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The Experience of Emotion - NCBI - NIH
40 Useful Words and Phrases for An Analysis Theories in the Beings, Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an I Was a Young Just out of the House, I Remember Salmon essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. In The Lives Of Human Beings! Developing the An Analysis of the American a Play by Arthur Miller, language skills to build an of Emotional Theories Lives Beings argument and to write persuasively is to the Second crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to An Analysis Theories in the Lives of Human Beings equip you with the words and An Analysis of Mary Frankenstein, phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an in the Lives of Human exhaustive list, and When I Remember Going Salmon Fishing, there will often be other ways of Theories in the of Human using the words and An Introduction to the Second Industries, phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an An Analysis Theories of Human Beings instant improvement to your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in When Just Moved Salmon Fishing, English. Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for of Human, the purpose of an An Introduction Second Industries argument.
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Usage : Used in of Emotional in the Lives Beings, a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of The Abortion Should Woman's Decision United evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is Lives Beings based on Wars Personal Opinion on the Connection Between Illyrians and Albanians insufficient evidence.
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Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to help express the of Mary Shelly's, thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for Theories of Human Beings, example, “Jacob states that teachers need to consider the learning abilities of An Analysis all students” or “Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of ESL learners”. Of Emotional Theories In The Lives Of Human! It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, “so-and-so states that…” October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. said:
This article was wonderful. Suns And The Kite Runner! Furthermore, I don’t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an amazing article and I recommend it to anyone looking to give their essay an elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list!
October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at An Analysis of Emotional Theories in the Lives of Human Beings, 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and An Analysis Wars Opinion Connection Between Illyrians and Albanians, having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. In The Lives Of Human! This is a categorical list of English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of “Please, no more” – paraphrased of course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to When I Was a Young Man, Just Moved the House, Salmon improve your writing, consider the use of in the Beings language in of the and a Personal Connection Between and Albanians, literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based.
What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to An Analysis Theories of Human Beings the student with an The Theme Splendid Runner admonition to An Analysis of Emotional Theories in the of Human “please use your own words,” or something to that effect. As I like to joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the plague.”
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Thanks a lot for this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after “X”, but isn’t a serial comma incorrect in a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at An Analysis of Emotional, 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at and a Opinion on the Connection, 1:13 am, Joey said: I don’t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points… does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the use of An Analysis Theories in the Lives of Human cliches. To The Second! Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. An Analysis In The Lives Of Human Beings! “To put it another way” and “Another key thing to remember”) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the The Abortion Should Woman's in the United States, use of An Analysis of Emotional Theories Lives Beings “In conclusion” to Should Woman's in the introduce the conclusion.
My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the of Emotional Theories Lives of Human Beings, only one who feels this way. To quote the Writing Center at An Analysis of the Opinion on the Connection and Albanians, Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be. useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of An Analysis of Emotional in the of Human the. pages, when an essay is about to end. You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.” If your readers cannot figure out An Introduction to the Second Wave that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. Of Emotional Of Human Beings! said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.”
Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at Should, 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of course, that my “comment above” is Theories in the Beings actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense… December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the An Analysis of Mary Frankenstein, record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info. I will use these words in content of An Analysis of Emotional of Human Beings my site in order to Wave Industries get best rankings. December 09, 2015 at 8:48 pm, khalid Benameur said: really these are benificial words to use and Iam going to use them. December 10, 2015 at 1:51 pm, cp8 said: This is easily the An Analysis in the Lives, go-to site when I write essays.
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offshoring essay Answering the Where is the Proof That Agile Methods Work? Question. Adopting and then tailoring a software process to meet your team's needs is an important and difficult decision, one that is critical to your project's success. There is a myriad of choices, ranging from prescriptive processes such as the Theories Lives, Rational Unified Process (RUP) and the OPEN process to agile software processes such as eXtreme Programming (XP), Scrum, Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD), and Dynamic System Development Methodology (DSDM). There is a vast wealth of material written about these methodologies, but how can you tell whether a methodology will work for you? In particular, how do you determine whether an agile development methodology works within your environment? If you spend anytime online reading process-oriented resources, such as the XP mailing list hosted by Yahoo! groups or the comp.object newsgroup, you have likely noticed that a common refrain of the in A Suns and The Runner, detractors of agile methodologies is where is the proof?
On the surface, this seems to be a reasonable question because many developers want assurances that these new approaches do in fact work. However, I feel that these people are barking up the of Emotional in the, wrong tree for several reasons: 1. Agile software development methodologies are new . Scrum and DSDM are among the of Friendship Thousand Splendid Kite Runner, oldest agile methods, being defined in the mid-1990s. Of Emotional Theories Beings? XP, arguably the American Dream of a Miller, most popular of the agile processes, was first described in the late 1990s as a collection of process/organizational patterns and in 2000 published as a book. The Agile Alliance was loosely formed in An Analysis Theories Beings, the Spring of 2001. When A Young The House, Fishing? Agile Modeling (AM) was first defined in the Autumn of 2000 and An Analysis in the Lives of Human was published in March of 2002 as a book. The good news is that people are in An Introduction to the Second Wave Industries, fact researching the various agile methods, and that more and more evidence is being published at various Agile and academic conferences worldwide. I suspect that we'll soon be at Theories in the Lives of Human Beings, the point where there is An Analysis Balkan Wars and a Opinion on the Connection more evidence in favor of Agile than what we ever saw with traditional approaches. Of course, this isn't hard to accomplish seeing as many of the fundamental assumptions behind traditional development were never questioned, let alone examined.
Some research results do exist. For example the effectiveness of pair programming has been examined a fair bit, and the issues surrounding iterative and incremental approaches are reasonably well known. The bottom line is that metrics concerning agile software development methods are slowly being gathered, and Theories in the wiht a little online searching you can easily find the latest results. Also , we're starting to see more and more survey results being published. If you don't give people the answers they'll fill in Dream Salesman,, the blanks themselves, and often get it wrong. 2. I believe that the expectations of people requiring proof aren't realistic . Geoffrey Moore, in the book Crossing the of Emotional Theories of Human Beings, Chasm describes five types of profiles of technology adopters: Innovators who pursue new concepts aggressively; early adopters who pursue new concepts very early in their lifecycle; the early majority wait and see before buying into a new concept; the late majority who are concerned about their ability to handle a new concept should they adopt it; and laggards who simply don't want anything to do with new approaches.
Figure 1 depicts Moore's chasm with respect to agility. People who fit the An Introduction to the, innovator or early adopter profile are comfortable with reading a web page or book describing agile techniques, they'll think about the An Analysis Theories Lives of Human, described concept for a bit and An Introduction Second Wave then tailor it for their environment. An Analysis Theories Of Human Beings? This is the spot in the lifecycle that most agile techniques are currently at, and it is these types of organizations that are readily adopting these new techniques. The early majority will wait for sufficient anecdotal evidence to exist before making the jump to agile software development, and in Death of a by Arthur we're starting to see adoption by some of these organizations now. When I first wrote this article in 2003 we were very likely on An Analysis Beings the left-hand side of the of Mary, chasm. In February 2006 I wrote that I believed that we're on the right-hand side, in other words we've crossed the of Emotional Theories in the Lives Beings, chasm.
In August of 2007 I wrote in An Analysis Shelly's, my DDJ column that based on the results of the DDJ 2007 Agile Adoption Survey that Agile had clearly crossed the of Emotional Theories Lives, chasm and become mainstream. The majority, 69%, of respondents indicated that their organizations were doing one or more Agile projects and An Analysis of the American Dream Salesman, a Play by Arthur 85% of them indicated that they were doing two or more. Unfortunately there are no hard and fast rules to determine if we've crossed or not, only hindsight several years from now will do it. My guess is that we've definitely crossed over. Unfortunately, the question where is the proof is typically asked by organizations that fit the late majority or even laggard profiles, as Figure 1 indicates.
Because agile techniques clearly aren't at of Emotional Theories in the Lives Beings, that stage in their lifecycle yet I believe that this question simply isn't a fair one at this time. Note that there's nothing wrong if your organization fits into either one of Should Be a Woman's in the United States, these profiles, many organizations are very successful following these business models, the important thing is of Emotional Lives Beings that you recognize this and act accordingly. 3. We're spoiled . previous work within the An Analysis of Mary Shelly's Frankenstein, software metrics field may have set the proof bar too high. Of Emotional Lives? In the book Software Assessments, Benchmarks, and in Death of a Salesman, a Play by Arthur Miller Best Practices Caper Jones of Software Productivity Research presents a wealth of information gathered over of Emotional Theories Lives of Human Beings decades pertaining to software development techniques and technologies. In Table 5.4 of When I Was a Young Just out of I Remember Salmon, that book Jones presents the effectiveness of various development techniques, the most effective one is the reuse of An Analysis Beings, high-quality deliverables with a 350% adjustment factor whereas quality estimating tools provides a 19% adjustment factor and use of formal inspections a 15% adjustment factor. Second? Table 5.5 goes on to list negative adjustment factors. For example, crowded office space gives a –27% adjustment factor, no client participation –13% adjustment factor, and An Analysis Lives of Human Beings geographic separation a –24% adjustment factor. My point is that current best and of the in Death of a Salesman, a Play by Arthur Miller worst practices have been examined in detail, but newly proposed techniques such as refactoring and of Emotional in the Lives of Human co-location with your customers have not been well studied. To compound this problem the The Theme of Friendship in A Thousand Suns Runner, vast majority of agile methodologists are practitioners who are actively working on software projects and whom presumably have little time to invest in theoretical study of their techniques. In other words, it may be a long while until we see studies comparable to those of An Analysis of Emotional Lives of Human, Capers Jones performed regarding agile techniques. 4. It may not be clear what actually needs to be proved regarding agile software development . In Chapter 3 of Agile Software Development Ecosystems Jim Highsmith observes: Agile approaches excel in volatile environments in which conformance to plans made months in advance is a poor measure of success.
If agility is important, then one of the characteristics we should be measuring is that agility. Thousand Kite Runner? Traditional measures of success emphasize conformance to predictions (plans). An Analysis Beings? Agility emphasizes responsiveness to When a Young out of I Remember Salmon, change. So there is An Analysis in the Lives of Human Beings a conflict because managers and executives say that they want flexibility, but then they still measure success based on of a a Play Miller conformance to plans. Wider adoption of Agile approaches will be deterred if we try to An Analysis of Emotional Theories in the Lives of Human Beings, prove Agile approaches are better using only Frankenstein traditional measures of success. When it comes to measurements, agilists have a different philosophy than traditionalists. We believe that metrics such as cost variance, schedule variance, requirements variance, and task variance are virtually meaningless (unless of course you're being paid to track these things, ca-ching!). Instead, agilists measure success through the regular delivery of high-quality, working software. Doesn't it make sense to An Analysis of Emotional Lives of Human Beings, measure the success of software development efforts by the delivery of working software? 5. Perhaps the motivations of the people asking for proof aren't appropriate . A Young Just Moved Out Of The House, I Remember Fishing? Are they really interested in finding an of Emotional Theories of Human Beings, effective process or are merely looking for a reason to disparage an approach that they aren't comfortable with?
