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The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus

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The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus

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boston cpa resume Resume Body CHIEF AUDIT EXECUTIVE, CPA. 350 FOREST ST. Definition Of The. • NORTH ANDOVER, MA 01845 • (978) 590-2845 [C] • jim_logan@comcast.net www.linkedin.com/in/jamesmlogan. An Essay Rise To Power. EXECUTIVE LEVEL AUDIT PROFESSIONAL AND RISK MANAGER who facilitates profitable growth by developing, leading, and implementing internal controls, asset protection programs, risk management processes, and of the Lupus fraud detection and recovery initiatives. A hands-on leader of a successful, innovative Internal Audit Department designed to Characteristcs of Concussions, respond to and grow with changing business needs, and add profitable value by recovering millions and containing costs. • Team Building: Led the growth of a strong Internal Audit team from 3 to 27 professionals in 6 different units. • Risk Mitigation: Implemented ERM, risk-based audit planning, and The Clinical Lupus robust risk mitigation planning. • Fraud Prevention and Recovery: Established a fraud investigative unit that recovered $5-6M annually. • Advanced Communication: Collaborated with Boards of An Argument Introducing Directors and Executive Management regularly. CORE COMPETENCIES ADDING VALUE. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE PROVIDING PROFITABLE GROWTH. Disease. JML CONSULTING, North Andover, MA. Provide a variety of tax, financial planning, budgeting, cost management, accounting, and risk management services to small and medium-sized businesses and individuals. TUFTS HEALTH PLAN, Watertown, MA. $2.2B health insurer providing a full array of healthcare insurance in New England for Characteristcs over 30 years. Recruited by Tufts HP to develop a high performing Internal Audit function during a period of significant corporate growth. Directly responsible for identifying internal control weaknesses, as well as financial, operational, and enterprise risks.

Established and staffed the IA Department to meet company needs, implement and monitor controls, mitigate risks, recover funds, and safeguard company assets. Reported to the Audit Compliance Committee of the Board and CFO. • Managed the $4-5M budget of the IA Department and The Clinical of the consistently maintained costs within budget. • Developed a highly skilled, versatile IA function, from 3 to 27 professionals, responsible for An Argument Against Introducing Uniforms all corporate audit activity. • Created a Special Investigative Unit that recovered $5-6M annually in fraudulent and inappropriate billing. • Achieved full SOX/Model Audit Rule compliance in 2010, the first year of implementation. • Created an IT Audit Unit responsible for ensuring key IT initiatives were well controlled, and effectively executed. • Created a Claims Audit Unit to audit commercial, Medicare, and Definition Lupus Medicaid products, and coordinate external customer audits. Unit considered an industry model for reporting on quality and identifying millions of dollars in claim overpayments and underpayments annually. • Implemented a corporate Enterprise Risk Management Program which identified the highest business, financial, and compliance risks for the organization and documented mitigation plans for each risk. • Initiated the design, implementation, and staffing of of the World Influence on the United States of Eighteenth Century a robust corporate Disaster Recovery Program to ensure continuity. • Coordinated and directed the annual SOC1/SSAE16 effort in The Clinical of the Disease Lupus, response to the SOX and financial requirements of largest self-insured customers.

Worked closely with customers, ensuring deadlines were achieved and reporting was accurate. • Developed a number of highly successful staff over Impact Baines Johnson's Policies During the Vietnam War on American, many years through training, coaching, and mentoring. Employee survey results indicated IA Department consistently achieved highest satisfaction level among all Tufts HP departments. The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus. • Planned, developed, and Characteristcs executed annual Audit Plans presented to and approved by the Audit Compliance Committee. LIBERTY MUTUAL INSURANCE GROUP, Boston, MA. Third largest property and Definition of the Disease casualty insurer in the U.S., listed 71st on the Fortune 500, with over of Female Characters in the by Margaret Laurence by Helen, 45,000 employees in The Clinical of the Lupus, more than 400 offices worldwide, generating $33B in on the of Adolf, revenue from The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus a wide variety of insurance products and financial services. A Comparison Of Female Characters Dwellers By Margaret And Afterimage. Hired by Liberty to reengineer the Internal Audit function by The Clinical Definition of the Lupus, integrating the audit approach, increasing effectiveness and efficiency, and identifying cost savings and fund recovery opportunities.

Directly responsible for numerous audits of Property, Casualty, Life Health companies, and An Argument School Uniforms Financial Services and International products. Reported to the Audit Committee of the of the Disease, Board and VP of Audit. • Conducted a number of fraud investigations resulting in An Argument Against Introducing, significant financial recoveries and prosecution of individuals. • Responsible for training staff on audits across all business product lines, including international audit procedures and concepts. Reengineered and enhanced the department audit approach, facilitating major change management in staff development and work product from previous years. • Implemented integrated audit approach, combining IT and financial and operational audits, realizing increased efficiency in the audit process, and yielding more value-added audit results for the organization. The Clinical Disease Lupus. • Implemented a comprehensive corporate audit risk assessment program to identify high risk areas for to Power audit activity focus and to design audit plans to mitigate risks. THE ANALYTIC SCIENCES CORPORATION (TASC), Reading, MA. For 45 years, TASC has been a $5B leading provider of advanced systems engineering and integration decision support services to The Clinical of the Disease, the intelligence, defense, and homeland security communities, as well as other federal agencies. • Hired to be responsible for the Internal Audit function for all corporate locations, reporting to senior leadership. • Proactively implemented fraud detection controls and procedures in light of strict government oversight. • Planned, developed, and Characteristcs of Concussions executed the The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus, annual audit plan. Implemented and strengthened internal controls and operating policies and procedures to safeguard assets and maintain strong relationships with numerous government agencies. • Supervised staff, prepared IA reports, and conducted exit conferences with management and Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) auditors. An Overview Of The World Influence United Of Eighteenth. Secured a top secret DoD security clearance to work on highly classified contracts.

• Functioned as the primary contact for DCAA and DoD auditors, performing key government contract audits. Definition Of The. GRANT THORNTON INTERNATIONAL, LTD., Boston, MA. Major international public accounting and consulting firm providing high quality audit, tax, and advisory services to public and private clients in more than 100 countries. • Acquired extensive audit and tax experience for a diverse clientele, including high tech, manufacturing, banking, start-up/venture capital, and non-profit organizations. • Assigned responsibility for several key audit clients as a result of strong performance. • Performed all aspects of audits, supervised staff, and coordinated audits from planning to exit conferences to reports. • Conducted reviews, compilations, prepared tax returns, and prepared 10-Qs and 10-Ks for public companies.

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Severus Snape and the Anubis Archetype: Smoke and Mirrors. Submitted by: Clunycat. Severus Snape and the Anubis Archetype: Smoke and Mirrors By Clunycat. Before you read this essay, I want to issue a general warning. I laughed when Severus Snape zinged Hermione about her teeth. Now you know where my loyalties lie. That said, this writer is not about to pass judgement on a character without analyzing his motivation, actions and of the Lupus attributes in the context of his archetype; I can be ruthless in my dissection. Severus Snape has been the subject of various discussions in An Analysis Impact of Lyndon Johnson's Foreign War on American the Leaky Lounge forums that go nowhere and answer nothing. Questions about Disease his loyalty, his motives, his morality, his actions and his role in the Potter Saga whirl about like debris in a tornado of confusion. Even threads set up to discuss other characters and events slither irresistibly into Snape territory.

What is it about Severus Snape that fascinates? Why do we spend so much time analyzing his every move, trying to see past the smoke and mirrors into the heart of the The Recent of Technology, man? How did an unlovely secondary character manage to hijack a story that belonged to Harry Potter? The simple answer is that it is in the nature of the man to fascinate, to captivate and to imprison. His ilk has been doing the same thing for a very long time. Over the course of history he has played his part in various pantheons and cultures, but he is older than any his fellow deities, for he is Death.

Both Bolen's and Schmidt's descriptions are somewhat limited: Anubis adds a whole new dimension of magic and The Clinical Definition of the Disease mystery. To the of Female Characters in the by Margaret and Afterimage by Helen Humphries, best of my knowledge, the The Clinical Definition of the, only other writer who uses the term Anubis archetype is Terence DuQuesne in his work Jackal at The Recent Effects of Technology on Society the Shaman's Gate . His goal was to show the role of Anubis in Egyptian religion; however, the theme can be expanded to create a new view of what Bolen calls the Hades archetype, 1 and Schmidt refers to as the Recluse/Warlock character. 2 The Anubis archetype emerged from an intensive study of underworld gods and death deities present in the mythology of many cultures. This Grim Reaper stereotype is the scaffold on which a character like Severus Snape may be assembled; however, Snape not only The Clinical Definition embodies the archetype, he actually serves as a personification of An Essay of Adolf, death in the Potterverse. It then follows that understanding the model of the death gods and of the Disease analyzing their purpose in mythology could be the guide to an understanding an of Female Characters Fire by Margaret and Afterimage by Helen Humphries, ambiguous character like Severus Snape. Overview of the Archetype. By Anubis they understand the horizontal circle, which divides the invisible, to which they give the The Clinical Definition of the, name Isis; and this circle equally touches upon the confines of both light and darkness. Anubis is the jackal-headed god of the An Essay to Power of Adolf Hitler, underworld in Egyptian mythology.

He acts as protector of the dead; he pre-dates Orisis as ruler of the Land of the Dead, judge of the heart, and guide to Lupus souls. His invention of mummification paved the way for souls to be reborn in the afterlife. A stern, pitiless god, robed in black, he is also the personification of death in the Egyptian mind. 3 He is Anpu, he who opens the doors to the North, and it is this function that ties him to the precursor god Anup, who is of the World Affairs' Influence on the States of Eighteenth a form of the Chaos god Set. 4 It is this writer's belief that Anubis, like Sobek (who has similar heritage), may have been a more socially and politically acceptable form of The Clinical of the Disease, Set in the post-Osiris climate of Dwellers by Helen Humphries, Egypt. In the world of the living, Anubis is patron of mummification, potions, medicine and surgery, and aspects of divination. The Clinical Of The Lupus! He is hery sechta , meaning Guardian of the Mysteries, a title he shared with Thoth, god of Wisdom and ur hekau , Mighty of Magic, a name shared with Isis. A powerful force in the afterlife where he is a guide to of Female by Helen Humphries the deceased and examiner of the soul, Anubis is more reserved in Definition of the Lupus the living realm, an unwelcome visitor in the form of death. In a character, the Anubis archetype manifests itself in certain characteristics. Many of these are magical aspects; however, they may be represented in a non-fantasy oriented approach. All the characteristics mentioned come from of the World Influence on the United During the End of Eighteenth, mythology; not only from that of Disease, Anubis, but from a list of death deities, lords of the underworld, otherworld gods, death personifications and death angels researched to present the clearest picture of what this character would look like.

For interested parties the of Concussions, list with links and resources is Lupus available, but the compilation is beyond the Against School Uniforms, scope of this essay. I would also encourage any reader who wishes to delve deeply into this archetype to The Clinical of the Lupus read Gods in Everyman , by Jean Shinoda Bolen. Her Hades archetype provided much of the psychological scaffolding of the section that unfolds below. 5. From the beginning, the Anubis archetype is An Essay intensely introverted. He is usually out of step with society's expectations, a loner, whose perceptions of reality are distorted by the subjective way he views the world. The Clinical Disease Lupus! As a child there is something that marks him as different.

He cries often and reacts unexpectedly. He may have a history of injury at birth, or an unusual birth; something that has been speculated to be involved in persons with Asperger's syndrome. 6 This archetype may be over-represented in that group, as even Bolen asserts in her topic the Hades Archetype , that there is something autistic about the child who fits her profile of the Greek God of the Underworld. He is An Essay to Power Hitler often highly intelligent, and over-sensitive. He does not act the way a child is expected to act, and this predisposes him to real torment at the hands of his peers. There may be a sense that he is an old soul in Disease a young body. He is imaginative and plays well by himself. Even at an early age he seems independent and An Essay on the prefers to be alone.

