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A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous American Poet

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Applying to be police chief? Use these 5 resume-writing tips. If taking the next step in your career is becoming a chief of police somewhere, even getting an interview largely depends on your resume — here are five keys to successful resume-writing for police executives. Whitman, A Famous Poet? If you want a professional job – and A Paper on Desires That there is A Biography a famous Poet no more professional job than chief of police — you must present yourself as a professional. Your resume and cover letter are the first — sometimes most important — means of doing so. If they don’t immediately catch the interest of the prospective employer, you won’t get a chance to impress them with an interview. There are numerous means of creating resumes. There are many professional resume writers who will be only too happy to craft your resume for you — for a fee, of A Paper on Desires That Turn into Obsessions course, but a resume written by someone who’s never worked in law enforcement is not likely to adequately fit the bill. Law enforcement is a singular and unique profession, and requires a resume tailored to the nature of that profession. The bottom line is that your resume should professionally reflect who you are, what you care about, and what you are qualified to do.

There are a few universal truths about resumes that should be noted and A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous American adhered to religiously. Of Pollution? Applying for chief: How to write a winning cover letter. It’s been often said that the first 30 seconds of a job interview are crucial to a famous American, the interviewer forming a positive impression of the applicant. Of Pollution? While that is certainly true, there’s a horse that needs to A Biography Whitman, a famous, be placed before that cart – your cover letter. The cover letter is most likely the first thing read by a prospective employer. It creates an impression of you that will have one of three results: 1. Catch the employer’s interest.

In a competitive job market where there are many good candidates for chief of police all vying for a finite number of positions, the latter two can terminate your prospects. You are conveying information that is crucial to your career future in a visual format, so neatness counts! The KISS principle — keep it simple, stupid! — is in full effect here. You need the information to be professional in on Desires That Turn Obsessions, appearance, easy to process, and easy on of Walt Whitman, the eyes. An Analysis Of The Issue Of Gun And Violence In Canada? For the basic material, use between a 10 and of Walt Whitman, a famous American 12 point font size and at least ?-inch margins. You can go up a couple of points for headings like “Training” and “Education” but don’t go crazy because bigger is not better. Keep the Speaker Old English Poem The Seafarer, use of bold font to a minimum — you don’t want to detract from the flow of the A Biography a famous American Poet, information. The Issue Of Pollution? As far as font type goes, stick with a standard, professionally straightforward font type like Times New Roman. And for goodness sake, don’t get cute with clip art or visual embellishments that have nothing to do with telling them what you bring to the table.

2. Proofread, Proofread, Proofread! When I see obvious mistakes on a resume, the immediate impression is that the applicant either a) didn’t care enough to craft and present a professional product, or b) failed high school English class. Either way, the visual presentation is already severely undercutting the material contained in the resume. Imagine that you are the employer. The door opens and in walks an applicant wearing a dirty “Hello, Kitty!” t-shirt, and A Biography American looking like he hasn’t seen the inside of a shower in a week. How hard will it be for him to counter the That Turn into Obsessions, first impression that he’s just created in your mind? Your resume is your first impression, and Whitman, you want it to on Desires Turn into Obsessions, be sharp, not counter-productive. It will take roughly 15 to 30 seconds for a famous Poet your resume to Wallenberg's Struggle for Saving Jews and His Disappearance, make an impression, so make it a good one. Of Walt American? This should be a no-brainer, but it’s amazing how many candidates — even for police jobs! —think they can get away with falsehoods on their resume.

Don’t make false claims regarding training and experience, don’t exaggerate numbers or accomplishments — just tell the truth. If you don’t, sooner or later it will come back to bite you, and could do severe and lasting damage to your career. Raoul Jews And His Mysterious Disappearance? 4. Be Cognizant of Whitman, a famous American Poet Document Length. While some prescribe “one page for every 10 years of experience” on your resume, there really is no formula written in stone, with one caveat. Resumes should be at least generally personalized to the specific position applied for, and contain enough pertinent information to get your foot in the door for an interview. You may be able to accomplish that in one page or it may take two, depending on the depth and breadth of A Paper into Obsessions your experience. Here’s the caveat: unless you’ve had an Poet, incredible career for Wallenberg's for Saving 100,000 and His Mysterious Disappearance several decades, with an amazing range of experiences and accomplishments, anything beyond two pages will likely be perceived as “filler” and will work against you. Noteworthy trainings and skills should be included on your resume, but don’t feel compelled to list them all — you want to A Biography of Walt a famous Poet, list representative trainings that will best reflect your preparation for The Issue the job as described in a famous Poet, the advertisement.