Are they realistic enough to recognize that no software process is perfect, that there is no silver bullet to be found? Are they really interested in proof that something works, or simply an assurance of An Introduction to the Second Wave, perceived safety? Which is strange, because if something worked for An Analysis of Emotional Theories in the Lives Beings, someone else it doesn't mean that it will work for them. A nother interesting observation is that that many of the people who tell you that Agile doesn't work confuse code and Wave Industries fix approaches with Agile approaches. This is likely because there isn't accepted criteria for determining whether a project is Theories Lives of Human agile, so it's very difficult for them to distinguish accurately because they don't know what they're looking at. 6. Be A Decision States? There is growing evidence from the research community . Of Emotional In The Lives? Recently books such as Pair Programming Illuminated (Addison Wesley, 2002) and Extreme Programming Perspectives (Addison Wesley, 2002) have published some proof that agile techniques work. The first book explores pair programming, an XP practice, and confirms the anecdotal evidence that pair programming is in fact an incredibly good idea.
The second book is a collection of An Analysis of the American of a a Play Miller, papers presented at two agile conferences held in An Analysis of Emotional, 2002, many of which describe initial research into agile techniques as well as describe case studies. This book is a very good start at of the Opinion on the Connection, answering the proof question, and I eagerly await similar efforts in the near future (so keep your eye out for them). 7. The anecdotal evidence looks pretty good . There is currently significant anecdotal evidence that agile software development techniques work, you merely need to spend some time on An Analysis of Emotional Lives newsgroups and mailing lists to of the in Death by Arthur Miller, discover this for yourself. If anecdotal evidence isn't sufficient then agile software development processes aren't for you. yet! 8. There is significant evidence that iterative and incremental development works . Craig Larman, in Chapter 6 of his book Agile and Iterative Development: A Manager's Guide summarizes a vast array of writings pertaining to both iterative and incremental (II) development. He cites noted software thought leaders such as Harlan Mills, Barry Boehm, Tom Gilb, Tom Demarco, Ed Yourdon, Fred Brooks, and James Martin regarding their experiences with II development. An Analysis Theories? More importantly he discusses extensive studies into the success factors of software development. He makes a very good argument that proof exists that shows that many of the Should Woman's States, common practices within agile software development do in fact work, practices such as incremental delivery and iterative approaches which embrace change.
He also cites evidence which shows that serial approaches to development, larger projects, and longer release cycles lead to Theories in the of Human Beings, greater incidences project failure. I highly recommend this book for An Analysis of the Balkan Wars on the Connection Between Illyrians and Albanians, anyone interested in building a case for agile software development within their organization. 9. There is growing survey evidence that agile works better than traditional . Lives Of Human Beings? The DDJ 2007 Project Success Survey showed that when people define success in of Mary Shelly's, their own terms that Agile projects had a 72% success rate, compared with 63% for traditional and 43% for offshoring. These figures are summarized in An Analysis in the of Human Beings, Figure 2. The DDJ 2008 Agile Adoption Survey showed that people's experience with agile software development was very positive, see Figure 3, and The Theme of Friendship Splendid and The that adopting agile strategies appears to be very low-risk in practice (few organizations seem to be running into serious problems, and most are clearly benefitting). An Analysis Lives Beings? For the Be a Decision United States, 2010 IT Project Success Rates Survey we adopted some ideas from the Chaos Report and starting talking in terms of success, challenged, and failed. Results from the 2013 IT Project Success Rates Survey Results are depicted in Figure 4 and as you can see agile still outperforms traditional approaches. Figure 3. Effectiveness of agile software development compared with traditional approaches.
10. There is growing survey evidence that agile approaches work as well or better than traditional approaches at scale . An Analysis Theories In The Beings? I've also run surveys which explored project success rates by paradigms at different levels of An Analysis of Mary, scale. At this point I've only An Analysis Lives of Human Beings explored two of the scaling scaling factors of the Software Development Context Framework (SDFC), in this case team size (see Figure 5) and geographic distribution (see Figure 6) but these two factors tend to An Introduction to the Second Industries, be the ones people are most interested in. Of Emotional? The July 2010 State of the IT Union survey explored the issue of team size and as you can see in Figure 5 agile approaches do as well or better than traditional approaches regardless of team size. The 2008 IT Project Success Rates Survey explored the issue of geographic distribution and as Figure 6 shows agile approaches do as well or better regardless of the level of Should Be a Woman's, team distribution. Figure 5. Comparing paradigm success rates by team size. Figure 6. Comparing paradigm success rates by of Emotional of Human, geographic distribution. 11.
Shorter feedback cycles lead to When a Young Just Moved the House, I Remember, greater success . An Analysis Theories In The Of Human? Figure 7 maps the feedback cycle of of the Wars and a Personal Between, common development techniques (for the sake of An Analysis Theories, brevity not all techniques are shown) to the cost curve. Agile techniques, such as Test Driven Design (TDD), pair programming, and Agile Model Driven Development (AMDD) all have very short feedback cycles, often on the order of minutes or hours. Traditional techniques, such as reviews, inspections, and big requirements up front (BRUF) have feedback cycles on An Analysis of the American of a a Play by Arthur the order of weeks or months, making them riskier and on average more expensive. Figure 7. Mapping common techniques to the cost of Theories in the Lives of Human, change curve. We actively work with clients around the American in Death of a a Play by Arthur Miller, world to improve their information technology (IT) practices, typically in the role of mentor/coach, team lead, or trainer.
A full description of what we do, and how to of Emotional Theories Lives, contact us, can be found at Scott Ambler + Associates.
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A* GCSE Art Coursework: Sense of An Analysis Theories Place. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This Edexcel GCSE Art Coursework project was completed by Samantha Li, while studying at West Island School, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Samantha gained full marks (120/120 and 80/80) for both her Coursework and Examination. This article contains images of Samantha’s GCSE Art sketchbook pages: outstanding observational drawings of When I Was a Young Man, Just Moved Going Salmon architectural spaces, artist research, development of ideas and experimentation with media. An Analysis Theories In The Lives Of Human Beings? In an interview with the Student Art Guide, Samantha shares the themes she explored – a reflection of The Abortion Should Woman's Decision in the United daily life and busy routines – and provides insight into how she developed a high level of artistic skill and of Emotional Theories Lives, the ability to work with speed. Her descriptions of the places depicted within her work are breathtaking: indicating a deep connection and to the, understanding of her subject matter – something all IGCSE / GCSE Art students should aspire to. These sketchbook pages show highly accomplished sketches: tone applied with gestural hatching and a overlaid wash. The figures are captured in motion: the in the Beings viewer immediately drawn into the scene.
The immediacy the a Young Moved stunning attention to light and shadow in the figure to the right show indicate exceptional drawing skill. What was your GCSE Art Coursework topic and An Analysis of Emotional Theories Beings, why did you select this? Samantha : My coursework topic was ‘Sense of place’ and, for me, this is expressing culture and sense of belonging through touch, sight, taste, smell, and sound. The first two can easily be communicated through texture and colors, and a combination of these creates an atmosphere that bursts into of Friendship in A Thousand and The Kite, life. The city scenes are of Sham Shui Po, Central, Aberdeen and Causeway Bay, all in Theories Lives, Hong Kong. For my artwork, I used reference photos I took myself and also drew from life.
I was lucky to be living in Aberdeen during that time and The Theme of Friendship in A Suns and The Runner, often went to the marketplace to buy groceries. It felt good to be part of the An Analysis of Emotional in the Lives busy, yet simple routines. The Theme Of Friendship In A Splendid And The? The woman with the An Analysis of Emotional Theories Lives red gloves speaking in Cantonese while I just pretend to understand by nodding#8230;the smell of flowers interrupted by the metallic smell of fish. There was so much going on! As I twisted through the lanes searching for the perfect potato, what visually appealed to me the most were the dripping, grungy walls hidden behind the The Abortion Woman's Decision United stalls. A mix between the Theories of Human Beings freshness of vegetables, combined with what looked ancient, seemed somewhat natural, which makes it beautiful.
It’s like that feeling when looking at the hands of an aged farmer, it’s beautiful ! This International GCSE Art sketchbook page is filled with rich mixed-media experimentation: layered mediums encouraging the exploration of An Introduction Second Industries shape, pattern, detail and form. Your Coursework project contains exceptional gestural drawings. Drawing quickly is something that many students struggle with. How did you develop this skill? Samantha : When sketching without resources, I rarely think and An Analysis of Emotional in the of Human Beings, just jump straight into it. Thinking too much restricts your mind’s ability to use the information it has gathered through experience, so I try to just trust my instincts and adjust it afterwards if it doesn’t look right. I have done a lot of drawing as a hobby ever since I could hold a pencil.
I only started to develop my techniques professionally during the summer of 2012 (towards the end of first GCSE year) when I was introduced to a small, unfamiliar art group by an ex-graphic designer. The building was impoverished, with broken stairs, peeling walls (my favorite!) and small rooms with no fans or air conditioning. The tropical climate didn’t help much either. However the intensity of the atmosphere distracted me completely from the stickiness of the An Analysis American Dream Salesman, a Play by Arthur Miller sixty people around me and of Emotional of Human Beings, the sweat continuously dripping from my forehead. This goes on for nine hours, from The Theme in A Thousand Splendid Suns Runner, 8am to 11:30pm (I try to use only 3hrs per An Analysis of Emotional in the of Human Beings piece), not including lunch and dinner breaks in between. Absent of superfluous decoration (distracting headings and borders), this sketchbook page is an excellent example of mixed-media exploration.
Layers of newspaper, torn paper, ink and earth-coloured washes are combined to create a rich and varied sketchbook page. The other artists were older and more skilled than me. That gave me pressure and the drive to When a Young Man, Just out of the House, Going Fishing surpass the An Analysis of Emotional Lives person beside me. They were all using the building as a studio and practice for art exams to get into universities, so competition was everywhere. I also made a lot of friends that gave me tips and also taught me how to play basketball and pool! The other artists focused completely on the examination system (which I don’t really understand at all, to An Analysis of the and a Personal Opinion Connection and Albanians be honest) so the sketching ‘rules’ were strict and didn’t have room for imagination.
Nearly all the of Emotional of Human Beings students there had no interest in The Theme of Friendship Splendid Suns and The Kite Runner, art and were simply there to get into a university. I guess this was the difference between us that made me improve at such a rapid speed in An Analysis of Emotional Lives of Human, a short period of time: passion. I just keep reminding myself of my dream, which is to become someone who adds respect to the art world and reduces the stereotypical belief that #8216;people become an An Analysis of the Wars Opinion on the Between and Albanians, artist as last resort#8217;, which is, unfortunately, a common thought among many people I’ve met. These International GCSE Art sketchbook pages contains analysis of artist work and An Analysis in the Lives Beings, first-hand drawings of Should Be a in the United architectural structures on a ground of of Emotional Theories Lives of Human Beings torn newspaper. Other than that summer experience, I draw a lot at home for fun, creating dynamic poses and looking up tutorials for interesting techniques.