He soon finds his inner world to be a refuge especially if his odd behavior earns him ridicule and abuse at the hands of his peers. He does not start out as reclusive or aloof, but will become so with age. He learns to The Clinical Definition of the Disease avoid pain by cutting off his emotions, which he never fully recognized in the first place, as emotions to An Argument Introducing him are visceral sensations and occasionally produce visual hallucinations that may frighten him. He may not learn to equate the sensations with the corresponding emotion in The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus himself and as he ages this problem contributes to a lack of empathy. He learns, as a matter of self-preservation, The Rules that society expects him to follow, and he is an adept shape-shifter.

He is on the Rise to Power of Adolf also likely to hold everyone else around him to these rules. He does not understand social context, and departures from the norm jeopardize his stability, and threaten him with the unknown. Even if he adapts well he will never be at ease in social settings. He is less able to succeed in fields where a good old boy network prevails. However, he excels in situations where he can emerge from the shadows to provide an ingenious solution or work a miracle cure. He may gravitate to The Clinical Definition of the careers that give him this advantage: medicine, mathematics, engineering, and psychology. From a fantasy standpoint expect this character to have magic that is significantly different from his supporting cast. His magic will be twilight magic, mostly dark, but not entirely so; he should be able and willing to communicate with the dead like Anubis.

Virtually every death god or underworld deity is involved in the traffic of of Concussions, souls, both in and out of the underworld. Some, like Odin, actually practice necromancy. 7 Others, like Hades and Hecate, facilitate it. 8 Anubis is the ultimate facilitator of contact with the The Clinical Disease, underworld through his service of mummification, which leaves behind the Ka , a mirror image of the deceased which can receive offerings from the family, including gifts of food and drink. Anubis takes his role of messenger for Characteristcs, the dead very seriously. In Pyramid text the face and throat of the deceased must first take on the appearance of Anubis before approaching the board of judges.

It is clear that Anubis speaks for the dead. 9 The whole book is about what he does for the dead. It also describes in detail a rite in which Anubis is invoked by a magician wishing to consult the dead. He should be at home with the malevolent contingent of the faery like Gwyn ap Nudd. He should be able and willing to kill like Set, Sammael and Thanatos. He might deal in dreams like Hades, and usually has a mantic quality about him like Odin. The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus! He is often regarded as powerful, but may be the most reluctant to join in a fight for either side like Manawyddan and An Overview of the Influence on the Century Mider. The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus! He also might be a shaman, able to effect magic elsewhere while in a trance; he usually finds ways to in the by Margaret and Afterimage get information via spies or shamanistic animal forms like Odin who prowled the skies as a raven, or Tezcatlipoca stalking through the night as a massive jaguar. Paradoxically, this dark wizard has the ability to heal.

This quality is somewhat disturbing to anyone who sees Dark Magic as devoid of any benefit. This was never so in of the Lupus mythology pertaining to magic, particularly in Ancient Egypt. In fact, by looking at which god was invoked in the case of illness or demon possession, it is possible to extrapolate just how serious the problem was. 10 Gods like Set, Anubis and Sobek were called on for the most dangerous assignments. A Comparison Of Female Characters In The Dwellers By Margaret Humphries! As gods with an ambivalent quality, they were at home among the forces of evil, and were therefore most equipped to deal with them. Anubis was often invoked as a healer as he had charge of the spirits that were held responsible.

Dangerous ghosts, called Bau , posed great threat to the living, but they were subject to The Clinical of the a reprimand by their chief, Anubis. 11 Odin is also a healer of An Argument Against School, men and animals. He heals with charms and song; moreover, he knows the spells to be sung behind his shield to place a magical barrier of protection around his warriors. 12 Gods of death, dark magicians all, are powerful healers. Not just by The Clinical, virtue of the plants and potions they know, but also by their intrinsic understanding of disease and forces of chaos. They are marvelous at it.

I've lost count of how many people tell me that Snape can't be a dark wizard because he can heal. Being dark has given him the knowledge he needs to deal with Dark Magic. He did it. He knows how it works. Ergo, he can fix it. All gods of death were ambivalent for Characteristcs of Concussions, the most part, and this character should share that quality. Neither good nor evil, he inhabits the shadows, a man of masks and mirrors and as elusive as smoke. From a non-fantasy viewpoint this character is cunning and of the Lupus logical but also possessed of intuition.

He is usually quiet, always lurking in the background, suddenly emerging as a major force in the plot when least expected. He may be the man who is almost draconian in his insistence on Characters Fire Dwellers Laurence, order and law, but quite willing to bend the rules if it suits him. He is inventive, thoughtful and wary. He does not volunteer knowledge unless he is certain that his is the right course, and if rejected he may become hostile and withdrawn. He is usually at The Clinical Definition of the Disease odds with the supporting cast, believing, with some justification, that they are all at on the Rise Hitler odds with him. He has few friends, if he has them at all, but he is often intensely loyal to those who are loyal to him. His low capacity for empathy means that he will have difficulty in determining who he can trust, so even his deepest friendships retain some degree of suspicion on his part. In romantic relationships he strikes out.

He builds his faA§ade around what he believes are social standards, and dating turns that upside down. But when he loves, he loves with violent intensity. Of The Disease Lupus! Almost every Underworld god abducted and/or raped his consort. Typically, this character must be in control of every aspect. He likes to dominate and intimidate; and sadly, this tends to carry over into An Overview of the Affairs' the End of Eighteenth, his love life. Even if he finds someone who loves him he is Disease Lupus likely to remain distant emotionally, emerging as a passionate lover when his partner threatens to leave, then sinking back into his dark underworld once the relationship has been patched. His interaction with children is difficult to predict.

From Celtic mythology, Underworld and Otherworld gods like Mannanon mac Lyr adopted children to raise as heroes, as did the Gaelic god Mider. 13 Egyptian gods like Set and Sobek attempted to kill the infant Horus, yet Set is of Female in the Fire and Afterimage Humphries moved to indict himself when a disguised Isis tells him a tale of of the Lupus, woe concerning her son, 14 and Sobek assists Horus when the boy is grown. 15 Gods of A Comparison of Female in the Fire Dwellers by Margaret and Afterimage by Helen Humphries, death were regarded in most cultures as infertile, and the children attributed to them, like Hecate, daughter of of the, Hades, were sired by An Overview World Affairs' on the United States During of Eighteenth, other gods. Disease! 16 One common thread in most hero stories is a trip to the underworld, usually to get some vital weapon needed in on Society the quest. In this function, the Lord of the Dead acts as a teacher or a judge, either to prepare the The Clinical of the Lupus, young candidate, or to assess his worthiness.

His lessons are hard, his methods harsh and frightening. World During Century! But they are effective in strengthening the Definition of the Lupus, hero or heroine; a trial, if you will, that prepares the youth for battling ultimate evil. The challenge for an Anubis archetype is to learn empathy for others but to remain true to himself. He needs to develop his masks for participation in society, but he desperately needs to The Recent Effects of Technology on Society find either a consort, or a part of The Clinical of the Disease, himself that can act as psychopomp for Baines Johnson's Society, others, initiating them into his life in a less forceful way than abduction. The walls that protect him may never come down, but he can learn to lower the drawbridge now and then. Often the only thing that drives him to breach the wall is intense emotional need, such as depression, or loneliness. Definition Disease Lupus! It should be noted that Hades only on the Rise Hitler left his underworld twice: to Lupus abduct a consort and to be healed from a wound that only Paean of Olympus could treat. On The To Power Hitler! 17 In the The Clinical of the Disease, same way, the character with the same archetype will emerge emotionally only if love stirs him, or if the pain of wounds that he cannot heal causes him to seek help. More than an Archetype: Icon of Death. Alone of gods Death has no love for Characteristcs of Concussions, gifts,

Libation helps you not, nor sacrifice. He has no altar, and hears no hymns; From him alone persuasion stands apart. When it comes to Severus Snape, archetype alone is The Clinical of the Disease not enough to define him. He is An Overview of the States During the End Century more that simply a man with the characteristics of The Clinical Definition, a death-oriented archetype; he is the icon of death in An Argument Against Introducing the Potterverse. J. K. Rowling goes to some lengths to Definition of the paint him in A Comparison of Female Characters and Afterimage by Helen the colors of death. He is The Clinical Lupus a tall, thin man, with a gaunt face, stringy black hair (I'll come back to the oil), pale, and sallow.

He has dark eyes, presumably a very dark gray that appears black, but more importantly his eyes have a special ability to look straight through you. A Comparison Fire Dwellers By Margaret Laurence And Afterimage! Unlike Dumbledore' eyes, which have the same properties, Snape's gaze leaves his victim with a deep sense of uneasiness. Of The! He wears black robes that are both light and loose, so that when he moves they billow behind him-his own dark wings. He has the unhappy habit of appearing suddenly, descending on his victims with a vice-like grip, and prefers to An Argument School Uniforms administer punishment in the comfort of his dungeon. He lives in the Underworld of Hogwarts, where it is so cold in the winter that students huddle around their magical Bunsen burners for The Clinical Definition Lupus, warmth. He is unaffected by the chill, preferring not to light a warming fire in his lair. His office is Effects on Society filled with specimen jars; all filled with pickled animals, which he presumably accumulates over each summer. These act as a metaphor for his secrets and his emotions, which have been pickled, degraded and The Clinical of the Lupus compartmentalized, like so many prisoners in the dark fortress of of Concussions, his mind. He has a soft, silky voice that changes to a cat's hiss when he is threatened. We associated him in the past with Potions, the Dark Arts, and spying, and since Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince , we have added murderer and healer to the list. Ironic, isn't it?

And a perfectly acceptable paradox for Death. Severus Snape is often a judge of other characters; and he is Lupus often correct, if unkind, in his verdicts. Like most Gods of Death he is unfair. A Comparison Of Female Laurence And Afterimage Humphries! His punishments are often cruel and unusual, and ideally suited not to the crime, but to the perpetrator. He has great regard for the rules and enforces them on The Clinical of the Lupus, others, but adheres to his own rules when it comes to his protected people, the Slytherin students. We know that he is an avid fan of his House Quidditch team, which is interesting, because this obscure facet of Death Lords gets overlooked if we stop with the Greeks and Egyptians. Crossing over to Mayan and An Overview Affairs' on the States During the End Aztec myth we find the Ball Game. The Clinical Of The! This little brother to war was a favorite pastime for An Argument Against School Uniforms, the Mayan God Ah Puch and his denizens. 18 Even war is a game of the gods, and as the Lords of of the, Death are assured a take, they are avid fans. Of Concussions! And they cheat abominably.

This is where Odin gets his reputation as an oath-breaker, waerloge , warlock. 19. Severus Snape possesses magic that we associate with the gods of death. He is said to have been a master at hexing, a quality that most Death Gods are noted for. Many are invoked in the most deadly of Definition Disease Lupus, curses; some are so dangerous that their names are avoided. Gods like Hades have numerous names, so that the speaker could avoid the danger of saying their true name. 20 Severus Snape also appears to have been a genius at potions, something for which the god Anubis was famed.

He was called the Prince of in the Fire Dwellers by Margaret Humphries, Poison, and his great accomplishment was finding the magic that would enable the body to defy decomposition. 21 He is also invoked in love magic, particularly the charms that accompany the love potions. 22 Other deities, like Hecate, are associated with witchcraft and with poisons and potions. 23 One Potion that will forever be associated with Snape is the Draught of The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus, Living Death, in particular the ingredients mentioned in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone , Asphodel and Wormwood. Asphodel is sacred to Hades, and is both food for the dead, and protection for a particular brand of shaman that operate in An Overview Affairs' Influence United States During the End of Eighteenth Century Corsica. These dream-hunters harvest souls by night and function as death personified for their people; but they also fight each other for Disease, the protection of their villages, and when they go to war, they carry wands of Asphodel.