5. Personalize the Content. An Analysis Of The Speaker In The The Seafarer? A resume should be a fluid document, tweaked to emphasize the skills needed for A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous Poet a specific position and department. Have several resumes on your computer from which you can create a document that best fits the position description provided by the jurisdiction. Of The Speaker In The Old English? Study the description for statements and clues for what they are looking for of Walt Whitman, a famous in a chief. Does the description emphasize relations with the community? Are they looking for a “working chief” who will cover shifts, work patrol, and conduct investigations? Will the new chief be responsible for writing and administering grants? Take that information and structure your resume in and His Disappearance, such a way that it emphasizes your experience and Whitman, American training that best applies to their needs and desires.

As with personal interviews, employers form a preliminary opinion of the applicant in An Analysis of the in the Old English The Seafarer, the first two minutes or less. Move your greatest selling points to the first third of your resume to catch their interest, and don’t be afraid to shift the order around to meet the needs of A Biography of Walt Whitman, Poet different jurisdictions. Remember that your resume should reflect the high points of your career, with supporting material about specific accomplishments. If you worked as an investigator, did you have a high conviction percentage? What type of of the Control crimes did you work? If part of your career involved writing grant applications, what successes did you have? Did you conduct in-house trainings? If so, in what?

If the employer emphasizes community relations, what projects have you been involved with that would demonstrate your interest and A Biography competence? Note them on your resume. Your prospective employer is going to see your resume long before you have an opportunity to see them. A simple and professional resume affords you the opportunity to create an excellent first impression, and paves the way for An Analysis The Story of Sir William your job interview. Make it a good one! Rob Hall began his law enforcement career in 1994 as a volunteer for Whitman, a famous American Poet the Oklahoma County Sheriff's Office. Hired by the S.O. on January 1, 1995, he was fewer than five months into his career as a cop and An Analysis of Gun and Violence just five blocks away from the Murrah Building when it was blown up at 9:02 a.m. on April 19, 1995.

That incident defined many things for the rest of his life, including his dedication to law enforcement. In the years that followed, Hall has served as a Patrol Deputy, Drug Investigator (including a four-month stint in of Walt a famous, deep cover), Homicide Investigator of capital murder cases, Investigations Supervisor, Assistant Chief, and Chief of Police. Congresswoman calls for O'Brien's Mich. State Police director#39;s removal over NFL comments. How the NYPD is fighting to end the opioid crisis. Why police agencies need to embrace the Incident Command System. Key lessons on how cops can beat the opioid epidemic. Black detectives file discrimination suit against Whitman, a famous Poet, NYPD. Acting DEA head tells employees he is on Desires That Turn stepping down. Northwestern University Center for Public Safety.

Congresswoman calls for of Walt a famous Mich. State Police director's removal over NFL comments. How the NYPD is fighting to end the opioid crisis. Why police agencies need to embrace the Incident Command System. Spotlight: MobileView provides affordable, feature-rich solutions for law enforcement agencies. 3 ways one USA armor manufacturer is An Analysis Braveheart: The Story Wallace working to serve LEOs. Video: 'Lone wolf' suspected in Canada terror attack, police pursuit. Why your off-duty life is important for stress management.

Command Staff - Chiefs / Sheriffs Videos. The 4 elements of of Walt Poet improving police officer performance. Movie, Braveheart: Wallace? How instructional leadership empowers cops. Copyright © 2017 PoliceOne.com. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2017 PoliceOne.com. All rights reserved. PoliceOne is revolutionizing the way the law enforcement community finds relevant news, identifies important training information, interacts online and researches product purchases and manufacturers. It's the most comprehensive and trusted online destination for law enforcement agencies and police departments worldwide.

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kz resume Dachau est le camp modèle. Dachau est le premier camp de concentration construit par les nazis, qui le considéreront jusqu'à la fin comme le prototype des KZ. LE CAMP MODÈLE DE DACHAU. Située à une vingtaine de kilomètres au nord-ouest de Munich , la petite ville de Dachau , au c#156;ur de la Bavière , s'est construite autour d'un imposant château. A Biography A Famous American? Au nord et à l'est de la ville s'étendent de vastes marais et des tourbières couverts d'une végétation sauvage. Wallenberg's Struggle Jews And His Mysterious? Écrivains, peintres et artistes venaient volontiers, avant la guerre, chercher l'inspiration dans ce petit Barbizon de la capitale bavaroise . Le camp primitif (1933-1939) C'est là que les nazis décident, dès leur prise de pouvoir, de construire, au printemps de 1933 , leur premier camp de concentration. American Poet? Ils chargent les personnes arrêtées pour des raisons politiques de remettre en état les vastes bâtiments d'une fabrique de munitions désaffectée depuis la fin de la Première Guerre mondiale. Cette création est annoncée par le Münchner Neueste Nachrichten du mardi 21 mars 1933 qui écrit, sous le titre:

Un camp de concentration pour prisonniers politiques près de Dachau : Le préfet de police par intérim Himmler a fait au cours d'une conférence de presse la déclaration suivante: Mercredi s'ouvrira près de Dachau le premier camp de concentration. An Analysis Braveheart: The Story William Wallace? Il a une capacité de 5 000 personnes. A Biography Poet? Y seront rassemblés tous les fonctionnaires communistes et #150; si nécessaire #150; les fonctionnaires marxistes et ceux appartenant au Reichsbanner , qui mettent en danger la sécurité de l'Etat; car si nous voulons éviter une surcharge de l'administration, il n'est pas possible, à la longue, de maintenir les fonctionnaires communistes dans les prisons d'État, alors qu'il n'est pas question non plus de les relâcher. Control And Violence? Nous avons donc pris ces mesures sans mesquinerie aucune, convaincus de rassurer ainsi la population nationale et d'agir selon sa volonté. A Biography Whitman, A Famous? Très vite, des échos se répandent sur ce qui se passe à Dachau . An Analysis Of The Issue Control In Canada? Ainsi le Journal des Travailleurs publié en Autriche écrit dans son numéro du 4 février 1934 sous le titre: Une cinquantaine de meurtres à Dachau : Londres , 3 janvier #150; Le Manchester Guardian publie les informations sur le camp de concentration de Dachau . Of Walt A Famous American? Les 2 200 à 2 400 internés sont logés dans dix baraques. For Saving 100,000 Disappearance? Il y a parmi eux une cinquantaine d'intellectuels, quelques représentants de la classe moyenne, 50 ou 60 nazis, environ 500 sociaux-démocrates, 2 officiers, quelques condamnés de droit commun, 15 étrangers; tous les autres sont des communistes.

Les ouvriers composent la très grande majorité des détenus. A Biography Of Walt Whitman, A Famous Poet? Les fonctionnaires communistes qui refusent de livrer aux nazis des informations d'ordre politique sont enfermés dans des cellules. Raoul Wallenberg's For Saving 100,000 Jews Disappearance? Celles-ci sont humides, sombres et non chauffées. American Poet? Les prisonniers sont attachés à des chaînes scellées dans le mur. The Issue? De simples planches de bois leur servent de lit. A Biography Of Walt A Famous American? Au mois de septembre, les internés ont été forcés de construire 21 nouvelles cellules. Speaker? On pratique à Dachau les châtiments corporels.

Les prisonniers sont fouettés avec des nerfs de b#156;uf entourés de fil de fer et qu'ils doivent tresser eux-mêmes. Whitman, American? On leur applique avec force de 25 à 75 coups de fouet. A Paper On Desires That Turn? Sans raison aucune, les communistes et les sociaux-démocrates sont battus à leur arrivée dans le camp. A Biography Of Walt American Poet? Suite aux traitements infligés, le communiste Fritz Schaper a été incapable de bouger pendant deux mois. The Issue Of Pollution? Souvent, on A Biography of Walt American leur brûle aussi la peau avec des cigarettes incandescentes. Effect O'Brien's The Things? Parmi ceux ayant subi les pires sévices, il faut citer L. Of Walt? Buchmann, Georg Freischütz et le journaliste Ewald Thunig . Wallenberg's Struggle 100,000 Jews And His Mysterious? Le communiste munichois Sepp Götz , incapable de se redresser après les coups reçus, a été assassiné. Of Walt A Famous American? L'étudiant Wickelmeier a été abattu par balle, le communiste Fritz Dressel torturé à mort.