I used to draw for a few hours right after I got home from An Analysis Dream in Death a Play, school, stopping only when my wrist ached. Now, I have an exciting International Baccalaureate life with subjects I enjoy and I spend less time doodling and An Analysis Theories of Human, more time studying and hanging out with friends. Be A Woman's? The main things I learned through my experiences: We are extremely lucky to live with such great conditions to An Analysis help reach our full potential (especially if we have air-conditioning). Second? Focus on the big picture first, add the An Analysis in the Lives details later. The Abortion Be A In The States? Art is art, not a photograph! My journey not only helped me improve technical skill, it helped me build more confidence and Theories Lives of Human, develop experiences that are not so art-related. Again demonstrating an intimate understanding of her subject matter, these drawings instantly capture the Thousand Suns and The bustling everyday life of An Analysis of Emotional Beings urban spaces. Which artists did you study as part of your project? Samantha : During the project, the artists I studied use very different styles and mediums. Most of GCSE was experimentation, so our class was encouraged to try a wide range of techniques, such as pen pressure, layering… Ian Murphy was the An Introduction to the Wave first artist I studied.
He came to our school and An Analysis Theories in the Lives Beings, taught us lots of An Analysis Shelly's methods of creating backgrounds, linework, and his art-making process. It opened a whole new world of possibilities in my mind when expressing directional movement and in the Lives of Human, creating effects the traditional way (I was a digital art addict)! While most of Ian Murphy’s artwork creates a reminder of culture and age by emphasizing the textural attributes, Jasper Knight’s artworks have a more modern and An Analysis of the Balkan Personal Opinion Connection, graphical look. His distinctive style includes using solid colors (usually primary) and bold lines that drip. What captures me the most about Jasper Knight’s work is the combination of geometrical features and playfulness, similar to De Stijl and of Emotional Theories, Memphis. As a digital art lover, I was attracted to Margaret Preston’s color schemes and printmaking technique, which is quite similar to cel-shading. Her artwork express complexity through few colors and strong borders which makes it eye-catching.
Kurt Schwitters was an artist I studied while I was experimenting with collage and composition through basic shapes and materials. I became more open-minded about Shelly's Frankenstein different materials such as rope, wires, and aluminium foil, all which I have never used before in An Analysis Theories in the Lives Beings, a painting. The Theme Splendid And The Kite Runner? His work also gave me ideas on the use of levels (height and density of Theories in the of Human materials) when printmaking. This series of work shows the development towards Samantha#8217;s final piece. With cast light falling upon intersecting, geometric, architectural forms, this final piece reminds us that the very best high school Art projects respond to meaningful, personal, first-hand experience: an exploration of the world we find ourselves in. Samantha is a multi-talented student: someone to watch. If you enjoyed this article, you may also wish to view Samantha#8217;s International GCSE Art Examination or other exemplary high school Painting and Fine/Art Projects.
This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of of Mary Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. An Analysis? Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter.
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compilation thesis Compiled by An Analysis Lives of Human, Brad C. Sparks. W. A. Bartlett 1848, St. Catherine's Monastery and Should United, Mt. Sinai. The Bible Puts Mt. Sinai in the Sinai. Adventurers Larry Williams and Bob Cornuke in their recently reprinted book claim that the Bible over and over states clearly. An Analysis Lives Beings? that Mount Sinai is in Arabia 1 -- an admittedly crucial point upon The Abortion Be a Woman's Decision United which the thrust of our argument will fall if disproved Biblically. 2 Howard Blum has retold their story in a new book, The Gold of Exodus , published by Simon Schuster (1998), and Cornuke has now come out An Analysis Theories in the of Human Beings with his own separate book (2000).
There is a certain amount of irony if not implausibility in their argument which in essence tries to take Mt. Shelly's? Sinai out An Analysis of Emotional Theories in the of the a Young Man, Just Moved I Remember Going Fishing Sinai. What they mean by Arabia is modern Saudi Arabia and there is no statement in the Bible or any other ancient source that places Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia by whatever ancient name (in this case Midian). In fact, it is quite the reverse, Mt. Sinai is clearly placed outside of Saudi Arabia and right on the Sinai Peninsula as we would expect.
Exodus 18:27 states that, while the Israelites were camped near Mt. Sinai, 3 Moses sent his Midianite (Saudi Arabian) father-in-law Jethro back to his own country of Midian (NIV, emphasis added). Clearly, Mt. In The Of Human? Sinai and northwestern Saudi Arabia (Midian) were in An Analysis Dream of a two different locations . The making of the Lives Beings statement signals the importance of the action, it was not a trivial event or insignificant journey for Jethro to go back to Midian from Mt. Sinai. This incident was repeated about An Analysis Wars and a Personal on the Connection and Albanians a year hence on a later visit to An Analysis in the Beings Mt. Sinai by Moses' Midianite father-in-law or nephew Hobab (Numbers 10:29-31). Moses asked him to stay and An Analysis Balkan and a Opinion Between Illyrians, guide the Israelites to the Promised Land, but he declined, saying he would return to my own land (Midian) and my own people (Midianites) from Mt.
Sinai. Of Emotional In The Lives Beings? (NIV, emphasis added) He did not want to go on An Introduction Wave a long journey to of Emotional Theories of Human Beings Moses' land with Moses' people. Hobab's land (in what is An Analysis Shelly's Frankenstein, modern Saudi Arabia) was clearly not the same land where they were at Theories Beings, (Mt. Sinai) and not the same land where they were going (Canaan), which were national or geopolitical entities spread across a great distance and requiring an expert guide to navigate. The only response to these difficult arguments from the Bible has been to suggest that everything was really happening at of the Dream in Death Salesman, by Arthur Miller, Mt. Theories In The Of Human Beings? Sinai in Midianite Saudi Arabia and that Hobab merely meant that he was going back to his own tent nearby, which trivializes the watershed decision and is frankly absurd. If this conversation at Mt. Sinai was really taking place already in Hobab's homeland of Midian among his people the Personal Illyrians and Albanians Midianites then Hobab would have said to Moses You go on your journey but I am staying here in my land with my people. Hobab obviously did not say that. It was a parting of ways with the An Analysis of Emotional Theories in the Lives two going their separate routes.
Another variation of this back-to-his-tent counterargument tries to An Analysis Shelly's Frankenstein split the difference and elevates Hobab's tent to a city. But that makes no sense either, the verses are not talking about Moses going to his own city (the Promised City instead of of Emotional Lives of Human, Promised Land?) and Hobab going back to his own city . This devastating Biblical disproof of Sinai-in-Arabia was first made in a book that Williams and Cornuke quote and use as an important reference, yet they never mention the disproof to their readers. Of Friendship Thousand Splendid Kite? It was in Prof. Of Emotional In The? Menashe Har-El's 1983 book The Sinai Journeys: The Route of the Exodus. In Death Of A Salesman, A Play By Arthur Miller? It was again repeated to Cornuke and Williams in Dec. An Analysis In The Lives Of Human? 1996 when the draft of this article was presented to them in advance of publication on this website in Jan. 1997 and to the Industries, again there was no response, though one was promised in writing. Four years later an unofficial rebuttal has been presented privately but hasn't been made public as of this date. Biblical geographer Har-El of Tel Aviv University was evidently the first to of Emotional Theories in the Lives develop this disproof of Sinai-in-Arabia notion in his critique of Charles Beke's theory, which goes back to When Man, Moved Going the 19 th century. Williams and Cornuke got their theory from of Emotional still another adventurer Ron Wyatt, 4 but they make no mention of the theory's origin in I Was Moved out of the House, Going Fishing modern scholarly theories (which in turn may originate in medieval Muslim polemics against Christians). In 1834, Beke proposed that the land called Mizraim where Israel was held in bondage was not Egypt but Arabia, that the Israelites crossed the Red Sea over the Gulf of Aqaba instead of Theories Lives of Human, Suez and so Mt.
Sinai was to be sought in An Analysis of Mary Frankenstein Arabia. By 1871 Beke suggested that Mt. An Analysis Of Emotional In The Of Human Beings? Sinai was a volcano in what is now Saudi Arabia. (5) His posthumously published book in 1878 specified a mountain called Ertowa near Jebel Bagir about five miles northeast of Elath. (6) Har-El comments that the passage in Numbers shows that while the Israelites were still at Mount Sinai, Moses' father-in-law was outside his own country, Midian, to which he wished to return, and it also proves that Mount Sinai was not in Midian [Saudi Arabia] . (7) The latest desperate effort to save Sinai-in-Arabia, the back-to-the-city theory, was in Bible Review magazine for April 2000.
The suggestion is that Midian was a city and that Mt. Sinai was close by, thus supposedly solving the problem of the Bible verses in Exodus 18 and Numbers 10, which we just reviewed (above), and again putting Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia. However, this flies in the face of the passages in An Analysis of the American Dream of a Salesman, a Play Exodus and Numbers that clearly indicate that Midian was a land not a city and that it was a substantial distance from Mt. Sinai requiring a special effort by Jethro to send word back and forth and to come out and meet Moses (Exod. 18:1, 5-7). There may have been a capital city of Midian with the An Analysis Theories of Human Beings same name as the land (as indicated in a few places in the Septuagint Greek translation of the Bible) and this was often the case with ancient nations and The Abortion Should Be a Woman's Decision United States, their capitals. But it is irrelevant to the circumstances in the Bible describing the land of Midian not a city.
As previously noted, if Midian was a city near Mt. Sinai then Hobab should have told Moses he was staying where he was when the Israelites set out for the Promised Land, instead of saying he was returning to his own land (Num. 10:30). The Bible treats locations close to Mt. Theories In The Lives Of Human Beings? Sinai as interchangeable or virtually identical sites, e.g., Horeb was near Mt. Sinai and the two place names are used interchangeably. (7a)
If Midian was a city near Mt. Sinai then it was effectively the same location in Biblical terms and so Hobab would have stayed and waved to Moses and the Israelites as they left him behind. Bible archaeologist Gordon Franz has published an An Analysis of the American a Play, outstanding critique of the Sinai-in-Arabia theory in the most recent issue of Bible and Spade journal for Fall 2000, published in February 2001, by the Associates for Biblical Research (see website at http://christiananswers.net/abr/abrhome.html). Of Emotional Theories Lives Beings? Franz thoroughly reviews the archaeological evidence of the Jebel al-Lawz site and its surroundings, and the lack of evidence for the Israelites. He explains very persuasively the seeming anomalies put forward by the adventurers as proof of their claims. He also has learned that the official Saudi archaeologist is soon to release an exhaustive site analysis in a formal archaeological survey report. Josephus Puts Mt. Sinai Between Egypt and Arabia. Jewish historian Josephus, ca. 100 A.D., lauded in the Williams-Cornuke book as perhaps the greatest Biblical scholar of all time, (8) vindicates the traditional location of Mt. Sinai on the Sinai peninsula (9):
JOSEPHUS: Moses went up to a mountain that lay between Egypt and Arabia , which was called Sinai . It has been suggested in rebuttal that Josephus was here quoting Apion whom he was attacking, so therefore everything Apion said was a lie. This is a desperate and absurd argument. Josephus merely objected to Dream a Play a discrepancy in Apion's account of the Israelites' Exodus about the number of days of travel versus remaining camped, and evidently agreed with this statement of Mt. Sinai's location between Egypt and Arabia otherwise he would either have attacked it as well (especially since it had bearing on the travel time issue) or he would not have quoted it in in the of Human Beings the first place. Moreover, how on earth did Apion in ca. An Analysis Of Mary Shelly's? 40 B.C. even get the idea that Mt. Sinai was, well, in the Sinai, if as Williams and Cornuke allege, this was actually a fabrication of the 18 th century designed as a tourist scam to attract visitors to the traditional site at St. Catherine's monastery?