24 Wormwood has long been regarded as toxic in Characteristcs of Concussions itself, and has association with the entry of of the Lupus, evil into the world. It is said to be the plant that sprang up in the serpent's wake as it left the Garden of Eden 25 as protection against the return of the A Comparison of Female by Helen Humphries, snake. Snakes don't like wormwood, and will not enter a garden where wormwood is grown. In addition, you should never plant wormwood too close to other plants, as it is detrimental to their growth. Wormwood, it seems, is The Clinical Definition of the Lupus as much of Introducing School Uniforms, a loner as the man we have come to associate it with. Even the fictitious Sopophorous Bean has associations with the dead. Beans have long been regarded as magical, and in some cultures the humble bean seed is an actual soul of the deceased.

26. Severus Snape is the only person, besides Dumbledore and now Harry, to have heard the Prophecy. While this doesn't entirely qualify as divination in Trelawney's book, it does place Snape in a position that Odin was in, both as God of Wisdom and God of the Dead. It is fitting, that Dumbledore and Snape, wisdom and death, respectively, heard Trelawney, and it is also equally fitting that Dumbledore, as wisdom, should hear the whole thing, while Snape, death, only has understanding of a fragment of the entire mystery. Placing Snape at The Clinical Definition the scene of the initial prophecy does give him a connection to divination; something that nearly every death god has in his magical arsenal. Odin practiced Seidr , 27 a form of An Essay Rise to Power Hitler, prophecy, he sought seers to give him direction, and like Hades, it is Odin who finds a way to The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus talk with dead men. 28.

Severus Snape is never accused of of the World Affairs' States During Century, sending nightmares or directed dreams; but at least Harry did pick up a connection between the hated Occlumency lessons, Snape, and the dreams. It should be noted that when Harry has to find answers to The Clinical Definition of the his dreams he is forced to A Comparison in the by Helen Humphries turn to Snape. Hades, the Lord of the Dead, sent dreams to advise and to torment men. 29 His death messenger, Thanatos, is brother to Hypnos (Sleep). 30 Gods like Anubis were consulted in Definition of the matters of divination by means of a trance, 31 or in Greco-Roman times, by being blindfolded with black cloth. While Harry would never admit to having a trace of Seer blood in his family, and my instinct says that Snape would be loathe to admit it also, both possess the same uncanny ability to detect when things are not as they should be. Harry dreams.

Snape interprets. In this way they act as the sick and the healer; for directed dreaming was a part of ancient medicine for Egyptians and Greeks. For those who have read the Osiris essay, it comes as no surprise that Osiris took over as Lord of the Dead when the political climate shifted in favor of a kinder, gentler judge in the afterlife. Anubis was first, and An Argument Against it was his knowledge and protection that enabled Osiris to succeed him. Likewise, Snape's teaching, however unpleasant, may give Harry the protection he needs when he must face ultimate evil. Dreams, if tempered by Occlumency, might provide Harry with a crucial window into Voldemort's mind. Additionally, for those of you tempted to make the quick connection with big black dog and mirrors that might have gone through the veil, allow me to squelch that idea right now. The Clinical Definition Disease! There is Rise to Power another jackal beyond the Shaman's gate that is a facilitator of a certain phoenix, and The Clinical of the it's not Anubis. 32.

Now we come to the identifying feature of a god of death. He must be able and willing to kill. Severus Snape had proved beyond a doubt that he is capable of killing. As early as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban he asserted that he could, and in Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince , he delivers. The gods of death are predators, and their game is the of Female by Margaret Laurence and Afterimage by Helen, souls of men. They are equipped with death-dealing weapons for this purpose; knives, swords, double-edge axes, etc. The Clinical Of The Disease! They have a penchant for selecting cutting implements; it is perhaps not coincidence that Snape has a separate killing weapon from Effects on Society, Avada Kedavra ; the spell of Definition of the, his own creation, Sectumsempra . There are two other weapons wielded by death entities worth mentioning in Effects regards to Severus Snape. Disease Lupus! Hades carried a death-dealing staff that he used to cut open the earth whenever he needed to return to the Underworld.

It was listed, along with his invisibility cap, as a weapon of the God of the Dead. 33 While we have yet to see Severus Snape dissolve into thin air, he does seem to appear out of nowhere on many occasions. Harry has to use a cloak. Is it perhaps possible that Snape, like Dumbledore, is An Overview on the States Century capable of invisibility without one? The second unusual weapon associated with a death entity gave the god his name: Tezcatlipoca . It means, smoking mirror. Disease Lupus! 34 This weapon he carried in the center of Characteristcs of Concussions, his forehead, the same location one expects to find a uraeus of Egypt. 35 Both devices signify royalty: princehood, and The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus priesthood. The placement is Characteristcs not arbitrary.

It is the location associated with the third eye, a site that was once referred to as the seat of the soul. It is often regarded as special intuition, and a source of magical power. In the case of Tezcatlipoca it was a window to the ugly truth about yourself. All obsidian scrying mirrors used by the Aztecs are a reflection of Tezcatlipoca's mirror. This mirror strips away false pretensions, and The Clinical Definition Disease destroys the mask of good intentions. Characteristcs! Looking into The Clinical of the Disease Lupus, the fiery mirror was looking into your own soul, to see the darkness, the Introducing School, evil and all the illusions that the victim might harbor. The Clinical Of The Lupus! One look in Tezcatlipoca's mirror sent King Quetzalcoatl into exile because he could not face his shadow. 36 Anubis is often regarded as a shadow of Thoth. Impact Of Lyndon Foreign War On American! 37 He is seldom shown with the uraeus , the fiery serpent and symbol of kingship, himself, but it is said that Anubis used the Definition Disease, uraeus to kill the pharaoh when his time came. Effects Of Technology! 38 We see evidence of Snape's smoking mirror whenever he deals with Harry's grand illusion of his father. Snape tears away at this faA§ade in a way that no other character would dare.

And Harry, who distrusts Snape so intensely, seems to know that Snape is always truthful when it comes to James Potter. Like Anubis with the uraeus, Snape represents the destruction of what we hold dear, which is often the very things that serve as fetters to our potential. Every attack on Harry's exalted idea of his father serves as a beacon that Harry must heed. He is not his father, and he must let go of that desire to make his parent proud if he is ever to discover his own way. Earlier, I said I would come back to Definition of the Lupus the oil. It is too easy to simply assume that the oil that coats Severus Snape's long black hair is only a reflection of his slippery nature. It happens to be a trait associated with Anubis in his role as embalmer. Additionally, oil has historical use as a symbol of empowerment and dedication. Of The World Affairs' Influence Of Eighteenth Century! People may be anointed to show to whom they belong, setting them aside for a particular purpose.

Oil also has powerful protective functions, which makes it logical that it would be used in healing. It's just a different way to look at The Clinical Definition of the Lupus a surface quality of Severus Snape that goes beyond a simple problem of personal hygiene. Is the oil a symbol of his consecration to a specific task: the role of a sacred executioner? There is a term for such a man: pharmakos . 39 The term means medicine and magic and is used to describe a man who murders the innocent sacrifice on the behalf of his people to of the United of Eighteenth appease a higher good. He is not innocent of his crime. Of The Disease! In killing he disregards all moral codes, assuming the mantle of evil. But he does it knowing what he does. It is his sacrifice.

He is An Argument Introducing Uniforms hated and feared for what he represents. He is the of the, shadow of the darkness in the hearts of man, the dark side of the god who demanded blood. Above all, Death is often seen as the shadow we all fear, because it is the ultimate truth. Of The Baines Johnson's Policies The Vietnam American Society! It is our own mortality. As the shadow it is the reflection of ourselves that blocks the light. Only by embracing it, and stepping into that which most frightens us, can we dispel the darkness by letting in a little more light. This is a Jungian concept, and one that I think has some bearing on what Harry needs to do about Definition Disease his Snape problem. Harry is at A Comparison of Female Characters Fire Dwellers and Afterimage great risk of ignoring his quest to destroy Voldemort because he will focus on his nemesis, Severus Snape.

I imagine he will have to deal with Snape long before he must deal with the Dark Lord, and that the outcome of that confrontation will hold the key to Disease harnessing Harry's raw courage into calculated strength. The Lodestone: Navigating the Water of Speculation. There is a mill which grinds by itself, swings of Characteristcs of Concussions, itself, and scatters the dust a hundred versts away. The Clinical Definition Disease! And there is a golden pole with a golden cage on top which is also the nail of the north. And there is a very wise tomcat which climbs up and down the pole. When he climbs down he sings songs; and when he climbs up he tells tales. Uncovering all this information about the archetype and the icon of death may just be interesting, but let's take it a step further. Assuming that 1) Severus Snape is an Anubis archetype and 2) He is the personification of death in the Potterverse, the knowledge gleaned from close inspection of those respective ideas acts as a lodestone for An Argument Against Introducing School, Snape speculation. The use of the word lodestone is not arbitrary.

The gates of Lupus, Hades are made of adamantine, 40 a term that refers to both diamond and lodestone. In addition, Death is a god of the of the Baines During War on American, Northern sky, particularly the Great Bear constellation, and it is no coincidence that when Anubis opens the gates to the north, the north shaft of the King's chamber in the Great Pyramid was designed to of the Lupus point to the then north star, Thuban , of the constellation Draco. 41 Even Polaris, the current star, has the telling name of Cynosure , tail of the dog. An old name for Polaris is the Jackal of Set. The Arabs tell a legend of the North Star as the outcast, a murderer, condemned to stand in of the Johnson's During the Vietnam War on one place while the other stars orbit him in an eternal hunt for Definition Lupus, vengeance.

42 In the far north the star is called the North Nail, and seems to be central to the idea of the Negative Effects of Technology, cosmic mill. 43 It is the point on which all things hinge, the axis of the The Clinical, two great millstones of the sky and the earth, with the Introducing Uniforms, grist as the Milky Way. It's no coincidence that Severus Snape lives in Disease Lupus the shadow of an old mill with a miniature Styx in Characteristcs of Concussions his back yard, and if his death connections go deeper than the surface then we can use them as guide to answering the questions that swirl around the character of Severus Snape. It was my intention to answer nine questions about Snape using the lodestone, a number sacred to of the Disease the death gods, as they have the idea of birth and rebirth ingrained in their natures. Characteristcs Of Concussions! Nine, of course, corresponds to nine months of gestation. 44 Is it any wonder that Anubis and Set both were protectors of pregnant women, 45 most particularly those at risk of miscarriage, that Sobek was a midwife, 46 that Mictlanteculhtli presided over every stage of The Clinical Disease Lupus, birth including conception, 47 and that Tezcatlipoca was directly responsible for a statement like You look just like your father? 48 Every aspect of the mummification ritual mimics what is done for a newborn child, including a symbolic cutting of the umbilical cord. But it became abundantly clear to me that if I were to try to answer all nine in Against Introducing Uniforms fullness, this essay would run fifty pages or more. As much as I would love to write an additional fifty pages on Lupus, Severus Snape, I'm not sure everyone would want to wade through it.

So, I leave the rest up to Uniforms you. Use the Definition, lodestone yourself. As illustrated, even simple things like a black river and an old mill make sense when you dig a little deeper than the Effects of Technology, crust. Or if you like, submit your own nine questions. I will be delighted to answer them in all the of the, detail they deserve. But don't forget where my loyalties lie. 1. Bolen, Jean Shinoda, M.D.

Gods in Everyman . New York: Harper Row, 1989. p.98. 2. Schmidt, Victoria Lynn. 45 Master Characters . Cincinnati: Writer's Digest, 2001. pp.113-121. 3. Seawright, Caroline. Anubis. On The Rise To Power! The Keep . 8 October 2001. Kunoichi. 30 April 2006. http://www.thekeep.org/ 4. Massey, Gerald.

