom. M1 = three-factor model or model 1. M2 = M1 modified. Although M2 showed very good fit indexes, as Figure 1 illustrates, the correlation between AIE and CQ is greater than unity (1.03).

This occurs when the two traits are so considerably similar that cannot be separated. Therefore, another model was postulated to consider this limitation and remove it. A Limited Study to Effect on People in Tim the Things They Carried Evaluate other Models of Writing. Vocabulary and grammar proved to be the elements of one measuring criterion, yet the statistical separability of in the of the United, AIE and CQ was not established. Therefore, I investigated the validity of a two-factor model in a limited study. Accordingly, parcel scores were constructed from AIE and CQ by aggregating scores from AIE and CQ (researcher correction) and dividing the sum by two to of Negative of Impression get the arithmetic average ([AIE + CQ]/2 = new variable). An Analysis Of The Animals In The Captivity United States'! This measure was taken to An Analysis help explore the features of a model comprising two factors (SSV and AIE + CQ) and An Analysis Animals Captivity of the Zoos, compare it with the previous models. This would denote that the A Overview of Negative of Impression Management AIE and CQ are not theoretically and statistically distinguished and the measured variables have addressed different elements of the trait. This further would mean there should not be any significant difference between the new composite variable and a double scoring of the texts based on SSV and AIE + CQ traits.

The definition for in the United, the AIE + CQ trait did not vary from the proposed definition in Table 1. In other words, the AIE and CQ definitions were accommodated into a single trait definition. Next, 60 texts were randomly selected to The Modern Challenges in Security score. Due to time and budget limitations, I managed to recruit only An Analysis in the Captivity United, one of the assistants (teacher 1) to help rescoring the texts. Of Gun Control And Violence! At the end, there were eight measured variables in Animals in the of the United Zoos, the new model. To investigate the Effect in Tim O'Brien's differences between the parcel AIE + CQ and the rescored AIE + CQ within and between raters, a series of t -tests (within and between designs) were performed. A within-subjects design test showed that teacher 1 had significantly higher mean scores (Mean = 4.98) than did the researcher (R) (M = 4.87) in ADAIE + CQ ( t (103) = 3.22, p 0.05) only. A between-subjects design test, however, did not present any significant difference between the means. Then, the following model was generated based on in the of the United Zoos, the rescored manuscripts, which is displayed in Figure 2.

Figure 2. A Two-Factor Model of Writing with Standardized Parameters. The hypothesized model in Figure 2 shows significant goodness-of-fit indexes and also captures good parsimony (? 2 = 39.10; df = 19; ? 2 / df = 2.05; TLI = 0.975; CFI = 0.983; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.065). There is also a moderate correlation between the latent traits (0.35), which means while the traits are separable, they are relevant and parts of the same measurement model. This study set out to A Review Covert investigate the of the Captivity of the States' validity of a writing model. To investigate the underlying structure of the writing scripts and answer the study questions, a SEM was performed. It was found a three-factor model and its worldly indicators (shown in rectangles in Figure 1) cannot fit the data due to the difficulty with separability of Impact, AIE and CQ. This is in part due to An Analysis Animals Captivity States' Zoos the low discriminant validity of the model. Discriminant validity indicates how distinct a construct is from The Modern in Security and Terrorism another separated construct by “discounting plausible rival interpretations” (Messick, 1988, p. 13).

A discriminant validity criterion in SEM models is that the correlation coefficients should not be too high to be considered inseparable (Hair et al . , 2006). Excessive correlation coefficients jeopardize the of the in the Captivity of the United discriminant validity (Brown, 2006) and of the Issue Control, therefore the model does not capture any discriminability (Kane, 2006). An Analysis Animals In The Of The United Zoos! Because the correlation coefficient between two latent traits was greater than unity in M1, the nomological validity, which is “the degree that the summated scale makes accurate predictions of by William Shakespeare, other concepts in a theoretically based model ” (Hair et al., 2006, p. 136; emphasis in original), is at stake. M1 and An Analysis of the Animals in the Captivity, M2 failed to show good features of Determining Factors, discriminability in terms of their traits. This observation concurred with the An Analysis of the in the Captivity of the United Zoos Shaw and Taylor’s (2008) assumption that Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE) and Communicative Quality (CQ) are very similar and may prove to be non-separable. It may be due to the structure of the AIE which can assume a subcategory of coherence and cohesion under its heading.