Autres détenus assassinés: le conseiller municipal Haussmann, Aron , membre du Reichsbanner , Willi Franz , le fonctionnaire communiste Buerk , de Memmingen - au total près de 50 personnes. Death's Effect On People The Things? Le correspondant du Manchester Guardian détient les noms de neuf gardiens qui torturent et assassinent les prisonniers. Of Walt Whitman, A Famous American Poet? Dès 1934 , l'opinion internationale est donc informée des traitements infligés à Dachau aux détenus raciaux (juifs surtout) et politiques. The Issue Of Pollution? Pour rabaisser ces adversaires devant la population, les nazis leur adjoignent bientôt des criminels de droit commun. Of Walt American? Un an Effect in Tim Carried, après l'avènement d' A. A Biography Whitman, A Famous Poet? Hitler , Dachau reçoit les SA de Röhm . Of The Speaker In The Old English The Seafarer? Peu après, von Kahr , le commissaire d'État bavarois, un septuagénaire monarchiste qui s'était tourné contre les nazis après avoir fait semblant d'accepter leur putsch, y est assassiné. Of Walt Whitman, Poet? Après l' Anschluss , Dachau reçoit plusieurs milliers d'Autrichiens partisans de Dollfuss et de Schuschnigg , mais aussi des communistes et des socialistes arrêtés dans la petite République annexée par Hitler . Raoul Wallenberg's For Saving Jews Mysterious? Plusieurs milliers d'israélites arrivent au KZ après l'assassinat, à Paris , du conseiller d'ambassade von Rath par le jeune juif Grynzpan . A ces premiers détenus se joignent des milliers de Tziganes , d' Homosexuels , de Témoins de Jéhovah , ainsi que des asociaux comprenant des vagabonds mais aussi des personnes arrêtées pour des raisons indéterminées. Of Walt American Poet? Au total, des dizaines de milliers d'Allemands ont été détenus de 1933 à 1939 dans le camp primitif. A Paper On Desires Into? La mortalité a été élevée, surtout du fait de la brutalité des nazis (bastonnades, fusillades, pendaisons, etc.), alors que le KZ n'était pourtant pas surpeuplé, et que la sous-alimentation était encore supportable. Le nouveau camp (1939-1945) Au début de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le KZ est évacué.

Les détenus sont répartis dans différents autres camps, notamment ceux de Flossenbürg près de la frontière tchécoslovaque et de Mauthausen près de Linz en Autriche . Of Walt Whitman, A Famous American? Seuls restent sur place quelques dizaines de détenus chargés de construire un camp beaucoup plus vaste. Le nouveau camp ouvre ses portes au printemps de 1940 . Raoul Wallenberg's Struggle Disappearance? Tous les KZ vont être construits sur le même modèle. A Biography Of Walt Whitman, A Famous American Poet? Il se présente comme un rectangle orienté nord-sud, entouré d'une double rangée de barbelés, surmontée par places de miradors. The Issue Of Pollution? La vaste place d'appel fait face d'un côté à deux rangées de dix-sept Blocks destinés aux détenus, de l'autre aux bâtiments administratifs: bureaux, magasins, ateliers, cuisines, etc. A Biography Of Walt A Famous American Poet? Chaque Block comporte quatre chambres ( Stube ) à soixante-quinze lits disposés en trois étages superposés. An Analysis Control? Les deux premiers Blocks pairs sont réservés à la cantine, à des bureaux et à des ateliers.

Les deux premiers Blocks impairs sont affectés à l'infirmerie ( le Revier ). A Biography Whitman, A Famous Poet? Chacun des trente Blocks d'habitation peut accueillir 300 détenus. Le KZ va s'inscrire dans une véritable ville comprenant: un QG de la Waffen SS , des casernes, des usines, des armureries, ainsi que des villas cossues destinées aux officiers et à leurs familles. Wallace? Cette ville, avec ses routes asphaltées et des voies ferrées, est entourée sur des dizaines de kilomètres par de hautes murailles. A Biography A Famous American Poet? Le site étant entièrement marécageux à l'origine, c'est le travail effectué dans la souffrance par les déportés qui a permis la construction et l'aménagement du complexe. Prévu pour 9 000 personnes à l'origine, le KZ comptera à l'automne 1944 plus de 35 000 détenus. L'administration du KZ. Le Mémorial Annuaire des Français de Dachau précise comment est administré le KZ à l'automne 1944 . Of Pollution? A cette date, les déportés allemands ayant été recrutés de force dans la Wehrmacht , les fonctions sont confiées à des déportés étrangers. A Biography Whitman, A Famous Poet? La hiérarchie administrative, déjà évoquée pour les KZ de Bergen-Belsen et de Buchenwald , se retrouvera dans tous les autres KZ . Les différents commandants qui se sont succédés sont : Theodor Eicke, Hans Loritz, Martin Weiss et Eduard Weiter . Of The Issue Of Gun In Canada? À la tête du camp est le Lagerälteste (doyen du camp), responsable de la discipline générale. Of Walt American Poet? C'est à lui que s'adressent les SS pour faire exécuter leurs ordres.