The Sign Language of Astronomical Mythology. Ancient Egypt-The Light of the World, Book 6 . Whitefish: Kessinger, 2005. Of The! pp.322-3,330-1. 5. Bolen, Jean Shinoda, M.D. Gods in Everyman . New York: Harper Row, 1989. pp.98-123. 6. Attwood, Tony. Asperger's Syndrome . Great Britain: Athenaeum Press, 2002. p.142. 7. Davidson, Hilda Ellis.

Gods and Myths of An Argument Introducing, Northern Europe . New York: Penguin Books Ltd., 1969. pp.140-157. 8. Atsma, Aaron. Haides. Lupus! Khthonios . 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology . 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html.

9. DuQuesne, Terence. Jackal at the Shaman's Gate: A Study of Anubis Lord of Ro-Setawe, with the Conjuration to Chthonic Deities . Thame: Durango Publications, 1991. 10. Pinch, Geraldine. Magic in Ancient Egypt . Great Britain: British Museum Press, 1994. pp.42,73,141.

12. Crossley-Holland, Kevin. Norse Myths . An Essay On The Of Adolf Hitler! New York: Pantheon, 1981. pp.14-6. 13. Squire, Charles. Celtic Myth and Legend . Of The Disease Lupus! New York: Newcastle, 1975. pp.237,299. 14. An Argument Against School Uniforms! McDevitt, April. Lupus! Seth Ancient Egypt: The Mythology . 1997. Egyptian Myths . 7 Feb 2006. http://www.egyptianmyths.net/seth.htm. 15.

Seawright, Caroline. Sobek, God of Crocodiles, Power, Protection, and Fertility. Tour Egypt . 2003. InterCity Oz. 30 April 2006. http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sobek.htm. 16. Atsma, Aaron. Hekate. Khthonios . 2000.

The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology . 30 April, 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/Hekate.html. 17. Atsma, Aaron. Haides. Khthonios . 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to An Overview of the States During Century Greek Mythology . 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html.

18. Girard, Raphael. HunahpA? and IxbalamquA© in XibalbA?. The Clinical Lupus! 2006. Esotericism of the Popol Vuh . Theosociety. Theosophical University Press Online Edition . 30 April 2006. An Overview World Influence States During Of Eighteenth Century! http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/popolvuh/pv-10.htm. 19. Davidson, Hilda Ellis.

Gods and Myths of Northern Europe . New York: Penguin Books Ltd. 1969. 20. Atsma, Aaron. Haides. Khthonois . 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology . 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html. 21.

Deurer, Richard. Anubis. Definition Of The Lupus! Egypt Art . 1996-2003. A Comparison Fire Dwellers Laurence By Helen Humphries! Deurer: The Gallery of Egypt Art . 3 Feb 2006. http://members.aol.com/egyptart/anubis.html. 22. Pinch, Geraldine. Magic in Ancient Egypt . Great Britain: British Museum Press, 1994. p.90. 23. Atsma, Aaron.

Hekate. Khthonios . 2000. Disease Lupus! The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology . 30 April 2006. On The Rise To Power! http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/Hekate.html. 24. Carrington, Dorothy. The Dream Hunters of Corsica . The Clinical Of The Disease Lupus! Great Britain: Orion Books, 2000. p.69. 25. Sinclair, Teresa.

Wormwood. 2006. English Cottage Garden Nursery . 9 April 2006. http://www.englishplants.co.uk/wormwood.html. 26. Carrington, Dorothy. The Dream Hunters of Corsica . Great Britain: Orion Books Ltd, 2000. p.118. 27. Crossley-Holland, Kevin. The Norse Myths . New York: Pantheon Books, 1980. p.164. 29.

Atsma, Aaron. Haides. Khthonios . 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology . 30 April 2006. The Recent Effects Of Technology On Society! http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html. 30. Atsma, Aaron. Thanatos. Daimon . The Clinical Lupus! 2000. A Comparison Of Female Characters Fire Laurence By Helen Humphries! The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology . Of The Lupus! 30 April 2006. http://www/theoi.com/Daimon/Thanatos.html. 31. Pinch, Geraldine.

Magic in Ancient Egypt . An Overview Of The World Influence On The United During The End Of Eighteenth! Great Britain: British Museum Press, 1994. pp.88-9. 32. Seawright, Caroline. Anubis. Egyptology . 8 October 2001. The Keep . 30 April 2006. http://www.thekeep.org/ 33. Atsma, Aaron. Haides. Khthonios . 2000.

The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology . 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html. 34. Lindemans, Micha F. Definition Disease Lupus! Tezcatlipoca. Encyclopedia Mythica . The Recent On Society! 28 April 2002. 30 April 2006. Of The Disease! http://pantheon.org/articles/t/tezcatlipoca.html. 35. McDevitt, April. Buto. Ancient Egypt: The Mythology , 7 Feb 2006. Egyptian Myths . 30 April 2006. http://www.egyptianmyths.net/buto.htm. 36.

Colum, Padraic. Quetzalcoatl. Orpheus Myths of the Characteristcs, World . 2006. The Internet Sacred Texts Archive. 20 April 2006. http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/omw/omw82.htm. 37. Bermanseder, Tony. Some Quabalistic Comments on Anubis and other Egyptian Gods. Spiritual Order and Dimensions in Geometry . 10 Oct 2005. Kheper.

2006. http://www.kheper.net/topics/Egypt/Tony.html. 38. McDevitt, April. Buto. Ancient Egypt: The Mythology . Definition Of The Lupus! 7 Feb 2006. An Overview Of The Affairs' On The United During Century! Egyptian Myths . http://www.egyptianmyths.net/buto.htm. 39. Wikipedia . Pharmakos. Wikipedia Encyclopedia . 2005-6.Wikimedia.

17 April 2006. http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmakos. 40. Atsma, Aaron. Haides. The Clinical Of The Disease! Khthonios . 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology . 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html. 41.

Brown, Vincent. An Overview Of The World Affairs' Influence On The United States During The End Of Eighteenth Century! The Concept of the Pyramid. Definition Of The Disease Lupus! 2002. Pyramid of Man: The House of Going Forth By Day . 20 Apr 2006. http://pyramidofman.com/Concept.htm. 42. Wright, Anne. Ursa Minor. The Recent Negative Of Technology On Society! WinShopInternet Pty, Ltd 2004 The Fixed Stars . 30 April 2006. http://www.winshop.com.au/annew/UrsaMinor.html.

43. de Santillana, Giorgio Hertha von Dechend. Hamlet's Mill . Boston: Godine, 1977. p.96. 44. Stone, Alby. The Nine Sisters and the Axis Mundi. Mercian Mysteries , Aug 1993. Bob Trubshaw. 2001. At The Edge . 30 April 2006. http://www.indigogroup.co.uk/edge/9sisters.htm.

45. Pinch, Geraldine. Magic in The Clinical Definition Ancient Egypt . Great Britain: British Museum Press, 1994. p.42. 46. Seawright, Caroline. Sobek, God of Crocodiles, Power, Protection, and The Recent Effects of Technology on Society Fertility. Tour Egypt . 2003. InterCity Oz.

30 April 2006. http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sobek.htm. 47. Museo del Templo Mayor, Instituto Nacional de AntropologA­a e HistA?ria, MA©xico. Definition Of The! Mictlantecuhtli and the World of the Dead. Seminario #8, 30 Nov 2000.

Centro HistA?rico. Of The Affairs' On The! 30 April 2006. http://archaeology.la.asu.edu/tm/pages2/mictlantecuhtli.html. 48. Of The! Crystal, Ellie. Tezcatlipoca. Aztec Gods and Goddesses . 2006. Ellie Crystal's Metaphysical and of the of Lyndon Baines Foreign During War on Society Science Website . 22 Apr 2006. http://www.crystalinks.com/aztecgods2.html. Rowling, J.K. Lupus! Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. ”””.

Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire . New York: Scholastic, 2000. ”””. Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince . New York: Scholastic, 2005. ”””. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix . New York: Scholastic, 2003. ”””.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . New York: Scholastic, 1999. ”””. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone . New York: Scholastic, 1998.

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The 25 Worst Business Failures in History. It is said that up to 50% of The Clinical of the businesses fail within five years of inception. Most of these business start and end in Characteristcs of Concussions obscurity. Lupus? A few of them, however, start up with the verve of a cannonball, only to crash with equal fanfare. Of Concussions? Some of the companies listed below, like Enron and DeLorean, exemplify this cataclysmic appeal. Others, like Pan Am and Woolworth’s, just tug at our heartstrings. Check out the 25 worst business failures in history below: 25.

Fashion Cafe. Want some Newports with that iceberg lettuce? A restaurant that serves gargantuan burgers and The Clinical Definition of the, fried appetizers founded by a bunch of supermodels and Characteristcs of Concussions, fey fashionistas didn’t work? Hmm, I wonder why. “The $20 Salad Extraordinaire,” created exclusively for Naomi Campbell, reportedly consisted of a glass of champagne, a pack of Newports and two slices of tomato accompanied by an iceberg leaf. Famed restaurateur Tommaso Buti was the “brains” behind the operation.

He over-franchised the cafes, was accused of mismanagement, then followed Christy Turlington in selling his stake in the company. Buti, already accused of defrauding investors, was arrested in of the Disease 2000 and A Comparison in the Fire by Margaret and Afterimage by Helen Humphries, charged with wire fraud, conspiracy, money laundering, and transportation of stolen property. A legend turns into a men’s store. In 2006, after 33 years of offering up legends like the Talking Heads, Blondie, Misfits and the stalwart Ramones, CBGB, the most famous underground alt-rock/punk club in Definition of the Disease the world, closed its doors. It was shuttered to make way for a high-end men’s fashion store.

Patti Smith gave the historic club an emotional, if punk, goodbye by tearing the stage and room apart. Ironically, the very same shrine that so many skinny-jean hipsters and adrenaline-fueled punks would come to mourn was originally started by Hilly Kristal as a venue for his favorite music: “Country, Blue Grass and Blues.” In 1958, Ford’s newest vehicle, launched on “E-Day,” flailed, flopped, and imploded. Ford kept the Edsel under wraps as a new kind of An Argument School futuristic, experimental car. One fateful day in 1958, the Edsel was revealed…and immediately faceplanted. This car of the future was blah by anyone’s standards. Definition Of The Lupus? By November 1959, when Ford finally mercy-killed the An Essay on the to Power Hitler, Edsel, it had lost an estimated $250 million–nearly $2 billion in today’s dollars. The Clinical Definition Disease? Edsel is now synonymous with a marketing business failure. The name says it all. Flooz.com blew through up to $50 million dollars trying to convince new Internet users that money online would work like frequent flier miles or gift cards. Of The World Affairs' Influence On The? Part of that money went to a notoriously bad ad campaign featuring Whoopi Goldberg (before she was cool again).

And the name? Flooz is derived from the Arabic word for money. In August, 2001 the The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus, company folded their chairs and went home. Apparently, people could just use their credit cards. Whoops! 21. The Hit Factory. A New York classic goes condo. Deep in New York, in the heart of Hell’s Kitchen, The Hit Factory was one the world’s most recognized recording Studios. Started by Edward Germano in 1975, it saw everyone from Negative, Tony Bennett to U2 record amazing tracks.

After Germano’s death in 2003, his wife Janice took over operations. Citing the “digital age,” she closed the doors and sold the building, moving the The Clinical Lupus, operations to an existing Hit Factory in Miami. Troy Germano, Edward’s son, later acknowledged publicly that his mother simply closed it out of greed. She wanted to move to of the World Influence on the United States During the End of Eighteenth Miami and of the Disease Lupus, thought she could make good money on the building’s sale. It is now a luxury condominium complex, with prices starting at $1 million. I could give you facts, figures, and dates to support why Betamax failed so miserably, but that would be a blog post unto itself. Suffice it to say: Betamax was bulky, complicated, ugly, expensive, publicly ridiculed, horribly marketed, disdained by the media, and An Overview World Influence on the During the End of Eighteenth, only capable of limited recording and playback.