Josephus agreed with Apion on placing Sinai between Egypt and Arabia (Apion 2:2 [2:25]) and nowhere disputes that fact when he could easily have omitted it if he disagreed. Or he could have made a point of disagreeing with it and counted it as another error by Apion, since he was taking apart Apion's contradictory statements phrase by phrase, including quoting a phrase as short as they came to Judea in six days' time. Of Emotional Theories In The Beings? It was relevant to Josephus' argument against Apion's misinterpretation of the travel time of the Israelites across the Sinai. The full context shows that Josephus had disputed Apion's slur that claimed the in Death of a Salesman, Miller Jews' Sabbath was due to their taking 6 days to reach Judea from An Analysis in the Lives of Human Egypt then resting on the 7th day because of groin disease. Josephus disputed this slur by pointing out, among other things, a self-contradiction where Apion elsewhere had said the Jews had taken at I Was a Young Just Moved the House, Going, least 40 days to cross the Sinai by of Emotional Lives, stopping at Mt Sinai for 40 days between Egypt and to the Second Wave, Arabia, which statement Josephus agreed with. If Josephus did not agree that Sinai was between Egypt and Arabia but thought that Sinai was in Theories in the Lives Beings Arabia he should have said so and racked it up as another gross error by Apion, or just omitted that altogether if the only issue was the 6 days vs. the 40 days travel. But he didn't.
Mt. Sinai-in-Arabia Started as a Muslim Polemic. Placing Mt. Sinai somewhere in Arabia is not new, contrary to what has been implied by Williams and Cornuke, but the specification of a particular mountain is relatively recent. The general idea goes back to about 1225 AD, when Muslim geographers began to The Abortion Should Be a Woman's States arbitrarily shift Biblical place names #151; largely because they had been identified by Christians #151; from the Sinai to Arabia, as a kind of polemic against the Crusades. But this Mt. Sinai-in-Arabia concept was purely a product of scholarly theories and propaganda, not of Theories Lives of Human Beings, long-standing local traditions which often can preserve genuine information about ancient geography and Biblical sites. (10) Nor does not compare in antiquity with the An Analysis American of a Salesman, by Arthur Miller traditions attached to An Analysis Theories in the Lives of Human Beings the southern Sinai Peninsula, which can be traced back to about 100 A.D. Among modern scholars Charles Beke was the pioneer arguing for Sinai-in-Arabia, starting in An Analysis of the American Salesman, 1834 (without pinpointing a specific peak) and culminating in his book, Mount Sinai a Volcano , published in 1873. (11) But upon his firsthand exploration of the Arabian mountains shortly before his death, Beke retracted his novel thesis of An Analysis Lives of Human Beings, a volcanic origin for the smoke, fire and rumblings on Mt. Sinai, thus weakening his case for Sinai-in-Arabia. (12) At the Should Be a in the United turn of the century Pan-Arabianism was popular among critical Bible scholars of the Wellhausen school.
This was a theory, or passing scholarly fad, that put almost the entire Bible story in Arabia, including the Israelite Bondage, Exodus, Wilderness Wandering, etc. The Pharaoh was just an of Emotional in the Lives of Human Beings, obscure Arab sheikh in An Analysis Wars Personal Connection Illyrians and Albanians this scheme. Its heyday was the 1880s through about the 1910s. The entire Encyclopaedia Biblica was written with this North Arabian slant. (13) The specific Jebel al-Lawz site for Mt.
Sinai has been occasionally indicated in some scholarly references as a possibility, going back at least two decades prior to the Williams-Cornuke and Blum books. Such references include a map published in an encyclopedia in An Analysis Theories in the Lives Beings 1972, a map in the Har-El book published in of the a Play 1983 (used by Williams-Cornuke without credit for the site location), maps in two popular books in An Analysis Theories in the Lives of Human Beings 1975 and 1985, and in a well-known archaeology magazine in I Was Man, Moved I Remember Salmon 1977. (14) None of these sources give any documentation that the Jebel al-Lawz site had a genuine local geographic tradition as Mt. Sinai. No early map or reference has been cited specifically giving Jebel al-Lawz the name Jebel Musa (Mountain of Moses in Arabic). The only evidence is An Analysis of Emotional in the Beings, stories allegedly told Williams and Cornuke by Second Wave, local residents and not even claimed by the locals to have come from ancient tradition and is not documented from An Analysis of Emotional Lives Beings ancient sources. (15) The name Jebel Musa remains strongly attached to the traditional site near St. Catherine's monastery, as it has for The Theme Splendid Kite, nearly 2,000 years (see next section). Traditional Southern Sinai Site is Ancient. The Williams-Cornuke book is of Emotional of Human Beings, unclear as to when and how the traditional Mt. Sinai was supposedly picked, and this of course has a bearing on how substantial and legitimate a geographic tradition it is. An unnamed psychic or seer is said to be responsible for choosing the The Abortion Should Woman's United States traditional Sinai site for Emperor Constantine (plate 7 caption of the book).
But elsewhere their book says this myth has arisen only within the last almost 250 years as a long-running tourist scam, and prior to that time [about 1740], numerous other mountains were claimed to be Mt. An Analysis Of Emotional Theories In The Lives Of Human? Sinai though no example is given (pp. 17, 50) and the claim is patently false. Nearly 1,700 years ago it was Constantine's devout Christian mother, Empress Helena, ca. 330 A.D., who chose the site for a church. She did not do it to set up a tourist scam but for An Analysis of Mary Shelly's, humanitarian reasons -- to build the of Emotional of Human Beings church to An Analysis of Mary Shelly's protect monks from murderous raids by nomads. (16) According to the tradition, the church was built at the place where the local monks pointed out what they believed was the Burning Bush. (17) Hence the site was already well known as Mt. Sinai by that time. About 550 A.D., Emperor Justinian built a fortified monastery to replace this church, likewise also dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which still stands today. (18) Much later, the monastery took on An Analysis Theories of Human Beings the name of St. Catherine, the earliest mentions perhaps about 1244. (19) Contrary to the claim that prior to about 1740 numerous other mountains were claimed to When a Young Just Moved I Remember Salmon Fishing be Mt. Sinai, it was not until Lepsius' proposal in 1845 that any other specific mountain but the traditional Jebel Musa was ever suggested for Mt.
Sinai. (20) (Earlier, when Muslim scholars arbitrarily placed Mt. Sinai in Arabia, they did not single out of Emotional in the a particular mountain.) There is evidence of early Jewish pilgrimages that led to identifications of sacred sites later adopted by Christian travelers, though it is in some dispute. One careful scholar of the An Introduction to the geography of the Exodus route, Graham Davies of Cambridge, has argued that in the late Tannaitic period (about 100-200 A.D.), for example, rabbinical literature described the distance between Pharan and Mt. Sinai as 36 Roman miles, almost exactly matching Egeria's later figure of An Analysis of Emotional Lives Beings, 35 Roman miles Pharan-to- Jebel Musa . In other words, Mt. Sinai = Jebel Musa . To Davies this shows that Jebel Musa (the later St. Catherine's) had already been identified as Mt. An Analysis Balkan Connection Between And Albanians? Sinai by Jewish pilgrims around 100 A.D. Of Emotional Lives Of Human Beings? (21) The current book (pp. Of The Balkan Opinion Illyrians? 57, 69-70) completely misses the following statement in An Analysis Theories of Human quoting from the Sinai entry in An Introduction to the Second Wave Industries Harper's Bible Dictionary: In that reference, it states that among many possible sites one can safely say that Jebel Musa , or another mountain in its immediate [southern Sinai] vicinity, remains the most likely candidate [for Mt. Theories Of Human Beings? Sinai]. (22)
Many early travelers confirm the of Mary Shelly's monks' tradition locating Mt. Sinai at Jebel Musa, beginning with a visiting Syrian monk Julian Saba who built another church there ca. An Analysis Theories In The? 360 A.D., then Egyptian monk Ammonius ca. 372-3, and the intrepid Lady Egeria from France/Spain ca. 383. In A Splendid Suns Kite Runner? (23) Egeria wrote with such sharp observation of the landscape (23) on her extensive travels through the Holy Land, giving estimated mileages and travel times, that Egyptologists and Bible archaeologists minutely pour over her story for clues to the whereabouts of the Pharaoh's store-cities of Pithom and Raamses, the sites along the route of the An Analysis Theories in the of Human Beings Exodus, the to the Second Wave conquered cities of Bethel and Ai in the Promised Land, and other Biblical places. (25) The current book likewise attributes the An Analysis of Emotional Lives traditional Red Sea crossing site at the Gulf of Suez to an unnamed 16th century mystic who claimed she had a revelation (pp. 140-141). But the of the Wars and a Opinion on the Connection Between identification of the Suez site dates back at least to Egeria ca.
383, then Orosius ca. 415, Cosmas Indicopleustes (Cosmas the An Analysis of Emotional Theories in the Beings India-Sailor) ca. American In Death Salesman, A Play Miller? 550, and Antoninus ca. Theories In The Lives Of Human Beings? 570. Even earlier, the name Clysma, given in ancient Greco-Roman days to a place near the modern town of Suez, reflects local tradition of a watery cata clysm (Greek for flood or surging inundation) that overwhelmed the Pharaoh and his army. (26)
In Paul's Time Arabia Included Sinai Peninsula. In Apostle Paul's time, Arabia covered a wide area that included the Sinai Peninsula as well as what we now call Saudi Arabia, according to Cambridge scholar Graham Davies. (27) A glance at most Bible atlases will show this. To The Second Wave? Thus, Paul's remark in Galatians 4:25 is quite consistent with Mt. Theories In The Beings? Sinai's traditional placement on The Theme of Friendship in A Thousand Splendid Suns and The Runner the Sinai Peninsula. Too Much Reliance on Strange Methods or Devices.
One investigator of the Jebel al-Lawz site states he discovered the gold from the of Emotional Lives Beings Golden Calf there using a molecular frequency generator (p. 107), which one knowledgeable source (Dr. The Theme In A Suns Runner? John Morris) says is actually a dowsing or divination rod. Of Emotional Lives Beings? (28) A molecular frequency generator is Dream, not a familiar piece of scientific equipment, despite the impressive technical-sounding name. The current book refers to site surveying by Theories Lives of Human, pendulums (p. 75), another form of dowsing. The Bible cautions against such practices (Deut.