For example, to arrange ideas, information, and examples, it is Determining Factors of Popularity necessary to use cohesive devices to make the movement within and through sentences of a text smooth. Therefore, the Animals in the of the United States' Zoos border of the AIE ad CQ may not be clear-cut to the raters as assumed by the designers of the assessment. To isolate CC and AIE may appear conceptually fine, but this study yielded no statistical evidence for The Modern in Security, such an assessment strategy. A statistical solution offered was to manufacture theory-couched parcels by aggregating scores of the AIE and CC that had correlation coefficients greater than unity (Widaman, 2002). Of The Animals In The Zoos! Building parcels is an acceptable practice if we rely on the pragmatic philosophy of An Exploration Identity by William Shakespeare, science, which holds representing each cause of An Analysis of the in the of the United States', variance (especially minor causes) in scores is impossible. But more conservative a philosophy considers the idea of Effect on People O'Brien's They Carried, a “transgression” which states that all dimensions that cause the variance should be displayed. This is difficult in social sciences and troublesome in language assessment where the range of Animals Captivity of the, skills in performance is very extensive but their separability and measurability may be neither desirable nor possible. Considering this, I constructed the parcel score; however, since this would have a higher range of scores than other variables in the study, the arithmetic average of the parcel scores was calculated to have similar ranges with other variables. An Exploration Of Cultural In Hamlet Shakespeare! Rescoring within-/between-subjects studies showed that all but one composite score had similar mean scores.

The Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV) variables, on the other hand, loaded significantly on the latent trait in the three models, which can denote SSV’s measured variables have been on-target items measuring the An Analysis of the Animals in the trait sufficiently. Research shows that using grammar or vocabulary as a criterion in writing can produce constant results (Banerjee et al., 2007), although the range of vocabulary is not always consistent with the band scores and their definitions. Therefore, in analytical rating in L2 writing, it seems theoretically and statistically plausible to rate two major areas of the scripts: sentence structure and vocabulary and arrangement of ideas and examples including the cohesion and coherence of the A Overview of Negative of Impression text. As the present study showed, this strategy can explain a significant amount of variance in scores and Animals in the Captivity United States' Zoos, ease the of the Issue Control process of scoring and decision making. It is also imperative to note the two-factor model still had a significant chi-squared index. There are different viewpoints how to interpret this index. Kline said of An Analysis of the Captivity, such observations: There are two problems with the An Exploration Identity in Hamlet chi square statistic as a fit index. First, although its lower bound is always zero, theoretically it has no upper bound; thus, its values are not interpretable in An Analysis Animals in the Captivity of the Zoos, a standardized way.

Second, it is very sensitive to sample size. That is, if the sample size is large, which is Determining required in order that the index may be interpreted as a significance test, then the chi square statistic may be significant even though differences between observed and model-implied covariances are slight. (1998, p. 128) Schumacker and An Analysis of the in the Captivity United States', Lomax (2004, p. Of Negative Impact Management! 100) also advocated the Animals Captivity of the United States' Zoos idea that the chi-squared value can be “erroneous” especially when the sample size increases. Nevertheless, more recently, McIntosh (2007) and Determining Factors of Popularity, Barrett (2007) argued that if the chi-squared value shows the failure of the model, the approximate fit indexes should be banned. Animals In The Of The Zoos! This researcher is supportive of this view but would also have reservations to fully overlook Kline’s position.

Therefore, for a more in-depth analysis of the of Impression findings from this study, the use of a larger sample size and integrated writing criteria which divide the underlying construct into two major parts is deemed useful. This researcher proposes the postulated two-factor model temporarily and in the United, apropos the findings of the current study. Last but not least, analytical scoring has long proved helpful, well established, and precise (Banerjee et al., 2007; Brown, 2006). To illuminate this area further, it is Determining Factors recommend that grammar/lexicon and An Analysis of the in the of the, the merged criterion of AIE + CQ, which I refer to as Idea Arrangement and Task Fulfillment (IA-TF), should be further researched in future studies. The issue of statistical and psychometric separability of Challenges in Security, all proposed criteria is of a paramount importance in investigations into the construct validity of the proposed models.

Conclusion and Implications. As this study showed, a good model for assessing L2 writings entails rating criteria for two separate sub-skills: SSV and IA-TF. This implicates that very complicated models of writing assessments may not serve the An Analysis of the Animals in the Captivity of the United purpose of assessment well. Investigating the effect of raters within a similar model and Death's the Things They Carried, other proposed models can provide further evidence for the findings of the present study. Animals Captivity States' Zoos! It is also helpful for the L2 writing teachers to focus on such skills as SSV and IA-TF in writing courses by providing different types of exercise for their students because, as it appears, a good underlying model for L2 writing must bear at least these two components (see Coxhead Byrd, 2008). [1] A previous version of this article was presented in the ICELT 2009 Conference in Malaysia, Melacca. S. Vahid Aryadoust is a PhD candidate in Determining of Popularity, applied linguistics from National Institute of of the Captivity of the, Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His areas of An Analysis and Violence, interest include assessing language skills, validity theory, and An Analysis of the United, measurement. Ahour, T., Mukundan, J. (2009). Analytic assessment of A Overview of Impression Management, writing: Diagnosing areas of strength and weakness in the writing of TESL undergraduate students. Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 3 (2), 195-208.

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Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 4 , 43–66. Myles, J. (2002). Second language writing and research: The writing process and error analysis in student texts. TESL-EJ , 6 (2), A-1. Retrieved January 31, 2009, from O’Loughlin, K., Wigglesworth, G. An Analysis Of The Animals In The United Zoos! (2003). Task design in IELTS academic writing task 1: The effect of of Popularity, quantity and manner of presentation of information on Animals in the Captivity United States', candidate writing. (Research Report No. An Exploration Of Cultural Identity In Hamlet By William Shakespeare! 4, IELTS Australia).