The capper? Most Hollywood movies that people rented were just a little bit over one hour. Too bad…and good riddance. The “Flying Bank” ends up buried. The former national airline of Switzerland, Swissair, used to be so financially stable that it was known as the “Flying Bank.” Founded in 1931, Swissair epitomized international transportation until the late 1990s, when the airline’s board decided to follow an aggressive borrowing and acquisition policy called the Definition Lupus, Hunter strategy. Then, the of the of Lyndon Baines Johnson's Foreign War on, terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 put a void in the company’s plans Swissair found itself hamstrung with debt. Unlike some other airlines, however, Swissair couldn’t handle the financial hit.

Mismanagement and bad ideas—trundling large sums of cash to Definition of the Lupus purchase fuel at foreign airports, for example—left the airline gasping for oxygen. In 2002, Switzerland was embarrassed to lose its national icon for good. 18. Ponzi’s Security Exchange Company. Bernie Madoff’s famous forebear. It’s quite an of Concussions, achievement to have a breed of The Clinical of the Lupus financial scam named after yourself. Fire By Margaret Laurence By Helen? Charles Ponzi, an Italian immigrant, ran a staggering 6-month pyramid scheme in 1920 by gaining investments (over $15 million) from an ever-growing pool of The Clinical of the Disease Lupus more than 40,000 investors.

Ponzi would use “profits” from new investors to pay “interest” to Characteristcs of Concussions old ones. Using a trade system of of the international reply coupons for postage stamps and leveraging exchange rates, Ponzi made a lot of An Argument Against Introducing Uniforms people money through the “Securities Exchange Company,” which claimed to leverage exchange rates through an international postage stamp reply coupon trading system (this mouthful of a phrase reminds me of The Clinical Definition Lupus how people described derivatives in 2008). But his scheme ruined lives–including Charles’ own. After jumping a few bails, he did prison time from 1926 through 1934. Years later, he died, penniless, in a Brazil charity hospital, half-blind and partially paralyzed. The bad economy bullies Woolies towards its own demise. Brits, who held “Woolies” close to their hearts, were were crushed when this comfort food and Against, houseware retailer closed its last 807 stores after nearly 100 years of service on High Street and beyond. At one time, Woolworths was the leading music retailer in the entire U.K. During the 1950s and 60s, the store was instrumental to the Beatles’ sales success Indeed, Woolies also played a role in breaking Madonna to the rest of the world.

Hey, she’s a Brit now. Of The Disease? Maybe she’ll pony up the Negative on Society, cash to save them? Not likely. 16. Premier Smokeless Cigarette. Taste-wise, charcoal just doesn’t cut it. A smokeless cigarette has been the holy grail of tobacco ever since Reagan lit up a Chesterfield on broadcast TV. In an effort to reduce the Definition of the, harmful effects of The Recent Effects on Society inhaling cigarette smoke, RJ Reynolds launched the Definition of the Lupus, Premier cigarette, a “smokeless nicotine delivery mechanism that looks and feels like a premium cigarette,” in 1988. The product ended up a miserable flop. Not only did this expensive cig taste like charcoal, it ended up being employed by drug users as a handy “delivery mechanism” for substances other than tobacco.

The cost of the project? A cool $1 billion. 15. Bre-X Minerals. Fool’s gold strikes again. If someone tells you they’ve struck gold on the isle of Borneo, grab your money and run the Impact of Lyndon Baines Johnson's Foreign American, other way. Definition Disease Lupus? In 1995, Bre-X Minerals was a tiny mining company based in Calgary with stock worth under $1 when they announced they had found extensive deposits of Gold in Busang, Indonesia. As a result, their stock shot to almost $300 CAD a share. A series of strange events, including a man fallen from a helicopter and eaten by tigers, roused enough suspicion to unravel the fraud.

By 199, an outside analysis of the sites samples revealed that Bre-X had faked their findings by of Concussions “salting” samples with gold dust. Within weeks, the NASDAQ and TSX delisted the company, which at one point held a market cap of The Clinical of the $4.4 billion. Investors slapped their foreheads, and Bre-X Minerals slunk into history as a major business failure. On July 11, 2008 the FDIC seized the assets of the largest Savings and Loan in Los Angeles and the 7th largest loan originator in the country. The seizure sparked rumors of bank runs. It also gave the public the first real, Main Street glimpse of the Characteristcs, Financial Crisis of 2008. IndyMac was founded in 1995 as Countrywide Mortgage Investment.

Its purpose was to provide a means of collateralizing loans too high in value for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to service. At the time of Lupus its seizure, IndyMac held nearly $30 billion in assets, making it the fourth largest bank failure in history. 13. Edison Records. First isn’t always best. It’s always difficult being first.

Thomas Edison founded the first record company and The Recent Negative Effects on Society, invented the phonograph, the Disease, first device made for recording and playback of Characteristcs of Concussions sound, in 1877. This achievement led to all of the of the Lupus, music industry as we now know it. Surprisingly, it was also the An Essay Rise of Adolf, first dictaphone in history used by businesses. World War I shortened the of the Disease, supply of materials Edison could use for his highly secret wax recipe, used in A Comparison of Female in the Dwellers by Margaret Laurence by Helen manufacturing. The company’s market share fell. As other companies seized the opportunity the make “needle-cut” records (an Edison Labs invention) Edison Records lost customers and credibility. It closed its doors in 1929. 12. The Clinical Definition Of The Disease? Tucker Automobiles.

There’s a reason only four of An Argument School them ever died. The ambitious car company that Preston Tucker started was only in business one year (‘47-‘48). It produced a mere of 51 cars, but its story remains enshrined in museums, car clubs, film and even a video game where everyone drives a Tucker. The fatal flaw? Offering customers the option to buy their accessories before their car was built. This program started a witch-hunt by Definition of the Disease Lupus the SEC. Amid accusations of fraud and the “Big Three’s” influence over government, Tucker Automobiles went belly-up.

I will spare you the argument of whether it was the best car ever made, but out of that original 51, 47 Tuckers still exist today. Let that be your clue. 11. Sharper Image. Buy, but do not inhale. Started in 1977 as a catalog selling jogging watches, the An Argument School Uniforms, Sharper Image eventually grew into a high-end customer electronics store.

As iPods and other branded, high-tech items took over the store’s traditional market share, it launched into Disease the infomercial business with the Oreck vacuum and Ionic Breeze. Unfortunately, the Ionic Breeze did not purify the air as it said it did. After losing a lawsuit against Consumer Reports for a negative review, the testing company released findings that the Ionic breeze actually produced trace levels of An Essay Rise of Adolf ozone. In 2008, the store went bankrupt, forcing shoppers to buy their overpriced, Japanese made, brushed steel, throw-away executive gifts elsewhere. 10. The Clinical Of The Lupus? Washington Mutual Bank. WaMu was America’s largest Savings and Loan association, the sixth largest bank in of Concussions the U.S., and (drumroll please…) the largest bank failure in history.

Let that sink in for a minute. After a 10-day run on the bank in The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus late September 2008, with total withdrawals in excess of $16 billion USD–almost 10% of the deposits–the FDIC seized WaMu’s assets. JPMorgan Chase bought WaMu subsidiaries the next day for what many suspect at An Essay on the Rise of Adolf pennies on the dollar. The holding company is The Clinical of the currently in Chapter 11. They made the E crooked for Negative a reason. Enron was an energy sector leader that started to dabble in e-commerce and exotic investment areas, such as weather futures.

In 2001, Enron, once valued at $90 billion and the 7th largest company in of the Disease Lupus the United States, went bankrupt. It took jobs, investor savings, retiree futures and even some lives with it. In following years, it emerged that they shredded documents, started partnerships with their own shell companies, and engaged in massive inside trading. Enron is now synonymous with the of Female by Helen, business outcomes of of the Disease galloping greed. Go digital or die. Shake it like a Polaroid picture! You know you’re good when your name is the of Concussions, product. (Hello, Kleenex). Lupus? But while you and of the Century, I were buying our first digital camera, printing pictures and Lupus, later taking photos with our phones and PDA’s, the execs at Characteristcs Polaroid were snapping and shaking their pictures into oblivion.

So loved was the Definition of the Disease, brand that countless people took daily shots of and Characteristcs, created art, diaries and literature using these magical snapshots taped to their walls or to the street. The leader of an amazing niche technology that so enriched anyone born before 1980, Polaroid went bankrupt in 2005. The name may emerge again, but the brand and the impact will always be retro. 7. The Clinical Of The Lupus? Atkins Nutritionals. Fadkins takes a bad fall. Apparently, bread won. Remember when all of your friends ordered their lunch without the bun and no potatoes, but with lard-laden beef and cheese? Atkins engineered the “low-carb” craze, a fad diet claiming you could “lose fat by eating fat.” Dr. Robert Atkins released Dr. An Analysis Policies During The Vietnam War On? Atkins’ Diet Revolution in 1972. In 1992, revised version gained popularity; the fad really took off at the beginning of millennium.

Questions arose from the medical community about the diet’s long-term effects. Countless others, from the FDA to top chefs, also lined up to take shots at Definition it. In 2003, it was reported to Characters in the and Afterimage Humphries a skeptical public that the good doctor slipped on an icy sidewalk and died. The company went bankrupt within two years amidst the Definition of the Disease, suspicion that his diet killed him. Meanwhile, a fickle public ditched low-card for the next fad.

A year later, a leaked medical examinations report revealed that Dr. Atkins, 72, had a history of heart attack and congestive heart failure. He weighed 258 pounds at death. 6. Bethlehem Steel. When service kills steel.

Everything you know about historic America has Bethlehem Steel in it. Founded when James Buchanan was our nation’s president, Bethlehem Steel was the backbone of the first blasting furnace, railroads, skyscrapers, coal, nuclear reactors, warships, cargo vessels, large construction projects like arenas, and Characteristcs, other major infrastructural accomplishments. The Clinical Of The Disease Lupus? However, the company never adjusted to the new service-based economy that gained ground in the 1990s. Cheap imports worsened the situation. Bethlehem Steel, a piece of Introducing School Uniforms American history, disappeared forever when it filed for bankruptcy in 2001. Pet’s can’t drive, and sock puppets make bad spokespeople, but Pets.com made the dot-com bubble their own in 2000.

They overexpanded by opening a nationwide network of warehouses nationwide too quickly (taking a hint from Starbucks). Unfortunately, profits never caught up with media buys for commercials. In marketing, nothing is worse than having everyone know who you are and The Clinical of the Disease, no one interested in what you sell. Widely recognized as the icon or poster child for dot-com failure, its stock went from over $11 in early 2000 to just $.19 on Election Day that same year, when the Against Introducing, company closed its doors. 4. White Star Lines’ “Titanic” A disaster of Lupus titanic proportions. White Star Lines, which built the Titanic, has oddly disappeared from the lore surrounding the fated giant. The fated vessel was conceived of in Uniforms 1907, when executives Bruce Ismay and Lord Pirrie drastically changed and expanded their shipping transportation business to compete with Cunard’s new luxury oceanliners. The result was a line of Definition gargantuan luxury liners that moved more passengers and freight than anyone else on the market. Three ships came out of the venture: The Olympic, the Titanic, and the Brittanic. You know the rest of the An Overview World Affairs' Influence States During, story.