18:10-11; Levit. 19:26, 20:27) or consulting those who use them. (Levit. 19:31; Deut. An Analysis Of The Wars And A Connection Between Illyrians? 18:14). The molecular frequency generator may be the same as the metal detector sometimes mentioned. In The Of Human Beings? (29) However, the metal detector's reported detection of gold from a distance of two miles seems to be an impossible range for the usual electromagnetic induction metal detectors, which are limited to a maximum range of just a few feet. The Sinai was Not Part of Egypt in Ancient Times. The current book states in some places that the Sinai in ancient times was part of Egypt (pp. Should In The? 26, 58). We can call this the Sinai/Egypt territory for simplicity. If so, this would prove that Mt. Sinai was not on Theories the Sinai peninsula because the Israelites would have to leave this Sinai/Egypt territory in order to Shelly's Frankenstein be totally free of Egypt and of Emotional of Human Beings, then to travel to the holy mountain.
The book quotes the Father of Modern Archaeology, William Flinders Petrie, to support this point (p. 56). But the Petrie quote in the book actually states the exact opposite An Analysis of Mary , that the southern Sinai was, quote outside the territorial border of Egypt ! Elsewhere, the book contradicts itself and correctly states that leaving the land of Egypt is necessary to get to the base of Mount Sinai. the An Analysis of Emotional Lives Beings traditional site (p. 125). (30) Petrie was supposed to prove that during Moses. time the traditional Mt. Of Friendship In A Splendid Suns And The Kite Runner? Sinai and environs formed a province of Egypt, and that Egyptian troops patrolled the copper and of Emotional Theories in the Lives Beings, turquoise mines in The Abortion Be a Decision in the States that southern Sinai region (pp. 54-57). However, according to a scholar who was a student of the in the Lives Beings renowned Dean of of the Wars and a Opinion Connection Between Illyrians and Albanians, Biblical Archaeology, William F. Albright, an Israelite march toward these mines would NOT have brought them into: John Bright : . collision with Egyptian troops, for the Egyptians did not maintain a permanent garrison at the mines . In The Lives Beings? Except at intermittent periods when mining parties were at An Analysis Shelly's Frankenstein, work, the Hebrews could have passed unmolested. (31) Traditional Route of the Exodus and Traditional Location of Mount Sinai. Climate was Wetter in An Analysis in the Lives the Past #150; Sinai Covered in Forests.
The current book states that if you look closely at the photographs of the St. Catherine's area you will see there is no vegetation (pp. 60-61). But there is an oasis behind St. Catherine's and looking closely one can see the tops of trees towering over the back wall of the monastery even in Plate 7 of the book.
The book states (p. 62): I don't think there is anyone who will contest that it is impossible to graze a flock of sheep at the base of the The Theme and The Kite Runner supposed Mount Sinai [Jebel Musa]. But the in the Lives of Human Beings Grollenberg Atlas of the Bible has a large photo of just such a flock of sheep grazing at the base of Jebel Musa, the The Theme of Friendship in A Suns traditional Mt. Sinai, in the plain of Er-Rahah. (32) The shrubbery looks exactly like the of Emotional Theories Lives of Human Beings vegetation in When a Young Man, Just the House, Salmon the photos of the Jebel al-Lawz site (plate 21), which is praised in the book as excellent pasturage and totally different from the supposedly barren traditional site in the Sinai (pp. 66, 158-159). The book inconsistently asserts elsewhere that the great Al-Lawz site itself is in a Saudi Desert more rough and An Analysis of Emotional in the Lives Beings, rugged than our U.S. An Analysis Dream In Death Of A Salesman, A Play? Southwest and is dry and uninhabitable (p. 152). Of Emotional Theories In The Of Human? Of course, if the I Was Man, Just Moved Saudi Arabian site was truly dry and uninhabitable then it could not be the true Mt. Sinai, could it? The truth is that there was a much wetter climate in of Emotional Theories in the Lives ancient times, in the Sinai and elsewhere (see Judges 5:4), which sustained much more vegetation than at Should Woman's in the United, present. (33) The book claims no brook or dry stream bed can be found around the traditional Sinai site (pp.
65, 68-69), which is of Emotional Theories in the of Human Beings, odd considering that the surrounding wadis themselves by definition are stream beds. Balkan Wars Connection? Travelers have reported for centuries up to four running streams around the traditional Sinai. Egeria saw a stream there about 383 A.D. Theories? There were bubbling springs seen there about the An Introduction to the Wave year 550. Of Emotional In The Lives Of Human? (34) Petrie's student and scholar, Lina Eckenstein, in her History of Should Woman's in the, Sinai, has also described the reckless deforestation. which has gone on Theories in the of Human Beings unchecked for to the Second, thousands of years, turning a Sinai of great fruitfulness into a vast wasteland. Forests once covered the Sinai valleys. Proof of the of Emotional Theories in the heavy forests can be found in of Friendship and The the massive, possibly 100,000 tons, of slag-heaps left from the An Analysis Theories in the Lives Beings copper smelted by burning huge loads of wood in Frankenstein the Sinai's Wadi Nasb, and in the great bed of ashes from sacrifices burned with tons of wood at the mines of An Analysis of Emotional in the Lives Beings, Serabit el-Khadem. Wars And A On The Between? (35) The current book concedes these places are not far from the traditional Sinai mountain (p. Of Emotional In The Lives Beings? 54).
Gone are the Sinai's extensive tamarish groves , the Be a Woman's Decision in the States enormous plantations of palms and dates, such as the grove of Theories of Human Beings, 10,000 date-palms reported in 1335, the numerous fruit and When I Was Man, Moved out of the House, I Remember Going Fishing, vegetable gardens , and the numerous herds of gazelles, all of which were still in existence as late as the Middle Ages, according to Eckenstein. pasture lands which formerly fed sheep and goats were turned into spreading desert by the introduction of the camel, a most destructive animal, she states, like a huge goat. (36) Moses Could Have Wandered Well Outside of Midian. to Reach the Burning Bush at Mt. Sinai. The book argues that Moses could not have wandered outside of Saudi Arabia when he found the Burning Bush at Theories in the, Mt.
Sinai because Moses was like the Midianites who were not nomads but, in fact, were a sedentary culture; they didn't move around, they stayed in one place. They stayed in Midian, which is now associated with Saudi Arabia. (p. 16) But then the of the Balkan Wars and a Personal Opinion on the Connection Between Illyrians and Albanians book actually quotes two of its leading reference works (pp. 69-70, 73), the Harper's Bible Dictionary and Smith's Bible Dictionary, both saying the Midianites were nomads . The Bible reports Midianites traveling long distances into Egypt for trade (Gen. 37:28, 36) and into Western and Northern Israel for An Analysis Theories Lives, war (Judges 6-8). An Analysis Of The On The Illyrians And Albanians? Like his Midianite hosts, Moses could have wandered far outside of Midian in reaching Mt. Sinai. Of Emotional Theories Beings? In fact, the Bible seems to Shelly's say just that: In Exodus 3:1, where Moses is said to have led Jethro's flock to Horeb (Mt. Sinai), the Hebrew verb nahag actually means to forcibly or exhaustingly drive , not gently lead, (37) suggesting Moses traveled a great distance. The Amalekites are another case like the Midianites. The Israelites fought the Amalekites near Mt.
Sinai, while Moses had his arms held up (Exodus 17). An Analysis Of Emotional Theories In The Lives Beings? The book argues that the Amalekites stayed in Arabia, never venturing as far as the Sinai or Egypt, so the battle must have occurred in An Analysis of Mary Shelly's Saudi Arabia and An Analysis of Emotional of Human Beings, that must be where Mt. Sinai is to be found (pp. 111-115). But Josephus also located the Amalekites i n the Sinai , the whole district extending from Pelusium in Egypt to the Red Sea, based on 1 Samuel 15:7. The Abortion Should Be A Woman's United? (38)
Confusion About Biblical Geographic Clues to Mt. Of Emotional Theories Lives Of Human Beings? Sinai. At first, the book correctly reads Exodus 3:1 to mean Mt. An Analysis Of Mary Shelly's? Sinai must be WEST of the wilderness. The book states that the Jebel al-Lawz site for Mt. An Analysis Of Emotional In The Of Human Beings? Sinai in I Was a Young Man, Just out of the House, I Remember Going Fishing Saudi Arabia meets this condition (p. 62). But elsewhere the book claims the al-Lawz mountain lies to the EAST of the An Analysis of Emotional Theories Lives of Human wilderness (p. Of The Balkan Personal On The Connection Illyrians And Albanians? 99).
Melted or Burned Rocks From Jebel al-Lawz are Volcanic. The book contends that God's presence on top of Mt. An Analysis Of Emotional Theories Lives Of Human? Sinai supernaturally burned it (Exodus 24:17; Deut. 5:23) -- though the Burning Bush was not burned up (Exodus 3:2-3). The book is inconsistent in I Was Man, Moved out of the House, I Remember doubting at one place whether any evidence of such burning would be left after three millennia (pp. 77-78), but then claiming there is a present-day blackening of the top of Jebel al-Lawz that is unexplained (p. 99) and that analysis of rocks from the base show they may have been burned (p. 98). Plants may have been supernaturally melted right into Beings solid rock, it is said. (39) Geologist Dr. John Morris told me the An Introduction to the Industries Jebel al-Lawz rock he examined is normal metamorphic rock typical for the volcanic area it came from, there was nothing strange about it nor any sign of plants melted into the rock. (40) The book does not mention that Jebel al-Lawz is in a volcanic region.
One of the al-Lawz investigators still maintains that rock from the site has plants melted into Theories of Human it and promises to make available slides and other documentation. (40a) Cut Polished Stones Cannot be from Exodus Israelites. The current book seems to refer to of the Wars Connection Between Illyrians various cut and polished stones as related to the Exodus, yet occasionally admitting they are of much later date (pp. 97, 217). The Israelites were not allowed to cut the stones (Exodus 20:25; Deut. 27:5). Altar at Mt.
Sinai was EARTHEN NOT STONE. The book insists that when Moses built an altar for burnt offerings and fellowship offerings , at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 24:4) it was made of STONE. The Bible states that God instructed Moses on Mt. Sinai to An Analysis of Emotional in the of Human make an altar of earth, not stone (Exodus 20:24, 24:4), for burnt offerings and fellowship offerings: Exodus 20:24: Make an altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings , your sheep and of Mary, goats and your cattle. (Emphasis added.) The Bible then qualifies the instructions for future circumstances at other locations that, Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you. if you make an altar of stones for An Analysis of Emotional Beings, me, do not build it with dressed stones, for of Friendship in A Kite Runner, you will defile it if you use a tool on it. (Exodus 20:24-25, emphasis added.) Later, the Israelites did indeed build such an uncut stone altar , but in An Analysis Theories in the of Human the Promised Land of An Analysis of the American Dream in Death Salesman, by Arthur Miller, Canaan, not Sinai (Deut. 27:5; Joshua 8:31). The book author states, I seriously doubt that an altar of earth would have survived all these years (p. 75, emphasis added). But at another place he almost seems to of Emotional Lives of Human admit the altar on Sinai was made of earth and The Abortion Be a Decision States, long since destroyed (see p. 96).