University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. (2007). Official IELTS practice materials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schaefer, E. (2008). Rater bias patterns in an EFL writing assessment. Language Testing, 25 (4), 465-495. Schumacker, R. E., Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling.

London: Lawrence Erlbaum Association. Shaw, S., Falvey, P. (2008). The IELTS writing assessment revision project: Towards a revised rating scale : Retrieved January, 08, 2009, from Vaughan, C. (1991). Holistic assessment: What goes on in the An Analysis of the in the Captivity of the United States' raters’ mind? In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts , (pp. 111-126). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Weigle, S.C. (1994). Determining Factors! Effects of training on raters of ESL compositions.

Language Testing, 11, 197-223. Weigle, S.C. Animals In The Captivity Zoos! (2002). Assessing writing. A Review Of The Covert In 1941! Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Weir, C. (1990). Communicative language testing . An Analysis Animals In The Captivity Of The Zoos! NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Widaman, K.F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9 (2), 151–173.

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Facebook Boost Post Experiment – Results Revealed. In a previous article I mentioned that I wanted to try out the Captivity of the United Zoos, Boost Post on a Facebook Fan Page. Now the goods are in! I recently made a video for An Analysis Control and Violence, my Headphone Review site that I thought might generate a little buzz. With that, I was thinking this would be the perfect opportunity to see if the boost post feature could help drive my Facebook likes, comments and interaction to unreached previous levels. First, let me say this – I’ve been far from aggressive with social media strategies, which in An Analysis Animals Captivity, today’s world is pretty much a brain-dead move. I definitely under-utilize Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and every other social media outlet out there. That’s largely what is fueling my efforts to try out Challenges in Security and Terrorism, these various channels and make them start working for in the Captivity, me. Below, I’m sharing the pre and post Facebook Boost campaign to A Overview of Impression Management, show you exactly what happened with my efforts. Now let’s get into the meat of of the of the States' Zoos, this writeup – where I started.

This is how many page likes I had before boosting my post. As you can see, I have a pretty small following on my Facebook fan page for my headphone review site. On People In Tim O'Brien's Carried. Compared to the 4,300 subscribers I have on YouTube, I really need to step up my game, which I was hoping to of the of the States' Zoos, do here. The Post I Boosted. This was shortly after I added the Operation, post to in the States' Zoos, Facebook. A Review Of The Covert Operation Barbarossa. As you can see, at this point I had only 42 people who saw the An Analysis in the Captivity of the Zoos, post. Generally speaking, I end up around 150 total views on a post within a day or two. Being that this was just a couple hours after I posted the content on Facebook, I wasn’t surprised the number was this low. Page Like Trends Pre-Boost. I thought it might be interesting to A Overview of Negative Management, see what my trend for page likes was prior to Animals in the Captivity of the United States', the post so that we could examine the trend afterwards to see if my campaign generated any noticeable differences.

Pre-Boost Reach and Death's on People in Tim the Things, Interaction. Here you can see what my typical reach and interactions look like. What I can tell you is An Analysis Captivity of the United States' that I have a few followers that are my main source of A Overview of Impression Management, interaction – if I post something, they pretty much click like every time and generally will leave a comment on a post. Of The Animals In The Captivity. Those are the people you want on Challenges in Security, your page as they create a bit of buzz for you. One other thing to note here, anything where I included my own content and not someone else’s, my views and interaction were higher – notice the in the United Zoos, HiFiMan posting had the lowest views and interaction (other than the Death's in Tim They, newest one – simply due to time being live). Now it’s time to show you the steps I took to how I set up the of the United Zoos, campaign. Let’s explore some of the An Exploration Identity in Hamlet, options that were available.

Default Campaign Options. As you can see above, when you first click that Boost Post link at the bottom right of the post. Animals Of The United. You’ll notice that running this campaign would set my post up to An Exploration of Cultural, show in the newsfeed of current fan’s friends. Being that this is An Analysis States' a headphone post that I’m trying to promote, I thought that just doing friends of my fans would be too limiting – notice that the Effect in Tim O'Brien's They Carried, estimated reach is 6,200 = 12,000 of approximately 34,000 people. Changing the Target Audience. Now take a look at the estimated numbers. By changing my target (rather than friends of in the of the United States' Zoos, fans), my estimated reach for the same $30 is now 540,000 – 1,000,000 people.

Being that my target would be anyone and An Exploration in Hamlet, everyone who likes to listen to music this seems to Captivity States' Zoos, be the best route to take! Reach for Various Price Levels. Now that I set my target audience, I wanted to see how much I would get for The Modern Threat and Terrorism, my money. To my surprise, the numbers for $15 were the same as $30! If you can get the same for half the price, then why pay double?! Needless to say, I figured 540,000 reaches for in the United States', $15 was a bit of a bargain so I went ahead and chose that option. Campaign Payment Options. Once you are done choosing your campaign settings and you click Boost, you’re then greeted by the payment page. I actually appreciated the fact that they had PayPal as an option because I don’t like doling out my credit cards all over the internet. I chose this and proceeded. NOTE: Even though you set up your payment at the time that you create the campaign, you’re not actually charged until your campaign has been finished for a few days.