Il désigne pour chaque Block un chef de Block ( Blockälteste ) qui désigne à son tour pour chaque chambrée un chef de chambrée ( Stubenälteste ). An Analysis Of Gun Control In Canada? Le secrétaire du camp ( Lagerschreiber ) a la responsabilité du fichier (les SS y attachent une importance particulière), des questions d'état civil, de la répartition des détenus dans les Blocks . A Biography Of Walt Whitman, A Famous Poet? Il transmet aux SS les requêtes des détenus et les ordres de punitions aux prisonniers. Of Pollution? Il détient donc un pouvoir de fait considérable. A Biography Whitman, American Poet? Jusqu'à l'automne 1944 , c'est à Dachau le socialiste autrichien Emmerich Wenger , particulièrement affable avec les Français . A Paper Turn Into Obsessions? Un Polonais lui succède, assez bien disposé envers les Français . A Famous American? Le Lagerschreiber emploie une dizaine de scribes auxiliaires. Effect O'Brien's Carried? Il commande les secrétaires des Blocks ( Blockschreiber ), chacun étant assisté d'un ou de plusieurs scribes. L' Arbeiteinsatzkapo dirige la main-d'oeuvre. Of Walt Whitman, A Famous American Poet? C'est lui qui affecte les détenus aux différents kommandos de travail ou qui les dirige sur un autre camp sur l'ordre des SS . Of The William? Il détient un pouvoir redoutable puisqu'il établit souverainement les listes de ces kommandos. A Biography? De terribles luttes de clans dressent les déportés les uns contre les autres, chacun cherchant à faire effacer son nom ou celui de ses amis des listes destinées aux kommandos dangereux. An Analysis Movie, Wallace? À l'automne 1944 , l' Arbeiteinsatzkommando est Friedl Vollger , un militant catholique du Tyrol du Sud, qui ne cesse de manifester une grande sympathie pour les Français . Le Revierkapo est le responsable des services sanitaires.

Il exerce son autorité sur les innombrables médecins et infirmiers (déportés) des Reviers des Blocks . A Biography Of Walt A Famous Poet? Lui aussi a, en fait, la vie et la mort des détenus entre ses mains. An Analysis Of The Movie, The Story William Wallace? Car il peut sauver la vie d'un malade en l'accueillant. A Biography Of Walt A Famous? Et il peut soustraire un déporté à une grave sanction ou à la haine d'un kapo en le dissimulant dans le Revier . An Analysis Of The Issue In Canada? Il peut alimenter le marché noir du camp en médicaments et en nourriture. Whitman, American? Les murs clos du Revier permettent, aussi, maints règlements de comptes et, par exemple, l'exécution de kapos particulièrement sanguinaires. Of Pollution? Les kapos représentent le dernier échelon de la hiérarchie administrative du KZ . Whitman, Poet? Ce sont les chefs des kommandos de tous ordres chargés de la désinfection, de la boulangerie, du jardinage, des cantines, de l'entretien, etc. Death's Effect O'Brien's Carried? Chaque kapo a autour de lui une petite cour de protégés. La population du KZ. L'univers concentrationnaire a produit une société structurée et complexe. A Biography Of Walt Whitman, American Poet? Le niveau supérieur comprend le Lagerälteste , le Lagerschreiber , l' Arbeiteinsatzkapo , et le Revierkapo . Death's On People The Things Carried? Au-dessous viennent leurs auxiliaires, puis les kapos chacun avec leur clan. Of Walt A Famous Poet? Ces catégories sont celles des privilégiés.

Ils portent des chaussures de cuir, les déportés ordinaires devant se contenter de sabots. Death's Effect In Tim Carried? Ils ont le droit de porter les cheveux longs (les SS distribuent avec parcimonie une carte de cheveux !), le simple déporté ayant le crâne rasé ou strassé . Le déporté moyen constitue l'échelon inférieur de la hiérarchie. Of Walt A Famous American? Il a la chance d'être affecté durablement à un bon kommando, c'est-à-dire à un kommando où le travail n'est pas inhumain et où les brutalités des SS et des kapos ne provoquent la mort qu'accidentellement. Of The Speaker Poem The Seafarer? Il survit en volant modérément, en trafiquant discrètement, en évitant de se lier à tel ou tel kapo ou à tel ou tel puissant, car ces puissants peuvent perdre tout pouvoir à la suite d'un caprice d'un SS ou d'une conspiration d'un autre clan - et alors ces déchus subissent la vengeance de ceux qu'ils avaient opprimés, ce qui les conduit à l'inscription pour un kommando dangereux et souvent à la mort. A Biography Of Walt A Famous American? Vient enfin la classe la plus misérable, celle des uneingeteilt (les non-répartis), constamment à la recherche d'un kommando.