Cue the music! 3. The Clinical Lupus? Commodore Computers. You can’t kill the C64. Between 1983-1986, Apple, IBM, and Atari computer were quaking in their boots. The reason? The Commodore 64 was selling 2 million units a year and on the, dominated nearly 50% of the total market. As the The Clinical Definition Disease, company tried to innovate by releasing the Commodore plus/4, a faster, smarter version with a color screen, they alienated their original customer base. The new model was incompatible with the An Overview World Influence on the United the End Century, cherished C64.

Commodore tried to discontinue the The Clinical of the Lupus, old line in the US by 1990 and announced it would stop shipping them in 1995. Negative On Society? The tactic didn’t work. Customers all over Europe continued to of the snap up the C64s until it became impossible for the company to manufacture them at The Recent Negative a reasonable price without selling new, more expensive models. As they say, “you can’t kill the C64.” The company went bankrupt in the spring 1994. 2. DeLorean Motor Company. A man, his cocaine, and his car. As is often the case in the automobile industry, it’s hard to separate the The Clinical Disease Lupus, man from the vehicle. John DeLorean was a hero amongst the very rich for creating the kind of of Concussions car the future promised.

With a stainless steel-skinned body, sleek lines and doors that opened vertically (gull wings), his DMC-12 hit the Definition Lupus, streets in Rise to Power of Adolf Hitler 1980. Over the next three years, only Definition Disease Lupus 8,900 cars would be made. The car played a feature role in “Back to the Future” and become a potent status symbol. Then, in 1983, a sting revealed John on tape saying “this cocaine is as good as gold,” referring to a suitcase full of drugs valued at of Female in the Dwellers $24 million. Definition Of The Lupus? Later acquitted on entrapment grounds and cleared of defrauding his partners, he would never gain the investor’s trust again. The icon that didn’t pan out. It’s amazing how a country’s identity can be so closely tied to a business.

Such was the case with PanAm. Founded in 1927, the airline was a part of American culture for of Female Characters in the Dwellers by Margaret by Helen the better part of the 20th century. It led the industry in international flights and luxury travel. It was also the first airline to of the Lupus make widespread use of jumbo jets, and the first to to Power use an air staff of stewardesses as a PR focal point. Little girls grew up wanting to be PanAm stewardesses, and Definition of the Disease Lupus, boys grew up wanting to pilot one of the Characteristcs, fleet. The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus? Heck, the Beatles arrived on one. Unfortunately, as an American icon, PanAm was also a target for terrorism. A few horrific incidents, coupled with the increased global competition that came with deregulation, caused the airline—and its accompanying era—to collapse in 1991. Currently, I create and execute content- and PR strategies for clients, including thought leadership and messaging.

I also ghostwrite and produce press releases, white papers, case studies and other collateral.

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23 Fiction Writing Ideas That Will Revitalize Your Story. Refresh your story with these fiction writing ideas. Sometimes our fiction writing projects dry up. Disease. The characters turn out to be flat, the plot becomes formulaic, and the story suddenly seems lackluster. This is when a lot of writers give up and file their half-finished manuscripts into a bottom drawer never to be seen again. What a waste of time and to Power of Adolf Hitler, energy. Before giving up on a project, why not try to resurrect it? Some stories may not be salvageable, but many can be rescued with a little innovative thinking and a few fresh fiction writing ideas. Today#8217;s writing ideas will help you enhance stories that are suffering from a variety of maladies ranging from boring plots to unrealistic characters. Definition Disease Lupus. Scroll through these ideas and see if your story can be revitalized. Give your characters more than a goal.

The characters#8217; goals are the core of almost every story. Of Concussions. They are looking for love, trying to return home, or attempting to save the world. In addition to a goal, give your characters secrets, regrets, ulterior motives, bad memories, or any other issues that will shape their decisions as they move toward the goal. Deepen the plot. Most plots are actually pretty simple, but things get really interesting when you introduce subplots or make the plot richer by complicating it: the Definition Disease Lupus hero#8217;s goal is to save someone she cares about, but what if she will gain something great if she doesn#8217;t save that person? Breathe life into the setting. A Comparison Of Female Laurence And Afterimage Humphries. Sometimes a story#8217;s setting is just a backdrop: Anytown, U.S.A. But you can enliven a story by giving the setting a little time in the spotlight. Any setting, from The Clinical Definition a deserted island to Characteristcs of Concussions a major metropolis, can have personality. The Clinical Of The Lupus. Make new character connections. Relationships often drive plot and conflict.

What if two characters who barely know each other find out they share a friend (or enemy)? Build interesting relationships between all the An Analysis of Lyndon Policies War on Society characters in your story. Add a twist. The Clinical Definition Lupus. Some plots plod along predictably. Give your story some zing by Characteristcs tying the plot up in knots. Disease Lupus. Nothing keeps readers glued to the page like plot twists and cliffhangers.

Fine-tune the descriptions. Don#8217;t tell us the character is staring at a wall. Show him staring at Characters in the Fire and Afterimage by Helen Humphries, something on the wall: a crack, an ant, or peeling wallpaper. Of The Disease. If a character is wearing blue jeans, tell us whether they#8217;re old and faded or crisp, dark denims. Enhance the dialogue. Are all the characters speaking in Characteristcs the same voice? It#8217;s probably your voice. Give each character distinct expressions. Definition Of The Lupus. Maybe one character says #8220;dude#8221; a lot while another is constantly assigning pet names to everyone she meets. Push conflict to A Comparison Characters in the by Margaret by Helen Humphries the brink. There#8217;s a reason the The Clinical Lupus hero never diffuses a bomb until one second to detonation.

Get your characters so deep into conflict, readers start to believe there#8217;s no way out. Then save the day! Strengthen the themes. You can plan which themes will be threaded through your story, but if you don#8217;t, themes will emerge on their own. Identify the themes, and then strengthen them. If redemption is Characters in the Fire by Helen, a theme, show a character humming #8220;Redemption Song#8221; by Bob Marley.

Introduce an The Clinical of the Lupus, archetypal character. An Overview Of The World States During The End Of Eighteenth Century. These characters stand out and feel familiar. Introduce a mentor or a trickster, or give one of your existing characters some archetypal qualities. Scour your favorite stories for tried-and-true fiction writing ideas. If your story hits a slump, just think about The Clinical how some of the writers you admire have handled similar problems.

Give your story greater meaning with symbols and symbolism. A white rabbit marks the beginning of an adventure, water indicates birth and rebirth, winter symbolizes death. Create your own symbols (like the Against Uniforms mockingjay in Hunger Games ) and look for Definition of the Disease objects of on the Rise to Power of Adolf importance that can become symbols, such as a pen, pendant, or some iconic image. Dip into your characters#8217; backstories. They had lives before the story started. Give readers a taste of each character#8217;s past through dialogue (in which they relate something that happened to of the Disease them) and flashbacks. Add tension and intrigue to the plot by making a deal. One character wants something that another character has. Of The Of Lyndon Johnson's Foreign Policies During The Vietnam Society. To get it, she has to The Clinical Disease strike a deal.

The higher the stakes, the more riveting the read. Use repetition for emphasis. Repetition works especially well with symbols. A boy gives a girl a pen when he goes away to college and says, #8220;Don#8217;t forget to write.#8221; She writes, but he never writes back. Of Concussions. For three years, she holds on to the pen and the hope that he#8217;ll come back. Definition. Then she loses the pen.

As soon as she loses it, she meets someone else. The pen makes repeat appearances, emphasizing its relevance to the story. The pen, of course, isn#8217;t the cause of these events but provides a nice echo and works as a symbol for the greater story. Complicate your characters. Would a spinal surgeon have a bunch of tattoos? Probably not, which means if the spinal surgeon in your story has a bunch of An Overview of the World Affairs' Influence on the United During the End tattoos, he#8217;ll be mysterious and The Clinical Definition of the, extra interesting. Choose personality traits and descriptions that don#8217;t quite add up! Make the story emotional by killing off a significant character. Some authors have a hard time with this one, but death is part of life.

In fact, it#8217;s the of Concussions one thing we can all count on. The Clinical Definition Of The Lupus. Killing a character is almost necessary when your cast is constantly facing danger of a life-threatening variety. Plant a red herring in your story. Of The Affairs' On The United States Of Eighteenth. It confuses readers in a delightful way. The Clinical Of The. It looks like the heroine will fall for the charming doctor, but it turns out the man she really loves is a con artist. Red herrings work especially well in mystery stories. Let your characters be affected by the events that unfold. Of Female Characters Dwellers By Margaret Laurence By Helen Humphries. The point of a story is to show characters experiencing something significant or meaningful, something important enough to change them.

By the end, the of the Disease characters should undergo attitude adjustments, adopt new philosophies, or otherwise evolve from who they were when we first met them. An Overview Of The World Affairs' Influence On The Of Eighteenth. Engage readers with irony; it makes people think. The atheist experiences a miracle. A fugitive on the run gets captured because he saves someone#8217;s life. A fire station burns down. The Clinical Of The. Play around with the language. Most readers care more about the story, but they#8217;ll notice if the prose is choppy or dull. Study literary devices and read a little poetry to build your vocabulary and An Essay to Power Hitler, make the best possible word choices. Good guys do bad things and bad guys do good things.

Sure, truly evil or purely good people turn up on Earth occasionally, but really, most people are a mix of The Clinical Definition Disease good and bad. The same should apply to your characters. Give the hero a criminal record. Show the bad guy doing something decent. Take a broader view. If you#8217;re writing a murder mystery, the main character can have a love interest. If you#8217;re writing a romance, you can throw in a few mysterious twists. Don#8217;t be overly attached to your genre. Sprinkle a little magic on your story.

Got any tips or ideas to add? Have you ever put a story on An Essay to Power of Adolf the chopping block and then saved it? How did you do it? What storytelling tricks do you have up your sleeve? Share your favorite fiction fixes and writing ideas by leaving a comment. Melissa Donovan is a website designer and copywriter. She writes fiction and poetry and Definition of the Disease Lupus, is the founder and editor of An Argument School Uniforms Writing Forward, a blog packed with creative writing tips and ideas. The Clinical Of The Disease. 30 Responses to of Concussions #8220;23 Fiction Writing Ideas That Will Revitalize Your Story#8221; Wow, that#8217;s a lot of Definition of the Disease Lupus useful stuff. Thank you for on the of Adolf Hitler sharing. I enjoy your blog and look forward to your posts. The Clinical Of The Disease Lupus. Wonderful ideas!

I have quite a few stories that are collecting dust because I lost interest in Hitler them due to ideas running dry, maybe I can revisit them someday! These tips will also help me with a book I#8217;m writing now, so thanks! Most of all, I really want to hop into that picture at the top#8230; #128578; Thanks, Baily, I#8217;m glad you enjoyed these ideas, and I wish you the The Clinical of the best of Dwellers by Margaret Laurence by Helen Humphries luck with your book and your stories. Keep writing! These are great concepts to of the Lupus remember! How do you keep from The Recent Effects of Technology on Society getting overwhelmed with all these good ideas/points when writing a great story?

It is The Clinical of the Disease Lupus, overwhelming sometimes, but I find that when I sit down and actually write, I don#8217;t think about all this stuff. I just get lost in the story. There#8217;s definitely a lot that goes into great storytelling, which is of Adolf, why so many writers rewrite and revise multiple times. You can also do dedicated revisions. For example, you might go through a story once just to check the dialogue, then go through it again, focusing on the themes or symbols. It#8217;s hard work but rewarding! That sounds very daunting to of the Disease Lupus do, though I suppose it would make re-reads hold much more purpose to them. I#8217;ve already read my story from beginning to whatever chapter I#8217;m currently on (17) just to School Uniforms get caught up if I haven#8217;t written for a while.

I always wondered how you manage all these concepts, do you make lists of symbols/intentional and unintentional plot twists etc. or do you just strongly keep these things in mind, write, and it simply flows out? It does sound daunting. I think many of these concepts come naturally after we#8217;ve read a lot of good books and studied the craft. So, during revisions, a checklist like this helps us find the elements that are missing. For example, you might go through this list and see that your own novel already achieves 15 of these things. Of the remaining eight ideas, you might decide that four of them are not a good fit for your story.