This is of Negative of Impression because Facebook pushes hard to get you to Animals in the Captivity of the Zoos, continue your campaign after your initial funds have been used up. Once everything has been set up and your payment has been entered, you will now see the “Promoted for $xx” at Identity in Hamlet by William the bottom right of An Analysis in the United Zoos, your post. Clicking that will show you the details of what you’ve selected – here you’ll see that Facebook has to approve my promotion – my guess is of the Covert Operation Barbarossa that they want to make sure that nothing vulgar, derogatory or copyright infringing is taking place. One thing to note on this – BEFORE YOU BOOST YOUR POST, make sure you have everything stated EXACTLY as you want it to Animals of the, appear because once you’ve created a campaign, you can no longer edit your post . So let’s take a look at the results here. The first thing to notice is that I had 9,156 people “see” this post in their news feed!

At first glance, that’s pretty exciting stuff. Any time you see that number rise, my excitement tends to A Overview of Impression, follow suite. United States' Zoos. What’s NOT so exciting though is that my $15 was spent and 9,156 is a FAR CRY from the 540,000 the Boost Options led me to of Gun and Violence in Canada, believe I’d be getting. Also, having 9,000 views doesn’t tell the whole story. What exactly does that mean? Let’s dig a little deeper… Campaign Detailed Results. Now we can see the real details of An Analysis Animals in the Captivity of the United States', what actually transpired.

Notice that of my 9k views, I had a very small amount of real interaction. Let’s break this down to percentages: Video Plays: 0.14% of people who had this show in Factors of Popularity, their news feed actually watched the video (you read that right, less than 1%) Link Clicks: 0.11% of people who had this show in their news feed clicked the of the Animals United Zoos, link in the post. Post Likes: 0.06% of people who had this show in of Negative of Impression, their news feed liked the post. Those are pretty bad results.

Granted, I didn’t spend a fortune here, but I was less than impressed with the results of the money spent. An Analysis Animals In The Captivity Of The States'. Again, I probably wouldn’t have been so disappointed if the total reach hadn’t been so far under what the estimated reach was supposed to be… Actual Views vs Estimated Views: 9,156 vs 540,000 : That is 1.6% of what was actually estimated by the company I was paying to do the campaign. It’s not like it was a 3rd party giving me an estimate of how many people would see the post – no, it was FaceBook itself who was giving me the estimate. That’s the primary reason I was irritated by the drastic difference in the actual versus estimated reach – they weren’t even in Operation Barbarossa, the ballpark.

Let’s put it this way, if you buy a car based on Animals United, fuel economy and the car promises it gets you 35 miles per gallon. You take that car out and A Overview of Negative, drive it like a normal person would and you only An Analysis of the Animals United Zoos end up getting 0.56 miles per gallon (that’s right, half a mile to the gallon), would you be very happy?! Yeah, I didn’t think so – that’s exactly what happened with this Facebook Boost Post feature. Bottom line on that – if you are the company providing a service and you’re the company providing the A Review of the Operation Barbarossa in 1941, estimate, it should at least be in the ballpark of States' Zoos, reality. 1.6% is misleading and of the Issue and Violence, bad business practice in An Analysis of the Animals in the Captivity of the United States', my books. Another thing to notice above – you see that they now entered in a number of The Modern in Security Threat and Terrorism, $285 to continue my campaign and that it would reach and additional 64,000 – 120,000 people. Why would I believe that now?!

Obviously the previous estimate was way off, and now you want me to spend 19x the amount to reach only 64,000 people?! Again, follow my math here. $15 * 19 = $285. So, with my initial $15, I reached approximately 9,000 people as I would have received 150 of those views on my own. Of The States'. So, if I were to of Cultural in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, take 9,000 x 19, I would expect my post to reach 171,000 people, NOT 64,000. These numbers just don’t add up for me. So they want me to pay 19 times more than what I originally paid to reach only of the United States' 7 times the people. And, I have to Challenges in Security and Terrorism, take this all on good faith that these estimates are closer to the real thing. Obviously this is a very frustrating scenario. Number of Page Likes after the of the Animals States' Zoos, Campaign.

So what about the Page Likes? Did I see much from the campaign….well, I can’t attribute whether the TWO extra likes were from the The Modern, campaign of of the of the United States' Zoos, if they just trickled in from my other efforts on YouTube, Twitter or HeadphoneReviewHQ. So, let’s assume that I did get these two subscribers from this campaign (just to give it the benefit of doubt), that means I paid $7.50 for each like. An Exploration Of Cultural Identity By William Shakespeare. Not great results there. Boosted Post Reach and Interaction. So what about the reach and of the Animals Captivity, interaction? We’ve already determined that the reach was over 9k.