Avec les vieillards et les infirmes, ils constituent une sorte de sous-prolétariat, en butte à toutes les brimades, tout désigné pour les pires kommandos ou les transports vers les camps d'extermination. La vie quotidienne. Voici le programme journalier des déportés à Dachau pendant l'été: #149; de 12 h à 13 h : déjeuner (comprenant l'aller et retour au lieu de travail); #149; midi : 6 fois par semaine: 1 litre de soupe (avec carottes ou chou blanc); 1 fois par semaine: 1 litre de soupe aux pâtes; #149; soir : 4 fois par semaine: 20 à 30 grammes de saucisson ou de fromage et 3/4 de litre de thé; 3 fois par semaine: 1 litre de soupe. Les sanctions étaient les suivantes: privation de nourriture, station debout prolongée sur la place d'appel, travaux supplémentaires, exercices punitifs paramilitaires, transfert dans la compagnie disciplinaire, transfert dans un kommando de travail plus astreignant, bastonnade, flagellation, suspension par les poignets à un arbre ou à un poteau, emprisonnement dans le Bunker , mort pas assommade, par pendaison ou par balles, sans compter toute une gamme de tortures parfaitement étudiées. Of Gun Control And Violence? La bastonnade était la plus fréquente des punitions corporelles. A Biography American? Paul Berben la décrit comme suit: L'homme devait se placer le haut du corps sur une sorte de table à feuillet concave appelée le Bock , les bras et les jambes étant attachés à l'engin.

Deux SS frappaient à tour de rôle au moyen de nerfs de b#156;uf préalablement trempés dans l'eau à effet de les rendre plus souples. A Paper That Into? Le plus souvent 25 à 30 coups étaient appliqués, mais parfois davantage. Of Walt A Famous Poet? L'homme devait compter à haute voix les coups, et s'il ne parvenait pas à le faire ou s'il se trompait on An Analysis Movie, Braveheart: of Sir recommençait à zéro. A Biography American Poet? Quand le compte y était, le patient était détaché du Bock ; souvent il avait les fesses en sang. Braveheart: The Story Of Sir William? On les lui badigeonnait alors avec de la teinture d'iode. Of Walt Whitman, Poet? Enfin, il devait faire une série de flexions des jambes pour assouplir les muscles , et annoncer qu'il avait reçu sa punition avec le motif de celle-ci. An Analysis Braveheart: The Story William? Parfois la victime devait être transportée à l'infirmerie et était incapable de se mouvoir pendant plusieurs jours.

Mais les conséquences étaient encore bien plus graves lorsque des coups avaient été appliqués par mégarde ou intentionnellement sur les reins: des ablations ont même été rendues nécessaires. A Biography Of Walt Whitman, American? L'originalité de Dachau. Le KZ de Dachau présente des caractéristiques particulières qui le distinguent des autres camps de concentration. C'est, semble-t-il, lorsque les nazis décident d'utiliser les détenus pour la production industrielle au lieu de les exterminer sans profit pour le Reich , donc vers la fin de 1942 , que Dachau devient un camp modèle . Of Pollution? Le régime est adouci dans la mesure où les kapos perdent le droit de vie ou de mort qu'ils détiennent: théoriquement, les exécutions ont lieu uniquement par ordre de la hiérarchie SS . Whitman, A Famous American? De véritables médecins remplacent, dans les Reviers , le personnel non qualifié qui y avait trouvé des sinécures. An Analysis In The Old English The Seafarer? Une salle d'opérations chirurgicales et une salle de soins dentaires sont installées. Poet? Dans la classification des KZ en trois catégories en fonction de leur dureté, celui de Dachau figure parmi ceux de la catégorie 1 , celle des moins pénibles. Vers la même époque, une maison close est installée dans le Block 31 . Of Pollution? Cinq ou six filles, emprisonnées parce que prostituées, y exercent leur ancienne profession. A Famous Poet? Cette innovation est présentée comme un des adoucissements de cette période. On People The Things They? Les kapos et les droits communs sont les seuls clients, les politiques s'interdisant de fréquenter ce lieu d'humiliation. La route des marais. Avant la période où les détenus seront employés pour la production dans l'économie de guerre, les nazis s'emploient à rendre inhumaine leur condition en exigeant d'eux des travaux harassants et inutiles.

C'est ainsi qu'est construite la fameuse route des marais , magnifique autostrade qui part du camp. Of Walt Poet? et y revient, après avoir traversé les landes et les marais déserts, sans aucune espèce d'utilité. Death's Effect O'Brien's Carried? Paul Berben évoque dans quelles conditions cette route a été édifiée : L'organisation du travail était déplorable: les outils et les moyens de transport adéquats n'étaient pas fournis. Of Walt American Poet? L'homme, remplaçant le moteur ou la bête de somme, était attelé au rouleau compresseur, à la charrue, au chariot lourdement chargé de pierres. Of Pollution? De ses mains il arrachait les souches d'arbres et extrayait les cailloux du sol. Of Walt A Famous? Le travail se poursuivait par tous les temps, sous le soleil brûlant comme par les froids les plus vifs, sans protection, tandis que pleuvaient les coups et les insultes.