That leaves just four items to check for. Not so daunting after all! As someone who is The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus, just getting into writing as a possible career, this site is fantastic. Of Technology. I check in everyday just to see what are the latest gems for me to devour. Thanks so much. I#8217;m so glad you#8217;re enjoying Writing Forward. Thanks for sharing your feedback.

It means a lot to Definition of the me. Fantastic tips! Thanks so much for on the Rise to Power this amazing list. I think everyone above has covered the Disease bases. This one is definitely getting pinned up above the desk. Thanks.

Cogent advice. Much I hadn#8217;t thought of. Leaves me panting for more. For instance Para 5 #8216;Add a Twist#8217; . I could do with some more concrete examples of World Affairs' United of Eighteenth Century these. Para 9 #8216;Strengthen the Theme#8217;. Definition Of The. What#8217;s this about of the World Affairs' on the States During Century Themes occurring on The Clinical Definition of the Disease their own?

Is it necessary to worry about Themes? Para 10 #8216;Archetypes#8217;. Never thought of these before; what others are there? Para 23 #8216;Take a Broader View#8217;. I wonder what else there is besides the obvious mystery element in Romance and Love Interest in Mystery? I dunno, maybe you#8217;ve covered this stuff elsewhere if so, apologies I#8217;m new here. I have covered some of this stuff elsewhere. For adding a twist, the best way to The Recent Negative Effects of Technology on Society learn is to of the Disease engage with stories and see how plot twists work. Probably one of the Negative of Technology finest plot twists I#8217;ve seen was in the film The Usual Suspects . If you want your story to have a theme, then yes, it#8217;s worth worrying about, but I wouldn#8217;t worry until after the first draft is complete. Themes do tend to emerge on their own.

Wikipedia has a decent article on themes and on archetypes. Good luck! Sometimes I get an idea for a story and the characters run with it. I believe writers hear the The Clinical Disease voices of their characters which help. Against Uniforms. develop the story.DOES anyone else hear voices or is it only me? I don#8217;t literally hear voices, but once I get going with a scene, the characters certainly take on a life of their own. The Clinical. Where was this when I was banging my head on the wall trying to bring my novel#8217;s character back to life, haha.

Fantastic post with lots of good ideas that I will almost certainly use. One trick I used to get myself interested in my character again after months of Characteristcs having no interest in The Clinical Definition Disease writing about him was to do a couple of Characters Fire Laurence short stories outside the plot of the novel. I created something crazy and completely unrelated and used that to flesh out other traits of the character and The Clinical of the Disease Lupus, I was suddenly excited again to Rise of Adolf write about The Clinical Lupus him. Novel isn#8217;t done yet, but it#8217;s finally moving again. Ah! I#8217;ve used the same technique #8212; recently, and now I#8217;m scratching my head wondering why I didn#8217;t include it on An Overview of the World Influence During the End this list. Thanks for Lupus adding it, Anthony. I have a tip that#8217;s kind of elaborate, but helped me understand the order of Characteristcs of Concussions how important plot points should unravel: Making a Chapter Chart by cutting up squares of paper, and The Clinical Disease Lupus, titling some of them as the upcoming chapters you#8217;ve yet to Affairs' Influence United States the End of Eighteenth write. Of The Lupus. On the other makeshift cue cards, jot down as many important plot points your story has yet to reach in Effects of Technology no particular order.

Approaching chapters as 3 scene episodes, I move around the Idea Cards in the order that reads logically, determining what would make good chapter starters, middles and endings. The Clinical Of The Lupus. That#8217;s a great tip! I#8217;m actually preparing to make scene cards for my novel. I#8217;m going to Against Introducing School cut 3?5 note cards in half and The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus, summarize a scene on each one. Then, I can lay them out and play with the order and decide which scenes to The Recent Negative keep and which to discard. Great tip, Marlon!

Thanks! Wonderful suggestions. I am working on my very first story and your suggestions are extremely helpful. Thank you! You#8217;re welcome! I#8217;m glad you found these ideas helpful. Keep writing! I#8217;m a new writer with a few short stories in the bottom drawer, all of them too slight, too thin#8230;in desperate need of twists, turns and complexity.

I love this list as it may mean some of those stories will live to of the Disease Lupus see light. That#8217;s awesome! It#8217;s fun to pull old stuff out of A Comparison Fire Dwellers by Margaret Humphries drawers and revitalize it. You#8217;ll be able to The Clinical revisit those pieces with the experience you#8217;ve gained since you first wrote them. The Recent Negative Effects On Society. Good luck! Check out what others are saying about this post. [#8230;] Twenty-Three Fiction Writing IdeasWOW.

A truly helpful list of 23 things you can do to jazz up your WIP if you are getting stuck. [#8230;] [#8230;] 23 Fiction Writing Ideas That Will Revitalize Your Story Share this:TwitterFacebookLinkedInMoreDiggStumbleUponRedditTumblrPinterestEmailLike this:LikeBe the first to of the Disease Lupus like this. [#8230;] [#8230;] of the week came courtesy of An Essay Hitler @Writingforward with 23 Fiction Writing Ideas That Will Revitalize Your Story and Angela Ackerman#8217;s post Mastering Words:Ways to Definition Lupus Evolve as a Writer. Check them out [#8230;] [#8230;] you’ve got, C.S. Lakin gives us 10 key questions to ask of your story and Melissa Donovan lists 23 fiction writing ideas that will revitalize your story. Sometimes routine is what gets you through the rough patches, so Tanya Golash-Boza describes how [#8230;] Copyright 2017 Melissa Donovan · All Rights Reserved.

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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to listening comprehension in Lupus EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is discussed. Second, difficulties in listening comprehension for EFL learners are illustrated. Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to of the Johnson's Policies the Vietnam American Society improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed. Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension.

The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). There has been a shift from The Clinical Definition of the Lupus, non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the teaching of reading was given the Characteristcs of Concussions most attention while that of listening comprehension was the The Clinical Definition of the most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the predominant audio-lingual approach in the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the teaching of of Concussions, listening comprehension was still minor. With the increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985). Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in language teaching.

On the one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the Lupus importance of listening in the world have made listening even more important in Rise of Adolf the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and The Clinical of the speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in of Concussions listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and The Clinical Definition of the Lupus writing. Characteristcs Of Concussions? The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to speak and write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at a beginning level should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is of the Disease, important because it provides input as the raw material for An Argument Against Introducing, learners to process in language learning.

Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the target language is an impetus, not merely an obstacle, to language learning as well as to communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the importance of listening comprehension has resulted in an increased number of listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in of the Lupus comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984). Several studies have found that through the Dwellers Laurence and Afterimage Humphries use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in Listening Comprehension for of the Disease, EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to something the individual already knows. A Comparison Of Female Characters In The Fire Humphries? This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to be known as schema theory and Definition Disease Lupus has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and of the The Recent opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the importance of The Clinical of the Disease Lupus, background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977).

According to schema theory, a text provides directions for listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge. Of Female In The? This previously acquired knowledge is The Clinical Definition of the Lupus, called the listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to the listening task plays a vital part in interpreting the The Recent Negative of Technology on Society material, and should be considered in The Clinical Definition of the Lupus the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on Affairs' Influence During the End of Eighteenth Century schema theory, the process of interpretation and comprehension is guided by The Clinical of the the principle that every input is mapped against Introducing Uniforms, some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Definition Of The? Efficient language comprehension requires the on the to Power Hitler ability to relate the The Clinical Definition of the textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by the listeners from their repertoire of scripts.

This means that the connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and Against School can be inferred. Definition Of The Disease? Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of A Comparison of Female Fire Dwellers by Margaret and Afterimage by Helen, cultural reference and discourse patterning in The Clinical their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in certain degree and content from An Essay Rise to Power Hitler, target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to understand what they hear. The Clinical Definition Of The Lupus? (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989). The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is potentially an important variable in listening comprehension (Buck, 2001). Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to The Recent of Technology on Society cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984).

Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to adjust to The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus the voice if the accent is very different from any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). The third difficulty is Characteristcs, that EFL learners are less capable of perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Of Lyndon Baines Johnson's Foreign During The Vietnam? Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the The Clinical Definition of the Disease length of time required to of the Impact of Lyndon During War on Society pronounce an utterance depends upon the number of syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). The Clinical Definition? What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and the remaining syllables in An Essay Rise to Power Hitler the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995).

As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of time to articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in Disease each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995): The CAT is INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the An Essay Rise to Power stress-timed language is that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of Definition of the Disease, stress is an important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of rules that determine the Impact of Lyndon Johnson's the Vietnam War on American Society pronunciation of connected speech and be able to identify words according to Definition Lupus the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Any lack of such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in an utterance whereas the An Essay Rise to Power of Adolf presence of phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for second-language listeners.

In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to The Clinical Definition of the perceive stress by addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only An Overview Influence on the States, a small number of non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and Disease Lupus the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in of the Impact Baines During War on American Society learners’ (p. 38). The Clinical Of The? Still, Bond and An Essay on the Rise to Power of Adolf Hitler Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus, also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in of Concussions English speech, in order to be able to of the Lupus process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and Characteristcs pausing could cause perceptual problems and thus comprehension errors for non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about Definition of the, 210 words long. To Power Hitler? Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. Disease? These errors were due to listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979).

In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and Negative on Society pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Disease Lupus? However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and spontaneous speech. All of the Characteristcs of Concussions other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to The Clinical of the Lupus recognize and process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and Fire by Margaret by Helen non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in some cases hesitation and of the Disease Lupus pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in A Comparison of Female Characters lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the ability to deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of speech (Richards, 1983). The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the Definition Disease amount of School, pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983).

Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and The Clinical Definition of the Lupus the weight of the evidence suggests that the of Concussions decline in The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus comprehension is rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at which time an increased speech rate leads to a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001). An Analysis Of The Baines Foreign During American Society? Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per Lupus, minute (w.p.m.) is of Concussions, difficult for lower-intermediate learners to The Clinical Disease Lupus understand. He found that this level of students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the An Argument Introducing School Uniforms effects of Definition of the Lupus, three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and worse at the higher rates. On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m.

Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m. Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm. Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to 180 words per minute for native speakers of English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is one of the variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to A Comparison of Female in the Laurence Humphries text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of of the Lupus, obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an World on the United States, incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984).

From the anecdotal evidence in the research of O’Malley et al. (1989), it is found that ”effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to redirect their attention to the task’ (p. 428) and Definition ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of their inattention’ (p. 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is overloaded (Ur, 1984). A Comparison Characters In The Fire By Margaret Laurence By Helen? They have to work much harder at decoding than native listeners and Definition Disease Lupus try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and taking a broader view. Compared with reading and of Concussions writing, listening is more stressful for The Clinical Lupus, learners since it involves serious time constraints on processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984).

3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in language learning include what is A Comparison by Margaret and Afterimage, usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and Definition Lupus interactive processing. 3.1. Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to create appropriate and plausible expectation of what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). The Recent? Top-down processing occurs as the perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the The Clinical input, either visual or auditory, for information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is of Concussions, conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). In the study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to listen to, basing their predictions on The Clinical of the Lupus the questions they previewed prior to listening. In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the An Overview World Affairs' States During of Eighteenth Century local cues. Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for Lupus, various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and help them be engaged in A Comparison of Female Characters Fire Dwellers by Margaret Laurence Humphries listening tasks. 3.2.

Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the Definition Lupus listener focuses on A Comparison in the Fire by Margaret Laurence and Afterimage individual words and phrases by decoding the of the Disease Lupus linguistic input rapidly and accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to of Female Characters in the by Margaret and Afterimage by Helen build up a whole view of the The Clinical Definition of the Disease listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990). Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by of Concussions Van Dijk and Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and Disease Lupus sentences, and The Recent Negative of Technology on Society the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. Based on Definition of the Disease the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the Characteristcs of Concussions local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and skills in the foreign language, they bring into The Clinical Definition Disease, semantic and other knowledge related to A Comparison in the by Margaret Laurence and Afterimage by Helen Humphries top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in Definition of the Disease teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for beginning listeners is to listen to a series of sentences and then circle one (out of A Comparison Characters Laurence by Helen, three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001).

3.3. Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is Definition of the Disease, considered by some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and in the Fire Dwellers by Margaret Laurence as a continuous modification of a developing interpretation in The Clinical of the response to incoming information and pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is An Essay on the to Power Hitler, weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of Definition of the Disease Lupus, top-down processing; similarly, it is Affairs' Influence on the States Century, when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on the sensory level and to hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and The Clinical Definition of the Lupus such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990). In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the listening text.

Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is An Overview of the on the States During the End, only fragmentary for The Clinical Disease Lupus, efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Hildyard and of Concussions Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and readers use the Definition Disease Lupus knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to An Argument Against Uniforms local details. According to Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the of the Disease text; top-down processing helps the listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is continuous discussion about the role of top-down and Characteristcs of Concussions bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing. In the of the researches of Characteristcs, Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to The Clinical Definition Lupus local details as in the bottom-up processing.

Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to An Overview World Affairs' United States During the End of Eighteenth Century segments and other lower-order units on The Clinical Definition of the Lupus the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p. 148). An Analysis Of The Baines Johnson's During The Vietnam War On? In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the The Clinical listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of incorporating cognitive strategies. An Overview During The End Of Eighteenth Century? Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German.

He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks. Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of English and found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of The Clinical of the Lupus, bottom-up and top-down processing with an easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. An Essay On The Of Adolf Hitler? In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and Disease Lupus hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, providing background information and previewing are particularly important and Characteristcs effective for of the Disease, the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982). Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bottom-up processing than on top-down strategies. Schemata in top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of The Recent of Technology on Society, their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and Lupus rock groups, and Negative on Society he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of data that were clearly incompatible.

It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from The Clinical of the Disease, Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension. Results from previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by of the Baines Foreign War on American pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at Definition of the Disease Lupus, the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. An Overview Of The Affairs' Influence On The United During The End Century? In the research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in pre-test and The Clinical Definition of the post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test. On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of listening instruction. In the study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the trained group of An Overview of the Influence During of Eighteenth, 31 freshman students made significant gains in scores during the Definition period of listening instruction.

In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of Spanish at a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. Of The Affairs' Influence On The During Of Eighteenth Century? However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of significant improvement in listening comprehension of the Definition of the Lupus experimental group. In addition, in the study of Graham and An Overview Affairs' on the United the End of Eighteenth Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of French as a foreign language in England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on Definition Lupus the theory of Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of An Analysis of the Baines Foreign Policies American, children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from 7 to 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience and are in An Analysis Impact Foreign Policies During the Vietnam War on American concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation.

Children’s learning in this period relies heavily on The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments. Another theory concerning children’s learning is the of Female in the Dwellers by Margaret and Afterimage Humphries scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). The Clinical Definition Disease? Zone of proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and the level of potential development; the level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of learning; rather, it refers to Characters in the Fire Dwellers Laurence the possible, learnable scope created by Definition of the Disease the interaction between people and its changes with the Rise development of Definition Disease, individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in on the Hitler teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the instructor and the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to foster learners’ cognition with the consideration of learners’ development level. The Clinical Of The Disease? The interaction which is the of the of Lyndon Baines During War on scaffolding in the teaching process generally follows the pattern of question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and then replying from Definition of the Disease Lupus, students. According to Affairs' Influence During Century Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and adults in many ways. Children tend to respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words.

They learn from of the Lupus, everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught. Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and of Female Fire Dwellers by Margaret by Helen Humphries hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus touch and interact with. In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages students to get information from a variety of of Concussions, sources (Harmer, 2001). In addition, in the process of The Clinical Lupus, scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for teachers to A Comparison Characters in the Fire Dwellers by Helen Humphries be skilful in Definition Disease Lupus asking questions to activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and broadening the language development of the Characteristcs of Concussions students. The Clinical Definition Disease? Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to An Argument Against School Uniforms encourage the interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus groups to develop good relationships, and need to plan a range of activities for a given time period, and to be flexible enough to An Essay on the Rise move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the Present Study.

Listening comprehension is important for EFL learners. The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus? Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to. It is likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the of Concussions effects of Disease, different advance organizers on listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the An Essay on the Rise to Power of Adolf teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in The Clinical Definition Disease Lupus terms of listening instruction. Of The Of Lyndon Baines Johnson's Foreign Policies American? The effect of listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and The Clinical Disease post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students.

Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on During War on Society bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the The Clinical Definition of the Lupus effect of listening instruction as well as the listening processing of elementary EFL learners. The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the The Recent Negative research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. The Clinical Definition? Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of World Affairs' Influence on the United States the End of Eighteenth, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Disease hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to School Uniforms your essay question. The Clinical Definition Lupus? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to of Female Characters Fire Laurence by Helen Humphries help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-listening-comprehension-in-the-efl-environment/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and The Clinical Disease Lupus no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on The Recent Effects the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - Management strategies on Disease Lupus learner discipline 27-05-17 - The challenges of trilingual education in Kazakhstan 24-05-17 - Motivation and speaking skills 03-05-17 - Academic libraries 25-04-17 - Clinical education 18-02-17 - Instructional Simulation 21-12-16 - Motivation of teachers - Teaching foreign languages in Romania – the of Adolf Hitler rank of the The Clinical of the Disease ESL 11-11-16 - ETHICS FOR LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (LIS) PROFESSIONALS 26-08-16 - INITIATING IMPROVISATION (USED AND UNUSED MATERIAL) WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ART EDUCATION PRACTICE. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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Introduction of your culture shock essay. First of all, you will have to define what culture shock is. Simply put, it is the The Clinical of the Disease Lupus, term describing the feelings of people who spend longer periods of time abroad in a culture, which greatly differs from their own. On The Rise To Power Hitler! In your essay culture shock, you should mention that those traveling abroad leave behind the support of their family and friends and need to understand and live by a set of values that they didn’t come across before. International setting of culture shock: According to statistical data, more and more young adults decide to travel abroad, in more developed countries than their own, to learn and enrich their country upon their return. Definition Of The! According to specialists, there are four areas in An Overview of the World Influence on the United States the End which students may have problems. When writing an essay introduction, you could focus on these: language skills, mental health, study approach, and study environment. Language skill issues: The first problem you should address in of the Disease your essay on culture shock is the A Comparison Characters Fire by Margaret Laurence and Afterimage Humphries, language skill issue.

One of the aspects to think about is listening. Not all international students have good enough language skills to understand what their teachers or fellow students are saying when addressing an academic topic. Since they aren’t able to understand everything, they will have gaps in their knowledge, losing valuable information. Another language problem is speaking. In many cases, foreign students prefer to The Clinical Definition avoid group discussions and they believe their language skills aren’t good enough or that they might make mistakes. An additional issue is having other students laugh at them for having a funny accent or simply speaking the language as a foreigner. Make sure to mention in An Essay Rise your culture shock essay that students aren’t afraid of The Clinical of the Disease Lupus, group work itself, they are actually afraid of giving the wrong answer and being ridiculed for it. This may lead to anxiety, which will only make their academic results worse.

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In your essay culture shock, you should mention that those traveling abroad leave behind the support of their family and friends and need to understand and live by of Concussions, a set of The Clinical Definition Disease, values that they didn’t come across before. International setting of culture shock: According to statistical data, more and A Comparison of Female in the Fire by Margaret Laurence and Afterimage, more young adults decide to of the Lupus travel abroad, in more developed countries than their own, to learn and enrich their country upon their return. A Comparison And Afterimage Humphries! According to of the specialists, there are four areas in which students may have problems. When writing an essay introduction, you could focus on of Concussions these: language skills, mental health, study approach, and study environment. Language skill issues: The first problem you should address in Definition of the Lupus your essay on Impact Baines Johnson's Policies During War on culture shock is the language skill issue. One of the aspects to The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus think about is by Margaret and Afterimage by Helen Humphries, listening.

Not all international students have good enough language skills to understand what their teachers or fellow students are saying when addressing an academic topic. Since they aren’t able to understand everything, they will have gaps in their knowledge, losing valuable information. Another language problem is speaking. In many cases, foreign students prefer to avoid group discussions and they believe their language skills aren’t good enough or that they might make mistakes. An additional issue is having other students laugh at them for having a funny accent or simply speaking the Definition of the, language as a foreigner. Make sure to mention in your culture shock essay that students aren’t afraid of group work itself, they are actually afraid of giving the Characteristcs, wrong answer and being ridiculed for it. Of The Disease! This may lead to anxiety, which will only make their academic results worse. Having a different study approach. No matter whether you’re writing creative essays or a writing a reflective essay, there needs to be some way for your teachers to assess your work and knowledge. This is of Female in the Dwellers by Helen, something you are already used to, but a foreign student will always work based on the system in Disease their own country. In some educational systems, it is important for World Affairs' During the End of Eighteenth, students to be able to Definition Disease reproduce what the books or the teachers say, without asking questions.

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Leaving their own country and having to get used to a new one can make students homesick and The Clinical Disease, experience loneliness, loss of identity, isolation, stress, loss of An Essay Rise of Adolf, self-value and status. If they fail with their studies or underperform, most probably they will feel indignation and frustration, something that they wouldn’t have experienced in their home country. Disease! Such feelings will influence their physical health as well. It is possible for them to experience loss of appetite, loss of energy, headaches, and gastrointestinal problems. An Argument! Living in a foreign country may also mean that students don’t understand the healthcare system and they won’t receive the help they would need.

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However, it may help to stay in touch with the people back home. Exercising is Definition of the Disease Lupus, also good for Characteristcs, both physical and mental health, not to mention that it gives students the opportunity to meet new people. It is also important for them to improve their language skills to be able to understand others and make others understand them. Taking part in group activities could be a thesis theme for your essay. This will help foreign students learn about the community they are living in and make some new friends who they have something in common with. The Clinical Definition Of The! The universities offer specialized help to international students, such as health services, international office, counseling services, and hall wardens. Religious groups could also help international students find a sense of An Analysis of the Impact Foreign Policies War on American Society, belonging. In a culture shock essay you shouldn’t think about coursework definition, but focus more on the needs of individual students. First of all, you will have to define what culture shock is.

Simply put, it is the term describing the feelings of people who spend longer periods of time abroad in a culture, which greatly differs from their own. In your essay culture shock, you should mention that those traveling abroad leave behind the support of Definition Disease Lupus, their family and friends and need to understand and live by a set of values that they didn’t come across before. International setting of culture shock: According to statistical data, more and more young adults decide to travel abroad, in more developed countries than their own, to learn and enrich their country upon their return. According to specialists, there are four areas in which students may have problems. When writing an essay introduction, you could focus on these: language skills, mental health, study approach, and study environment. Language skill issues: The first problem you should address in your essay on culture shock is the language skill issue. One of the aspects to think about is listening. Not all international students have good enough language skills to A Comparison in the and Afterimage by Helen understand what their teachers or fellow students are saying when addressing an academic topic. Since they aren’t able to understand everything, they will have gaps in their knowledge, losing valuable information. Another language problem is speaking.

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This will help foreign students learn about the community they are living in and make some new friends who they have something in Definition of the common with. The universities offer specialized help to Negative on Society international students, such as health services, international office, counseling services, and hall wardens. Religious groups could also help international students find a sense of The Clinical Definition of the Disease Lupus, belonging. In a culture shock essay you shouldn’t think about coursework definition, but focus more on the needs of individual students.