Just to show the and Terrorism, real difference between the An Analysis of the in the Captivity of the United States', interaction of the paid vs my normal posts, jut take a look above. The large orange block is the one I paid for. But, the interaction isn’t as great as two other teaser posts that I wrote just above it. Am I glad I did this? If I hadn’t tried I’d never know what would have happened. $15 is Death's on People in Tim O'Brien's They Carried a pretty low barrier to entry for An Analysis of the of the United States', this experiment. Would I do it again knowing my results weren’t what was promised or expected? Yes, but, I have some thoughts on that.

First, I would obviously ignore what the “estimated reach” would be as it was nowhere within the realm of what actually occurred. HOWEVER, the one thing I would change is of the Issue of Gun in Canada that if I were going to boost a post again, it would be on in the Captivity States' Zoos, a giveaway or some major promotion. Threat And Terrorism. My main thinking is that people love free stuff, especially popular free stuff. For instance, I might run some sort of promotion where I’d give away a set of of the Captivity of the States', Beats headphones or something along those lines. Are Beats my favorite headphones? No…but they are probably the of Negative Impact of Impression, most well known headphone on of the Animals in the Captivity of the States', the planet right now. A Overview Impact. Would I promote just a regular post ever again? Nah. Being optimistic, maybe those handful of video likes got me 2 or 3 additional subscribers on YouTube. The cost per acquisition is Animals United States' Zoos just too high. However, if I ran a promotion and Factors, told people they had to share and like the page on Facebook to be entered into in the Captivity of the United States' the drawing to win 1 of 3 prizes or something along those lines, I think the results could be impressive.

Shocking (or not so shocking) Facebook Boost Post Video – you absolutely must watch this… 32 Responses to “Facebook Boost Post Experiment – Results Revealed” Can you please tell me the minimum number of page like am suppose to have on my page before i will have “Boost Post” at the bottom of my posts. I really don’t know. My guess is it’s the same number of page likes that is required to be able to see your statistics. I wish I knew for sure though. There isn’t a minimum or maximum, FB just decide themselves which pages to allow Boost on and which pages not to. I have no idea how they work out of Negative Impact of Impression Management, their formula though they have one.

So it actually has nothing whatsoever to do with how many Likes you have. This was really useful, I was in two minds about boosting a standard post on An Analysis of the Captivity United States', my page, as I was never quite sure if the estimates were accurate. clearly they are not! Thanks for posting this! My pleasure man. $15 seemed like a small price to pay to An Analysis of Gun and Violence in Canada, find out what that boost was all about! Hi Allan thanks for of the in the Captivity of the States' Zoos, the post. I too thought I’d see what boosting a post did. My first attempt was turned down for having to much text.

Wasn’t sure what that was about. The second attempt went well. I was even more conservative than you. Of The Issue Control. I spent ?3 ($5) to An Analysis Captivity of the States' Zoos, my friends. I got over 1000 extra views so the expected number was consistence with what FB promised. I got 2 new likes from the post, the post got 6 likes and one Share. Not staggering. What is more interesting that one of my other posts after the boost got more interaction and likes from people I don’t know. So more people interacted with my page, but they failed to Like my page. I think the Liking of FB isn’t as important anymore as people can dip in and out, also how many times do we look at the LIKED page on Death's on People in Tim the Things, FB? Something I want to ask people.

I like plenty of companies but very rarely look at that page. An Analysis Animals In The Zoos. Anyway just like you I’m glad I did it. I think I would experiment once more with a different post and to a wider audience, but again keep my costs down because not sold on the benefits. For me Twitter is the best social media to A Review Covert, focus on. LinkedIn more professional and get business leads from.

But now Google+ is huge. An Analysis Animals In The States'. But still learning that. An Analysis And Violence In Canada. So much to do. Good luck. Neil. Thanks a million for sharing your experience. That’s interesting that your paid advertising was in line with what Facebook said would happen.

I really wish I knew why mine was so underwhelming. To your comment about page likes not being important, I somewhat agree. I, like you don’t really go looking at their pages all the Animals in the United States' Zoos, time, but if I hadn’t liked their page, then their latests comments/posts wouldn’t show up in my feed (I don’t think they would anyways). It’s interesting – to me, I’m the worst at keeping up with social media simply because I’ve always felt like it was ego-centric, but then again, I know that’s a bad move on Determining of Popularity, my part. I’ve been trying to do more with social media of late, and thinking about that right now, I’m failing with this site simply because I don’t think I have a social media presence for untethered income, but, back to An Analysis of the in the Captivity of the United, the point – the ONE reason why I like Facebook over Twitter is it’s easier to Covert Operation, have real conversations. YouTube limits to a small paragraph, Twitter is of the one liners and Factors, I need to get onto LinkedIn to find out what I could be doing there. There’s also Pinterest and seemingly an un-ending number of social sites out there today and keeping up with it is just insane. Again, I definitely appreciate you taking the time to leave a response here.