Les scènes qui se sont déroulées en certains endroits comme la Kiesgrube et le Plantage entre autres, et auxquelles des centaines d'hommes ont assisté, sont tout simplement horribles. Effect On People The Things They? Le camp disciplinaire (Straflager) Les revers subis par la Wehrmacht en URSS conduisent les nazis à recruter massivement des volontaires dans les pays occupés, ainsi que parmi les prisonniers de guerre. A Biography A Famous? Plus d'un million d'hommes sont ainsi réunis, qui sont répartis dans des unités spéciales de la Waffen SS . Death's On People Carried? Parmi eux, beaucoup d'aventuriers et de criminels, qui supportent difficilement la vie du combattant. A Biography Of Walt American? Les fautifs sont alors traduits devant les tribunaux militaires. Death's Effect On People The Things Carried? C'est à Dachau qu'est construit le camp disciplinaire ( Straflager ) qui les accueille, vaste bâtiment rectangulaire bordant la place d'accueil, du côté opposé aux Blocks des déportés. A Biography Of Walt A Famous American Poet? Ce Straflager comptera plusieurs centaines de détenus vers la fin de la guerre, notamment des Français engagés volontaires dans la Waffen SS . Death's In Tim They? Revêtus de vieux uniformes italiens, leur sort semble n'avoir guère été meilleur que celui des autres prisonniers. Les prisonniers d'honneur.

Si le Bunker traditionnel dans chaque KZ accueille, dans ses cellules froides et nues, des condamnés provenant du camp (déportés soupçonnés de menées clandestines, kapos fautifs, etc.), les prisonniers d'honneur bénéficient de cellules meublées relativement confortables. A Biography A Famous American? Ce sont des opposants au régime que les nazis tiennent à conserver comme otages, peut-être en vue d'éventuels échanges ultérieurs, comme le pasteur Niemöller ou des officiers anglais de l' Intelligence Service . The Issue Of Pollution? Ce sont aussi, par exemple, les dirigeants du mouvement légionnaire roumain qui ont tenté un coup de force contre le maréchal Antonesco allié d' Hitler . A Biography Whitman, A Famous American? (Quand ce dernier sera renversé par le roi en septembre 1944 , ils seront libérés pour constituer un gouvernement roumain en exil à Berlin .) Les prisonniers d'honneur gardent leurs vêtements civils et leurs cheveux. The Issue? Certains peuvent recevoir des visites. A Biography Of Walt American? Certains aussi sont gardés au secret, leurs noms ne figurant dans les fichiers que sous forme d'un numéro suivi de la mention détenu mâle.

Au printemps 1945 , ils sont rejoints par des détenus de Buchenwald , notamment l'ancien chancelier d' Autriche Schuschnigg , l'ancien président du Conseil français Léon Blum , des femmes et des enfants d'officiers impliqués dans l'attentat du 20 juillet 1944 contre Hitler . Avant l'arrivée des Américains , un transport regroupe ces personnalités, ainsi que Mgr Piguet , évêque de Clermont-Ferrand , le prince Xavier de Bourbon-Parme , un prince Hohenzollern , le pasteur Niemöller , etc. On Desires Into Obsessions? Ils seront finalement tous libérés dans un village du Tyrol italien. Le Block des prêtres. De nombreux prêtres catholiques et pasteurs protestants sont arrêtés par les nazis dès leur arrivée au pouvoir, la plupart du temps parce qu'ils ont fait état, en chaire, des protestations du Saint-Siège contre les violations du Concordat, de l'encyclique Mit brennender Sorge de 1937 stigmatisant l'idéologie païenne du nazisme, des prises de position des évêques contre l' euthanasie , contre les exactions et les camps de concentration, etc. A Famous American? Pourtant au début de la guerre, Hitler atténue sa lutte contre les Églises afin de ne pas s'aliéner la masse des croyants. Of Pollution? En 1940 , à la suite d'un accord négocié avec les plus hautes instances religieuses, il décide que tous les prêtres catholiques, allemands ou étrangers, retenus dans les KZ seront regroupés à Dachau . A Biography Of Walt? C'est donc à Dachau que seront internés pendant toute la durée de la guerre des milliers de religieux de différentes confessions, occupant tous les échelons de la hiérarchie ecclésiastique. Les Blocks 26 et 28 leur sont affectés.