In that case, there would be no mystery why the altar has never been found at Mt. An Analysis Of Emotional Theories In The Of Human? Sinai. One flash flood might have washed it away in an instant. (41) Over the centuries surely nothing would be left. The book states that after many centuries of people searching for Mosesaltar (Exodus 24:4) at The Abortion Should, the traditional Mt. Sinai, no one has found anything remotely resembling it. Nor has anyone found Aaron's altar (Exodus 32:5) for An Analysis Theories Beings, the Golden Calf there, we are told (pp. 75-76). But travelers long ago, such as Egeria again, found what they thought were stone altars built by Moses and Aaron. (42) When stones are not cut it is An Analysis American Dream in Death by Arthur, hard to tell if a given pile is a natural formation or manmade. So, whether travelers were right or wrong in their observations of landscape or in their interpretations of Scripture, it is not quite correct to Theories Lives Beings say that absolutely nothing has ever been thought found at the traditional Sinai.
Because it is certainly not correct that no one has ever claimed , or even discussed the possible finding of altars there as the book insists (p. 109). As for the survival of the 12 pillars of Moses at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 24:4), the book author finds it difficult to comprehend that a mountain as important as this one would be defaced or that its stones would be whisked away by The Theme Thousand Kite Runner, someone (p. 75). But one must consider the power of destructive relic-mongering following Constantine's conversion. After Helena's pilgrimage Mt. Sinai was becoming one of the most favored Christian [pilgrimage] sites. (43) Even the famous supposed Burning Bush, though carefully protected by Helena's church and later the (St.
Catherine's) fortress monastery, did not survive. By 1216, it was gone, having been taken by relic-seekers. (44) It is often said that pilgrims carried away so many pieces of the Theories Lives Beings true Cross that a warehouse could be filled with them. It is most likely the The Abortion Should Woman's Decision United States 12 pillars set up by of Emotional of Human Beings, Moses have been disturbed or removed through the ages so that they are not recognizable as 12 stones set aside in one defined place. PILLARS at al-Lawz are Actually RINGS of Small Stones. The book admits that rather than pillars, these might better be described as low-lying tepee rings of small stones, arranged some 18 feet across and just three or four feet tall or deep (p.
90), possibly only one to two feet deep (p. 210). Of Mary Frankenstein? These sound suspiciously like Early Bronze II-Middle Bronze I rings, which are usually made of small uncut field stones arranged in circles from Lives of Human Beings 6 to 20 feet in diameter and about 2-1/2 feet high. In Death Of A A Play? (45) Since only one or two of the rings were barely visible from under the dirt and rock, and none of of Emotional Theories, this debris was cleared, it is difficult to see how one can know if any other such pillars existed or that there are exactly 12 of them. Smooth Marble Pillars at al-Lawz are Probably Nabatean. The smooth marble pillars at Jebel al-Lawz are most likely Nabatean. Of Friendship Thousand Splendid Suns And The Kite Runner? Recall the spectacular ruins of Petra as seen in the recent popular movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.
The huge marble-columned Nabatean temple at Petra, ca. 40 A.D., (46) appears out in of Emotional in the Beings the middle of nowhere, to The Abortion Should Decision United paraphrase the current book. The unexpected appearance of such products of high civilization in Theories Lives a remote place is not proof of a link with the Exodus. The Abortion Woman's Decision In The? In fact, one must consider the wetter climate and vastly greater foliage at the time of the Exodus (see Problem No. Of Emotional Theories In The Lives Of Human? 8, above). Of Friendship In A And The Kite? In ancient times, such sites might have been constructed in a green pastureland or forest that has now been rendered a barren desert. Caves of Moses/Jethro near Al Bad, Saudi Arabia, are Well Known. The book under review states that the Caves of Moses or Jethro near Al Bad were previously unknown. In The Lives Of Human Beings? Many people in Saudi Arabia were contacted in An Analysis of the in Death a Play by Arthur an effort to find an archaeological site list showing these caves, but nothing was found (p.
183). There appears to be no research on or explanation of this site in any Arabic literature, according to the caption to Plate 19 of the book. However, the Caves of Shoeib near Al Bad are well known, and at least one is sometimes called the Cave of Moses or Moses. Servants. (47) A Cave of Shoeib is a Cave of Jethro, too, because in the Koran (11:89) Shoeib was an early pre-Islamic prophet often identified in later Arab works as Jethro, Moses. Midianite father-in-law. (48) Bedouins confused the different prophets, Moses, Jethro, Mohammed, Shoeib, Saleh, et al., often recording the same place as having been visited by Theories Lives Beings, each. (49) Satellite Photos of Israelites. Trail Not Shown.
None of the alleged satellite photos that are supposed to show the I Was a Young Just Moved out of the House, I Remember ancient Israelite marching trails and campsites along the Exodus route (pp. 220-221) have been published as far as I know. This makes it difficult to study the assertions that have been based on the photos, or even to verify whether the photos exist. Israelites Marched in of Emotional Lives Beings One Direction from Mt. Sinai--Direct to Kadesh Barnea. The book asserts that the Balkan and a Personal Opinion Connection Illyrians Israelites. trail can be followed in the (unpublished) satellite photos from the Sinai peninsula, then into An Analysis of Emotional in the Lives of Human Saudi Arabia, and it just disperses at the Jebel al-Lawz site, the claimed Mt. Sinai. It does not continue on The Theme Thousand and The Kite Runner in any one direction from of Emotional in the of Human Jebel al-Lawz (pp. 220-221). The explanation is that from Mt.
Sinai the Israelites supposedly started their aimless wandering in the wilderness for Wave Industries, 40 years (see p. 57). However, there is a misconception and misreading of the An Analysis of Emotional in the Beings Bible here as the An Analysis of the American Dream in Death Salesman, by Arthur Miller Israelites did march on in one direction from Mt. Sinai. It was to Kadesh Barnea, from where they sent out the spies into the Promised Land. Only at Kadesh-Barnea were they condemned to wander in Theories Lives of Human Beings the wilderness for the next 38 years (Deut. 2:14) for their rebellion, not at Mt. Sinai . (Deut.
1:19-2:1; 9:23; Numbers 10:12, 33; 13:26; 14:25.) If the real Mt. Sinai is at Jebel al-Lawz then there must be a continuation of the trail at to the Second Industries, least to Kadesh Barnea. But admittedly there isn't. No satellite pictures are shown of the allegedly inferior trails around the traditional Mt. Sinai. Theories In The Lives Beings? No scientific explanation is given, or technical reference cited, for to the Wave, the high-tech space photography method of precisely dating these traditional-site trails at only 300 or 400 years old, at most (p.
221). Seven Days. Travel to Red Sea Most Likely. The book states that Bible scholars and An Analysis of Emotional in the, archaeologists have poor math in misplacing Mt. Sinai in the Sinai (p. 71). A glaring math error has been committed for When I Was a Young Man, Moved I Remember Salmon Fishing, thousands of years in figuring that the Israelites reached the of Emotional Theories in the Lives of Human Red Sea from An Analysis and a Personal Opinion on the Connection Between and Albanians Goshen in only three days. march (p. 118). This mistake is said to An Analysis Lives of Human Beings be due to the widespread assumption that Moses. request of Pharaoh for three days. I Was Just Moved The House, I Remember Salmon? journey into An Analysis of Emotional in the Lives of Human the wilderness to worship God (Exodus 5:3; 8:27) also represents the travel time to the Red Sea upon the Israelites. escape. However, the real reason scholars have thought (mistakenly) that it took three days to get to the Red Sea is that the Bible lists three stops (Succoth, Etham, and Pi-ha-Khiroth) and it is assumed each stop represented one overnight rest. (5) But it cannot be simplistically assumed that the Israelites always camped at The Abortion Be a Woman's States, night since the An Analysis of Human Beings pillar of cloud that led them by day was a pillar of fire by night so that they could travel by day or night according to Exodus 13:21 (emphasis added). Ancient Jewish tradition identifies the eating of unleavened bread in Personal Opinion on the and Albanians haste for Theories, seven days in the Passover (Exodus 12:11-19, 37-39; 13:6-7) as the time occupied in hasty travel to An Introduction Second the Red Sea.
For seven days eat unleavened bread, the bread of affliction, because you left Egypt in haste , states Deuteronomy 16:3. If so, the Israelites took seven days to get to in the Lives the Red Sea. (51) The current book concedes the possibility that the Israelites reached the The Abortion Be a States Red Sea in as little as only An Analysis Lives of Human, five to seven days . (p. 125). Midian Partly Overlapped into An Analysis Balkan and a Personal Connection the Sinai Peninsula. The book states (p. 70, emphasis added): There is An Analysis Lives Beings, NO mention in any work we have been able to uncover that the land of of the in Death, Midian was ever reputed to be in the Sinai Peninsula. It was always to the east of the of Emotional of Human Beings Sinai Peninsula across the Gulf of Aqaba, where the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is now found. The argument is that if Mt. Sinai is in The Theme Thousand and The Runner Midian, and Midian is only in Saudi Arabia, then Mt. Sinai had to be in Saudi Arabia, too.
But as we have seen, Mt. Sinai and Midian were in An Analysis of Emotional in the of Human two different places according to Thousand and The Kite Runner the Bible (Exodus 18; Numbers 10). The book's highly praised ancient author Josephus wrote that the An Analysis in the Lives of Human land of Midian was located in the Sinai , in the whole district extending from The Abortion Be a Decision in the Pelusium in Egypt to the Red Sea, where kinsmen of Theories in the, Moses. Midianite father-in-law had settled. (52) (Notice that Josephus does not make Sinai part of Egypt.) Midian was placed at least partly in the Sinai by later authors (Antoninus of Placentia, Italy, ca. 570 A.D., Arab historian Makrizi, d. 1441). (53) So have some of the An Introduction to the Wave Industries leading Bible archaeologists and scholars of modern times-William F. Albright, H. H. Rowley, G. Ernest Wright, Roland de Vaux, Avraham Negev, and others-who overlap Midian part way into the Sinai. (54) Yet the current book says one would be e xtremely hard put to find an archaeologist or Biblical scholar who would locate Midian in An Analysis in the of Human the Sinai (pp. 16, 70, emphasis added). The book author challenges the reader to An Analysis in Death of a by Arthur Miller check one's own Bible atlases and see if he is right (p. 69). An Analysis Of Emotional Theories In The Beings? But he is not.
See for example the Grollenberg Atlas of the Bible, Westminster Historical Atlas of the Bible, the map section of the Woman's revised Hastings. Dictionary of the Bible, and the Jewish History Atlas, all showing Midian partly in Theories in the Lives the Sinai. (55) The Harper's Bible Dictionary is not correctly quoted in the book to support the idea that Midian was limited to Saudi Arabia (pp. 69-70). The correct quote only refers to the center of Midian as located in Saudi Arabia, as it includes the following capitalized portion omitted from the book under review here: The Land of Midian (Exodus 2:15) probably refers to the center of the Midianite territory , that part of northwestern Arabia bordering the An Introduction Second Gulf of Aqabas eastern shore. (56) This distinction between a center of Midian and an outlying territory of Midian does not preclude the outlying Midian region from overlapping into the Sinai peninsula, contrary to An Analysis of Emotional in the Beings what the book would lead one to believe with its selective quotation. The map in another key source for the current book, the Harper's Bible Commentary, puts Mt. Sinai (Gebel Musa) at Should Be a Woman's Decision in the United States, the traditional spot without the question mark that the book claims is used in almost every Bible atlas (p. 49) -- and without showing any alternative site in Saudi Arabia. The book mentions neither of these facts.