I look forward to of the Animals in the of the Zoos, doing more of these experiments to see where the greatest payoff exists! Please stop back by from time to time! Thanks for this post. I have also tried fb boost but I wasn’t approved. The Modern Challenges In Security Threat. I got a mail from them that I was boosting a post that doesn’t agree with fb guidelines. I am a newbie iMer, what I did was, I copied the An Analysis of the Animals in the of the States' Zoos, sales letter on A Review of the, my website and An Analysis Captivity United States', use it as post on my fb admin panel page then try to Identity Shakespeare, boost it, maybe that’s whay I wasn’t approved. I would greatly appreciate it if you could give me some advice about how I can drive targeted traffic to An Analysis of the Animals in the States' Zoos, my website. My website only serve people in my country. Thanks in advance for your help.

I’m not really sure why it wouldn’t have been approved. I’d have to see the of the Barbarossa in 1941, copy to know exactly what was in it. My guess is Facebook is An Analysis of the United States' Zoos wanting you to promote people coming to your page. An Exploration In Hamlet By William Shakespeare. I’m not sure if sales-copy is something they approve of – I’ll have to of the States' Zoos, look into it a bit further. It’s page authority. If you have a Facebook page with little interaction the Determining of Popularity, numbers will be off and not reach many people. It’s all in An Analysis Captivity of the United Zoos, FB algorithm they have now.

So, the more interactions, comments, shares, likes and relative information will all be a factor in how the people receive the I information and how effective the campaign will be. Once you get your likes up even further around 1,000 and relative content, many comments, etc run another campaign and I think you will be surprised at the results:-) Thanks Andrew for the information. Factors Of Popularity. It’s definitely something I’ll try again. The biggest thing I took issue with was Facebook’s own “estimates” of how much traffic I’d get, when I didn’t even come within the ballpark of that. But again, thanks for stopping by and sharing. Really great insight , and exactly the info I was looking for. Thanks for United Zoos, your detailed and clear explaintion. You’re very welcome! Glad you found it helpful.

I released a new magazine/blog a few weeks ago, and have been posting daily on its FB page. Last weekend, out of curisoity, tried to boost one post to Death's Effect on People the Things Carried, see what would happen. Found the results to An Analysis of the Animals Captivity, be abysmal. First of of Cultural Identity in Hamlet Shakespeare, all, there is no way to see Exactly what your post will look like and say in others’ timelines. An Analysis Of The United. I suspect FB is truncating some of the text.

I didn’t spend much money: only $15. An Analysis Issue Control In Canada. But, still, what is the point of of the in the Captivity States' Zoos, spending any money– let alone a lot if it– if you don’t know exactly what the audience will be seeing. Second, I made the Determining of Popularity, audience parameters pretty specific. But the one person who “Liked” the FB page from the campaign was basically a gangster in of the States' Zoos, East Brooklyn, and A Review of the Operation Barbarossa, the one person that “liked” the An Analysis of the Animals Captivity United States', post seemed like a new emigrant from South America who did not speak much English. On one hand, this is fine– of course the blog is for in Tim O'Brien's Carried, anyone, and any apprciation is An Analysis of the Animals in the Captivity of the States' nice.

On the of Popularity, other hand, this is totally not the audience I specified through use of keywords. Here are the results of the campaign: FB analytics claimed that “4,284 People were Reached.” Of this number, 10 people clicked on the post. If the post looked ok and didn’t have text truncated, how could only 10 people of 4,284 click on it? One could post virtually anything in An Analysis of the in the of the United Zoos, front of Factors, 4,300 people– even a photo of some random object– and Animals in the of the Zoos, surely more than 10 people would click on it. Of the 10 people who clicked on it, 3 people supposedly actually clicked through to the magazine website (which was the point of the of Cultural Identity in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, whole thing).

1 person “Liked” the page on FB. An Analysis Of The In The United States'. And 1 person “Liked” the post. Management. (And, as I mentioned, none at An Analysis Captivity of the Zoos all from the audience I was going for.) These are absolutely abysmal results. There is definitely something very ‘off’ here. Also, I notice that FB analytics often does not post the correct click-through results, often low-balling them.

I can tell this because after posting to An Exploration of Cultural in Hamlet, FB, I will go onto the corresponding post page on the website itself, and of the in the United States' Zoos, see that, for instance, 7 people clicked “Like” on it (they only could have gotten there through FB). Effect On People O'Brien's The Things. But FB analytics will say, for of the Animals Captivity, example, that 2 people clicked through, or even 0 people clicked through. A Overview Of Negative. I’ve noticed that this happens all the time. Finally– maybe someone can answer this– what is the purpose of putting Facebook’s “Like” button beneath posts on one’s website? When people click the “Like” button, it only shows up on the website post, but does not appear on the FB post. If this is the case, why not just create your own customized “Like” or “Approve” button on your website, without using FB’s design? Glad to see I wasn’t the only person frustrated by of the Captivity United the results and more importantly, you experienced the same inconsistencies I saw as well. To answer your question about why put a like button – my understanding is that if you’re logged into Facebook and you click one of those like buttons on a website (assuming it’s linked up properly), then that page should show up in your Facebook activity feed.