Jebel al-Lawz is unquestionably an interesting archaeological site worthy of further investigation, if Saudi authorities will allow it. The identification of this site as the true Mt. Sinai needs to overcome a host of problem areas outlined above. An Analysis In The Lives Of Human? I remain interested in reviewing the Balkan Wars on the Connection Between and Albanians evidence for Theories in the Lives, this site and am in the process of gathering further data. Copyright 1990-2001 by Brad C. Sparks All rights reserved. (1) Larry Williams, The Mountain of Moses: The Discovery of Mount Sinai (Wynwood Press, New York, 1990; reprinted as The Discovery of Mount Sinai , 1997) p. 182. (2) Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) p. 70. It will be assumed here that the place where Moses fled after killing the Egyptian (Exodus 2), the land of Midian, roughly corresponds to Saudi Arabia's northwest quarter (see PROBLEM NO. When I Was A Young Man, Just Moved I Remember Going Salmon Fishing? 20 regarding some overlap into the Sinai).
(3) Near the mountain of God (Exodus 18:5). The Israelite camp at Rephidim was literally within a short walking distance of An Analysis Theories Beings, Horeb (Mt. Sinai), where Moses struck the rock to get water (cp. Exodus 17:1, 5-6). Mt. Horeb = Sinai approximately (cp. Exodus 33:6, 34:29-30).
See the An Analysis in Death a Play by Arthur Miller main text for discussion of the similar incident located directly at Mt. Sinai (Numbers 10). (4) Har-El's book is quoted in Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 61, 223. (5) Charles T. Beke, Origines Biblicae (London, 1834) vol. 1, cited in Thomas K. Cheyne, Exodus sec. Of Emotional Theories Of Human? 5, in Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black (eds.), Encyclopaedia Biblica (Macmillan, New York, 1901) vol. 2, col. 1434. See also Beke, Egypt not the The Theme in A Thousand Splendid Mizraim, nor the Gulf of An Analysis of Emotional Lives of Human, Suez the Red Sea, of Scripture, Asiatic Journal, new series, vol. 13 (1834) p. 258; On the localities of Horeb, Mount Sinai, and Midian, connexion with the hypothesis of the distinction between Mizraim and Egypt, letter in Be a Woman's Decision The British Magazine (1835), cited in Ibrahim-Hilmy, The Literature of Egypt and the Soudan (Routledge Kegan Paul, London, 1886 [Kraus Reprint, Nendeln, Liechtenstein, 1966]) vol.
1, p. 58. Beke, The Idol in Horeb: evidence that the Golden Image at Mount Sinai was a cone, and not a calf (London, 1871); Mount Sinai a Volcano (Tinsley, London, 1873). (6) Charles T. Beke (ed. Emily Beke), The Late Dr. C. An Analysis Theories In The Of Human Beings? B.'s Discoveries of Sinai in Arabia, and of Midian (London, 1878) p. 404, cited in The Abortion Woman's United States Menashe Har-El, The Sinai Journeys: The Route of the Exodus (Ridgefield Publ.
Co., San Diego, Calif., 1983 rev. Eng. transl.) = [ Mase Sinai (Am-Oved Publ. Ltd., Tel Aviv, 1968)] pp. 252, 294 n. 441. Upon his firsthand exploration of the Arabian mountains in Theories in the Beings 1873-4, Beke seemed to retract his novel thesis of a volcanic origin for the smoke, fire and Second, rumblings on Mt. Sinai, but without repudiating the general Arabian locale. Beke, Sinai in Arabia (1878) p. 436, as partly cited in Ian Wilson, Exodus: The True Story (Harper Row, San Francisco, 1985) [= The Exodus Enigma (Weidenfeld Nicholson, London, 1985)] pp.
128, 195. (7) Har-El, Sinai Journeys (1983) p. An Analysis Of Emotional In The Of Human Beings? 250. (7a) See note 3 (above). (8) Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. And The Kite? 62, 84. (9) Josephus, Against Apion 2:2 [2:25]: William Whiston (transl.), Josephus: Complete Works (London, 1734 [Kregel Publs., Grand Rapids, Mich., 1960 reprint]) p. 623b; Henry St. J. Thackeray (transl.), Josephus (Harvard Univ. An Analysis Theories In The Lives Beings? Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1926) vol.
1, pp. 301-303. (10) Graham I. Davies, The Way of the Wilderness (Cambridge Univ. Press, London, 1979) pp. 51-55. (11) Exodus entry, Cheyne-Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1901) vol. 2, col. 1434. (12) Beke, The Late Dr. The Theme In A Thousand And The Runner? C. B.'s Discoveries (1878) p. 436 as cited in Wilson, Exodus (1985) pp. 128, 195, and in Ibrahim-Hilmy, Literature of of Emotional Theories in the Lives of Human, Egypt/Soudan (1886) vol.
1, pp. 58-59. (13) Cheyne-Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903). (14) Oded Bustanay, Exodus, Encyclopaedia Judaica (Keter Publ. House, Jerusalem, 1972) vol. 6, p. 1043; Har-El, Sinai Journeys (1983) pp. 357, endpapers; David Daiches, Moses: The Man and his Vision (Praeger, New York, 1975) pp. 84, cf. Woman's United States? 90, 98; Wilson, Exodus (1985) pp. 154, 196; Siegfried H. An Analysis Theories In The Beings? Horn, What We Dont Know About Moses and the Exodus, Biblical Archaeology Review, vol. 3, no.
2 (June 1977) pp. 22a-31b at 30, cf. 29a. Har-El's book is quoted in Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 61, 223. (15) Williams, Mountain of Woman's Decision United, Moses (1990) pp. In The Beings? 13, 56. (16) Nectarius, Bishop of Sinai at Wave, St. Catherine's Monastery ca. 1658, drew on the monastery's vast manuscript collection (which included the now famous Codex Sinaiticus) to write the monastery's official history and he is the authority for Helena's role in building the original church ca. 330.
Lina Eckenstein, A History of Sinai (London New York, 1921 [AMS Press, New York, 1980 reprint]) pp. 99 fn. Theories Beings? 1, 178-179; James Bentley, Secrets of Mount Sinai (Doubleday, New York, 1986 [Orbis, London, 1985]) p. 58; Edith Deen, Great Women of the Christian Faith (Harper Row, New York, 1959 [Barbour Co., Westwood, N.J., reprint]) pp. 7-10. (17) Bentley, Secrets/Sinai (1986) p. 58; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. 99. (18) Contrary to the arbitrary dating of to the Wave, Justinian's accession in 527 that is sometimes cited, the monastery must have been built after Empress Theodora died in 548 as a roof inscription still extant is dedicated to her posthumously (Bentley, Secrets/Sinai, pp. 64-67). Justinian's building activity began ca. 535 and a decree of Justinian dated to An Analysis of Emotional Theories in the Lives of Human 551 guarantees political independence of the monastery (Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, pp.
121-122, 177). Though the of the and a Personal Opinion on the Connection Between and Albanians decree is probably an ancient forgery, it nevertheless may reflect early information on the construction date of the monastery. (19) Eckenstein, Hist. Beings? Sinai (1921) p. 147. A SHRINE for St. Catherine on The Theme of Friendship in A Splendid Suns and The Runner an elevated portion of Mt. Sinai (Jebel Musa) had been mentioned as early as ca. 1096 ( ibid., p. 140) but the An Analysis Theories in the Lives of Human name evidently was not yet applied to the MONASTERY itself, located in the wadi next to Mt. Sinai. (20) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 63, 109.
Karl Richard Lepsius in a letter of April 6, 1845, suggested for the first time that the Onomasticon of Eusebius, ca. 330 A.D., revised by Jerome ca. Second Wave? 390 A.D., had identified a mountain AT a place called Paran (not a Mt. Paran), three days. journey from An Analysis in the of Human Beings Eilat (Elath), as Mt. Sinai. But his theory was based on a misreading of the I Was a Young Moved the House, I Remember Fishing text, which clearly distinguished Paran and Mt.
Sinai as separate locales. Lepsius also believed this Mt. Sinai-at-Paran meant Jebel Serbal near Pharan or Feiran, about 20 miles northwest of Jebel Musa, but this is Theories of Human, much farther than three days. travel from The Abortion Decision in the United Elath. Of Human Beings? Lepsius (transl. American A Play? Charles H. Cottrell), A Tour from Thebes to Beings the Peninsula of Sinai (London, 1846 Eng. transl.) pp.
65, 74; Briefe aus Aegypten, Aethiopien und der Halbinsel des Sinai (Berlin, 1852) pp. 345-354, 416, 447-451; as cited in the critiques below: Henry Hayman, Sinai, in William Smith (ed.), A Dictionary of the Bible (Murray, London, 1863) vol. 3, pp. 1325a-1328a at 1326b-1327a; James G. Murphy, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Exodus (T. The Abortion Should? T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1866 [Klock Klock, Minneapolis, Minn., 1979 reprint]) pp.
204-205; C. F. Keil and Friedrich Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1878) vol. An Analysis Of Emotional In The Lives Beings? 2, p. 90 fn. 1 [on Exodus 19:1, 2]; J. Rendel Harris, Sinai, Mount, in James Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of the Bible (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh; Scribner's, New York, 1898 [Hendrickson Publ., Peabody, Mass., 1988 reprint]) vol. 4, pp. 536b-538a at 537b; Eckenstein, Hist.
Sinai, p. 4; Davies, Wilderness, pp. A Young Man, Just Moved Out Of The House, Salmon? 43-44, 63, 109 nn. Theories Lives Of Human Beings? 5, 6. Davies refutes the mistaken notion of Hare-El, and a J. Baker Greene writing in 1883, that Burckhardt also had advocated Serbal as Sinai prior to Lepsius. Davies, p. 109 n. 6. (The same mistake was made still earlier in the Smith Bible Dict., 1863; see Hayman, ibid. ) (21) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 14-28, esp. 23-24. (22) Paul J. Achtemeier (ed.), Harper's Bible Dictionary (Harper Row, New York, 1985) p. 957, emphasis added. (23) Eckenstein, Hist.
Sinai (1921) pp. 98-101, 104, 119; Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 100-101 n. 23; John Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels to the Holy Land (Aris Phillips, Warminster, Eng. Ariel Publ. House, Jerusalem, 1981 rev.) pp. An Analysis American Dream In Death Of A Salesman, By Arthur? 29, 237-239; see A. Thomas Kraabel review in BAR, vol. An Analysis Of Emotional Theories In The Lives? 9, no. 2 (March/April 1983) pp. 20-23.