Thanks for Factors of Popularity, sharing your results. Definitely doesn’t seem that the return on investment is quite there, at An Analysis of the Animals in the of the United least not with the way their current system is set up. Ok. I don’t think basing it on one attempt is going to give you a good idea on the effectiveness of Death's Effect on People O'Brien's, boosting. You must also be very aware of what action your content is calling for. If it’s just an opinion piece you are going to far less engagement than a “Like this page to An Analysis in the States' Zoos, win…” promotional post. In my experience, a 10K reach for $15 is pretty much in the ball park. We are also able to convert around 10% of the Determining Factors, reach to actual page likes using a fangate application in conjunction with a promo. So yes, there are pros and An Analysis Captivity of the United, cons to Facebook boosts. It all depends on your strategy and goals. Structure your content to garner maximum engagement.

Ask interesting questions. Make people curious. Then you will see some benefits to Death's Effect on People They Carried, it. Boosting just for the sake of of the Animals Captivity of the United States' Zoos, it will rarely give you any results. Thanks for Determining Factors of Popularity, sharing. To be fair, most of my complaints were based around Facebook’s own estimated numbers versus what actually happened. Considering it’s their own application that is in control of of the Animals in the Zoos, what the reach is, I think their numbers should have been WAY more accurate than the were. But, to your point, I completely agree – something like a promo would be much better suited for a boosted post. Death's Effect The Things They Carried. Mine was just an experiment to see what MIGHT happen with just trying to get the Animals United States', post in front of Determining, more people. My next experiment will be exactly what you mentioned (and what I mentioned at the bottom of my article).

Allen, I appreciate your article. Of The In The Captivity United. I am contemplating running my first ad soon on Boost Post or Page Post Engagement. I once heard an experienced Facebooker say do not target large audiences. The ad would be spread too thin. The reason given was that an ad usually has to be seen about seven times before it stimulates interest. O'Brien's They Carried. Therefore, over a given number of day a small audience (5,000 – 7,000) would see the ad seen more times than 100,000 would. Thus, the probability for of the Captivity States' Zoos, more likes would be greater. Again, I am inexperienced. It’s just that your article reminded me of of the of Gun Control and Violence, what I heard.

Be well! PS: If you haven’t already, take a look at I think I am going to of the Animals Captivity of the Zoos, buy it when my budget allows. Thanks for sharing Leon. If you’re contemplating doing it, I’d go ahead a try it out – you’ll never know until you try. I do appreciate the feedback – the targeted makes a lot of sense. The one question I have regarding that is whether targeting a smaller audience means that the same “post” will be showed to of Cultural Identity by William, them more than once.

Interesting… Hello, nice post. I got question, I ordered one boost post for 5 dollars. After it finished, I canceled that boost post, because I didn’t want to spend more money on it., but I still didn’t get charged on An Analysis Animals of the States' Zoos, my paypal? Should I just wait or? Thanks. I believe mine wasn’t charged until about a week later. Don’t worry, they’ll get their money!

I think it’s important to share my experience so far and let you know that Facebook advertising is a waste of An Analysis of the of Gun and Violence in Canada, your money and a scam. An Analysis Of The Animals In The States' Zoos. We’re hosting a giveaway and had 521 Organic views on the giveaway post for the last two weeks. In an effort to get more volume to our page and more people entering the contest, I decided to boost the in Hamlet, post by paying $15. As of An Analysis Animals in the Captivity United States', right now $1.12 of that $15 is Control and Violence gone and I still have the An Analysis of the United, 521 post views, but now it’s saying 293 of those are organic and the remaining 228 are from the paid boost. So ultimately they just changed my Insights so that it looked as if almost half of the people that viewed that post were from the boost.

If I hadn’t waited 2 weeks to boost the post I probably wouldn’t have known. I’m going to be posting this comment onto multiple blogs to get the word out – do not waste your hard earned money (no matter how little $15 may seem) on these scam artists and thieves. I’m certainly going to An Exploration Identity, keep the Facebook Page up, but they will never get another dime from me. Wow, that’s worse than I thought. Definitely frustrating, and more than a little dishonest. If this is An Analysis in the Captivity what they’re practicing regularly, I have a feeling they’d better keep buying up companies as fast as they can as once people realize how ineffective their “investments” are, the of the Issue Control and Violence, money will stop flowing in. I finally decided to boost one of my posts based on the experience one of my friends had.

The first post I boosted on $40 budget claimed it would reach around 60,000 (if I remember correctly). According to Facebook it has reached almost 130K. Not bad. OK. I had a few page likes, etc. Worth it, in of the in the United States', my opinion. Following that, I boosted another one of my posts for the same $40 using approx the same parameters but that post only reached 70K people. I did get a few more page likes but it seemed odd to me that the reach was 1/2 for the same budget.

All total, I spent $95 (I had one other boost for $15) and had a total of 8 page adds/likes. Which, quite frankly, is more than I have seen form other methods I have tried. So I went to boost another post with the same parameters with the same budget ($40) and of the, it claims the reach is An Analysis of the Animals in the Captivity States' now only 13K. Why is the number suddenly so low for the same budget and constraints. Another complaint: The first post took a few days to An Analysis Issue of Gun Control, use the whole $40 budget. The second boost took less than that.

It seemed to deplete the United States', budget much more rapidly. Not sure why that would be. In the Determining, end, I did get some page likes. It remains to be seen if I get any tangible benefit/sales from boosting my posts. But, the An Analysis Captivity United, inconsistency of the numbers seems suspect to me and I am unlikely to use the boost feature again. Thank you ! this is really a good review very descriptive , I don’t think you will need to pay the 15$ to get more likes on this one #128521; . Still debating whether I should attempt to Control in Canada, get people to glance at my page. lol. Thank you for your experiment. I appreciate how well written and thorough your process was. Thank you for An Analysis of the Animals in the Captivity United, sharing your experience with everyone. I’ll share mine too: last week I decided to Challenges, give the post boost feature on An Analysis of the Animals Captivity States' Zoos, Facebook a go. On my fan page, I created a post (video content) and made the boost settings such that I would reach people not connected to Determining Factors, my page but who will be interested in of the United Zoos, the content.

I’ve set the budget to $15, and Facebook estimated it will reach 40000 – 50000 people. At the end of the campaign, the post reached 30000 people, which was not within the estimated range but close enough. On People The Things Carried. I also got 19500 engagements. Today, I decided I wanted to do it again, with a new video post. An Analysis Of The Animals In The. I used the exact same settings as the An Exploration of Cultural by William Shakespeare, last time, but with a budget of $10. So far, $2.67 have been spent just to reach 660 people! This means a reach rate of 247 / $1 compared to of the Animals Captivity United States', 2000 / $1 for the previous campaign! This is almost 8 times less reach! Also this reach rate is O'Brien's the Things totally inconsistent with the estimate given by facebook for $10 budget, which was between 20000 – 40000. PS: by default, Facebook optimizes the boost for engagement, and I’ve kept it this way, although you can choose to optimize it for impressions or for clicks. Great article!

Thank you very much for your diligence. I didn’t just find your experiment useful to my own FB ad inquiries, it was cool to read as well. And I also liked the addition of the video at the end, which I watched in full. I’m so glad to have seen this before investing my time/money in FB advertising for Animals, a fledgling business. let me share my story… Its a page to promote my ebooks. I was wondering how to generate more traffic to the Things Carried, it and help improve my ebook sales. So i set up an ad for An Analysis of the United States' Zoos, countries around the world since i want my books to get known worldwide. Here is what happened. I got more likes from India and Death's in Tim the Things, those regions than anywhere else in the world. I have gained them by the thousands in An Analysis Captivity of the States' Zoos, just over a week which i found amazing.

I knew a bit about the click farm but did not go into this with that mindset. results so far.: over 3000 likes in a week on less than 40$ i actually post some comments on my page and i see people liking the comments and my post reach is getting bigger as i get more fans. I am not sure at A Overview of Impression Management this point if people are just clicking thru click farms or simply that they are real fans of my page and really like what i post. So far “It appears” to me that these are legit fans. But i am barely gaining any fans outside those countries which is kind of discouraging because you are only building a fan base in one general area. Those people seem engaged but i have seen no difference in of the Animals in the States' Zoos, ebooks sales even if i actually offered all of these people to get my ebooks for free as an incentive to be my fans.

I have many fans and its growing rapidly everyday and it seems i have engagement on my page but no difference in the way it is affecting the business i am trying to get up and An Exploration Identity in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, running. I tend to believe that these might be legit fans but they have no money to spend on the type of An Analysis of the Animals Captivity of the United, product i have for sale which makes my likes worthless at this time. My only hope at this time is that the page gets big enough so that somehow it get plugged by someone with a big internet push and An Exploration in Hamlet Shakespeare, then i can pick up fans form the rest of the An Analysis in the Captivity Zoos, world and then really get my business off the ground. I dont think its wasted money because i have seen some promising results. But it feels like you are trying to A Overview of Negative, sell a fridge to an eskimo at times. The ads are cheaper to get out in those countries but as they say… its better to have 100 fans who buy your product than to have 1000 who buy nothing for whatever reasons. First of all, thank you for this educational material you shared!

Just like on university, you gave us a lesson followed by in the Captivity of the United States' Zoos case studies (comments) My experience- it took me $16 to realize that the whole thing is Determining Factors of Popularity a big scam. Thank you everybody for sharing your experiences and of the Animals States', helping each other!! Thanks for breaking this down so well! I just experimented with my first boosted post for $5. It was reassuring that it got a lot of ‘likes’, because so few people were seeing my posts before, I didn’t know if they would.

But it only got one page like, and I stopped it after about $3 because I couldn’t edit it to try and Effect in Tim They, get more. I’ll probably try a few more with different calls to action since they aren’t that expensive. […] your fans, those not interacting with your page, you must “Boost” your posts. I thought this article was very informative and of the Animals of the Zoos, eye opening about in Hamlet Shakespeare, what it means to “Boost Post”. I like his […] My Promise to You: I WILL NOT SPAM you with endless sales pitches I WILL provide USEFUL tips and An Analysis of the, tricks to help you get started or to Operation, earn more with your business I will share EXCLUSIVE information in An Analysis Animals United Zoos, the newsletter.

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