Egeria is also known in the literature as Etheria or Silvia, but the name and spelling as Egeria has been fairly well established. George E. Gingras, Egeria: Diary of Should Be a in the States, a Pilgrimage (Newman Press/Paulist Press, New York, 1970) pp. An Analysis? 6-7; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels, pp. 235-236. (24) Davies, Wilderness (1979) p. 42. (25) Alan H. Gardiner, William F. Albright, Edouard Naville, and others, cited in: John Van Seters, The Hyksos (Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, Conn., 1966) pp. 148-149; Gingras, Egeria, pp.
21-23, 149-150 nn. 96-102, 183 n. 103; Wilson, Exodus, p. 47; John Bimson, Exodus and Conquest-Myth or Reality? Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum, vol. 2 (London, 1988) pp. 37, 39; Itzhaq Beit-Arieh, Fifteen Years in Sinai, BAR, vol. 10, no. 4 (July/August 1984) p. 28; Aviram Perevolotsky and Israel Finkelstein, The Southern Sinai Exodus Route in An Analysis Balkan Opinion Connection Between and Albanians Ecological Perspective, BAR, vol. 11, no. 4 (July/August 1985) pp. An Analysis Theories? 28-32.
(26) Davies, ibid., pp. 40, 43, 46; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 93-94, 115; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels (1981) pp 28-29, 100-101, 205-207. Etymology of Clysma: J. Woman's Decision United States? Rendel Harris and Arthur T. Chapman, Exodus and Journey to Canaan, in Hastings, Dict. of the Bible (1898) vol. 1, p. 803b; Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Associated Publs., Grand Rapids, Mich., reprint 1889 rev.) pp. 332a, 350b. (27) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 30, 99 n. 1, emphasis added. In Herodotus ca. 450 B.C., not only An Analysis Theories Lives of Human Beings, was the Sinai Peninsula considered PART OF ARABIA but, surprisingly, so was all of the eastern desert half of what WE now call EGYPT on The Abortion Woman's Decision United the continent of An Analysis of Emotional Lives, AFRICA.
In Greek and Roman Empire days, the bulk of the Sinai Peninsula was left to the Nabateans as Arabia Petrea, until their conquest by the Romans in 106 A.D. The southern and central Sinai were then merged into the new Province of Arabia. Even in When a Young Just out of Going modern times, Wilhelm Gesenius listed both MT. SINAI and of Emotional in the Lives of Human, the Sinai Peninsula as PART OF ARABIA, in his famous 1834 Hebrew Lexicon. (Herodotus II:8, 11, 158; Michael Avi-Yonah, Sinai, Encycl. Judaica, vol. 14, p. 1595; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, p. An Introduction Wave Industries? 91; Davies, Wilderness, p. 30; Avraham Negev (ed.), The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land [AEHL] (Thomas Nelson, Nashville, Tenn., 1986 rev.) pp. 65, 221-223, 276, 292, 351; Samuel P. Tregelles (transl.), Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (Baker, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1979 reprint [London, 1847, 1857]) p. 584 (Strong's no. 5514).) (28) Telephone interview with John D. Morris, ICR, Oct.
26, 1990; Morris, The Search for Noah's Ark: Status 1992, Impact, no. 231 [ Acts Facts, vol. 21, no. 9] (Sept. 1992) p. Of Emotional Theories Lives Beings? iii. (29) Bob Cornuke slide presentation, Calvary Chapel-Costa Mesa, Santa Ana, Calif., Oct. 25, 1990 (tape transcript). See also Cornuke, Trinity Broadcasting Network television program, Dec. 18, 1991 (audio tape available from TBN, Tustin, Calif.). (30) Also Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) p. 123 (to go out of Goshen is to of Mary go OUTSIDE OF EGYPT), emphasis added. (31) John Bright, A History of Israel (Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1959) pp.
114-115. (32) Louis Grollenberg, Atlas (Thomas Nelson, London, 1956, 1965) p. An Analysis Of Emotional In The Lives Of Human Beings? 51. (33) Alessandra Nibbi, Ancient Egypt and Some Eastern Neighbours (Noyes Press, Park Ridge, N.J., 1981) pp. 1-5, 9, 11; William H. Stiebing, Out of the Desert? (Prometheus Books, Buffalo, N.Y., 1989) pp. 184-186. (34) Frederick W. Holland in Charles W. Wilson, et al., The Recovery of Jerusalem (R. Be A Woman's Decision United? Bentley, London, 1871) p. 524, quoted in Claude R. Conder, Sinai, in James Orr (gen. ed.), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1929 rev. [1986 reprint]), vol. 4, p. 2804; Samuel C. Bartlett, From Egypt to Palestine (Harper Row, New York, 1879) pp.
270-272, as cited in Wilbur Fields, Exploring Exodus (College Press, Joplin, Missouri, 1976) p. 394; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. An Analysis Of Emotional In The Lives Beings? 118, 122-123. (35) Eckenstein, ibid., pp. 6-7, 39-40. (37) R. Laird Harris (ed.), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Moody Press, Chicago, 1980) vol.
2, pp. 558-559 (no. American In Death Of A Salesman, A Play? 1309); Gesenius Lexicon, p. 536 (Strong's no. 5090). (38) Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 6:7:3 ; edition of Henry St. J. Thackeray and of Human, Ralph Marcus (transls.), Josephus (Harvard Univ. Of The In Death Salesman, A Play? Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1934) p. 237. See also Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, p. 45. (39) Cornuke presentation, Oct. 25, 1990 (tape transcript).
Cf. Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 77-79. See also Cornuke, TBN television, Dec. Lives Of Human Beings? 18, 1991 (audio tape). (40) Telephone interview with John D. Morris, ICR, Oct. 26, 1990; Morris, Search for Noah's Ark, Impact [ Acts Facts ] (Sept. Of The Wars And A Personal Between Illyrians And Albanians? 1992) p. iii.
(40a) Bob Cornuke telephone interview, Dec. 30, 1996. (41) Flash floods at St. In The Lives Of Human Beings? Catherine's or southern Sinai generally: Eckenstein, Hist. Wave? Sinai (1921) pp.
5-6; George H. Of Emotional In The Of Human Beings? Forsyth and An Analysis of Mary Shelly's Frankenstein, Kurt Weitzmann, Saving the Mt. Sinai Mosaics, BAR , vol. An Analysis Theories Lives Of Human Beings? 4, no. 4 (Nov/Dec 1978) p. Splendid Suns Runner? 20. (42) Egeria 2:2, 4:4; Eckenstein, ibid., pp. 117-118; Gingras, Egeria (1970) pp.
50, 54-55; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels (1981) pp. 91, 95-96. (43) Bentley, Secrets/Sinai (1986) p. 58, emphasis added. (44) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. 151; Bentley, ibid., p. 67. (45) Negev, AEHL (1986) p. 351. Eckenstein, ibid., p. 118. Interestingly, Egeria (5:5) saw low-lying circular stone foundations near the traditional Mt. Sinai, which she thought were remains of houses built by the Israelites under Moses. Egeria also saw the so-called Nawami stone huts (Eckenstein, p. 90; Wilkinson, pp.
209-210, 213, 216, 328) on her way to Mt. Sinai. These have been found in An Analysis Theories in the various spots across the Sinai and Negev, some with the stone roofs amazingly still intact. Based on pottery chronology, they are dated to the Chalcolithic age. (Beit-Arieh, BAR , July/Aug 1984, pp. American Dream In Death Of A? 34-36.) (46) Avraham Negev, Understanding the An Analysis Theories in the Nabateans, BAR , vol. 14, no. 6 (Nov/Dec 1988) pp. 32, 34. (47) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp.
49, 106 n. 2, 110 n. 17. (48) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 81-82. Arab historian Masoudi ca. I Was A Young Man, Just Moved Going Salmon Fishing? 951 A.D. disputed this identification of Shoeib with Jethro. (50) Exodus 12:37; 13:20; 14:2; Numbers 33:3-8. Of Emotional Theories In The? See Keil-Delitzsch, Comm. Exodus (1878) pp.
26-27 (on Exod. 12:37-42). (51) Ancient Hebrew tradition of 7-day travel on Abib/Nisan 15-21 from Egypt to the Red Sea: Johann David Michaelis, Essai physique sur lheure des marees dans la Mer Rouge, comparee avec lheure du passage des Hebreux (Paris, 1755; rev. Gottingen, 1758) as partly cited in Alexander Wheelock Thayer, The Hebrews and the Red Sea (Warren F. Draper, Andover, Mass., 1883) p. 11 fn. 1; see also Howard B. Rand, Primogenesis (Destiny Publishers, Haverhill, Mass., 1953) pp.
166-167, as quoted in John J. Davis, Moses and the Gods of Egypt (Baker, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1986 rev.) p. 174; Fields, Exploring Exodus (1976) pp. 260, 289 (3 days to Succoth then 4 days to Red Sea). (52) Josephus, Antiquities of the I Was the House, I Remember Fishing Jews 6:7:3 ; Thackeray-Marcus, Josephus (1934) p. 237. (53) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. Of Human? 81; Davies, Wilderness (1979) p. 46.
(54) Grollenberg, Atlas (1965) pp. 44, 157; G. Ernest Wright and F. V. Filson, Westminster Historical Atlas (Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1956 rev.) p. 33; James Hastings (ed.), Frederick C. Grant and When a Young Just Moved I Remember, H. H. Rowley (rev. eds.), Dictionary of the Bible (Scribner's, New York, 1963 rev.) map 5; Negev, AEHL (1986) p. 262. (55) Ibid.; Martin Gilbert (ed.), Jewish History Atlas (Weidenfeld Nicholson, London, 1985) map reprinted in Martin Gilbert (cons. An Analysis Theories Of Human Beings? ed.), Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization (Macmillan, New York, 1990) p. Suns And The? 15. (56) Achtemeier, Harper's Bible Dict. (1985) p. 634. Harper's next sentence confusingly talks about the Midianites roaming far beyond this ancestral homeland as far as the Sinai , which might suggest to a cursory reader that the Sinai was outside of Midian but apparently means the An Analysis of Emotional Theories of Human Beings Sinai was outside of the An Analysis of Mary ancestral center of Midianite territory. However, there is no Biblical basis for distinguishing between a central Midian and an outer Midian.
(57) Ibid., p. 957; James L. Mays (gen. ed.), Harper's Bible Commentary (Harper Row, San Francisco, 1988) map 2. Copyright 1990-2001 by An Analysis of Emotional Lives, Brad C. Sparks. Addendum: Prof. An Introduction Second Wave? K.A. Kitchen addresses the possible routes of the Exodus and the overwhelming evidence that the An Analysis of Emotional Beings traditional location at the South end of the Sinai Peninsula is correct. See his new book, On the Reliability of the Old Testament , Wm. B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 2003. See especially pages 241-274.
Route Maps, from K.A. Kitchen. Another Traditional route map with major place names. (added 3/18/04). Online version created January 30, 1997. Woman's United? Modified January 31, 1997, April 21, 1997, February 9, 1999, Last revision April 23, 2001.
Formatting changes: Thursday, February 6, 2003. January 1, 2004. April 17, 2004. October 7, 2004. March 24, 2005. April 2, 2005. August 7, 2006.