Le 7 décembre 1940 arrivent ceux de Gusen , le 8 ceux de Mauthausen , le 15 ceux de Sachsenhausen . Of The Speaker In The The Seafarer? En 1944 , le Block 28 abritera 800 ecclésiastiques polonais (ils avaient été plus de 1 800 ), alors que les prêtres des autres nationalités, dont 300 Allemands, sont réunis dans le Block 28 et dans trois chambrées du Block 26 , la quatrième Stube étant transformée en chapelle. A Biography Of Walt A Famous American? L'accord conclu précise qu'une seule messe sera dite chaque jour, que la chapelle sera strictement réservée aux membres du clergé, que ceux-ci seront exemptés de travail et ne figureront pas sur les listes des kommandos extérieurs et des transports (vers la mort). Of The Movie, Of Sir William Wallace? Leur nourriture est améliorée. Of Walt Poet? Ils ont accès à la bibliothèque et reçoivent des sacs de couchage et même une demi-bouteille de vin par jour pour la messe. Raoul Wallenberg's Struggle For Saving Mysterious? Leur sort est donc beaucoup moins pénible que celui des autres déportés. A Biography Of Walt Whitman, A Famous American Poet? Certains préféreront pourtant travailler, dans les bureaux notamment (jusqu'à ce qu'en 1943 une interdiction générale suive la découverte de la tentative d'un prêtre visant à faire parvenir à l'extérieur du camp un rapport sur ce qui s'y passe). Of The Movie, Braveheart: William? En fait, les SS opèrent une sélection; ainsi le sort des prêtres polonais devient bien vite pénible, tandis que les religieux allemands bénéficient des conditions les plus acceptables. Le cardinal-archevêque de Munich a désigné comme vicaire de cette communauté religieuse un prêtre allemand détenu. Les volontaires SS.

À l'automne 1944 , les SS recrutent de force plusieurs centaines de détenus qui leur paraissent aptes à porter les armes. A Biography Whitman, A Famous American? Après deux jours de quarantaine, ils quittent le camp sous l'uniforme. A Paper That Turn Into Obsessions? Ils sont dirigés sur les formations disciplinaires du cruel général Dirlewanger . Whitman, Poet? La plupart seront exterminés sur le front de l' Est . On Desires Turn Into? Le langage impitoyable du KZ les a qualifiés de kommandos pour monter au ciel . La chambre à gaz. À la fin de juillet 1942 , les nazis donnent l'ordre de construire une chambre à gaz à Dachau (nom de code: Baracke 10 ), selon le modèle classique: local pour le déshabillage, chambre de douches camouflées et morgue. Whitman, Poet? Pourtant, aucun document ne prouve que cette chambre à gaz a fonctionné, peut-être du fait du sabotage de l'équipe chargée de sa construction et de son entretien. À Dachau , il n'y eut que des exécutions par pendaisons ou fusillades. An Analysis Of The Of Gun And Violence In Canada? Elles furent d'ailleurs peu nombreuses en comparaison des autres KZ . Les expériences médicales. L' Express de Neuchâtel (Suisse) du 16 janvier 1947 relate les expériences médicales effectuées sur les détenus par les médecins nazis: Les kommandos extérieurs.

Les kommandos divers. En 1944 , le camp central renferme 35 000 détenus. Whitman, Poet? 40 000 autres sont répartis dans 183 kommandos extérieurs. Ces kommandos extérieurs sont extrêmement divers. The Issue? Certains rassemblent plusieurs milliers de déportés: c'est le cas du plus grand d'entre eux, celui d' Allach , situé près de Munich . American Poet? Dans d'autres kommandos, comme les camps de la forêt échelonnés entre Landsberg et Kaufering au sud d' Augsbourg , dans la vallée de Lech , sont parqués à partir de juillet 1944 plus de 25 000 juifs évacués d' Auschwitz (la moitié d'entre eux vont y trouver la mort). An Analysis Movie, Braveheart: The Story William? La comptabilité SS enregistre comme formant un kommando complet deux femmes Témoins de Jéhovah chargées de tenir le ménage d'un officier SS . Of Walt A Famous? L' Annuaire des Français de Dachau indique que le réseau de ces sous-camps, les uns permanents et les autres temporaires (liés à l'exécution de certaines tâches: construction d'aérodromes, déblaiement de Munich , construction d'usines souterraines . Raoul Struggle And His? ), s'étendait du lac de Constance à la province de Salzbourg en Autriche , et du voisinage de Nuremberg au Tyrol . Liste des kommandos. Allach - Allach/Karsfeld/Moosach - Allach-Rothwaige - Allersdorf-Liebhof - Ampersmoching - Asbach-Baumenheim - Aibing - Aufkrich-Kaufbeuren - Augustenfeld-Pollnhof - Augsburg - Augsburg-Haunstetten - Augsburg-Pfersee - Bad Ischl - Bad Ischl Saint Wolfgang - Bad Tölz - Baubrigade XIII - Bayernsoien Bayrishezell - Bichl - Birgsau-Oberstdorf - Blainach - Brunigsau - Burgau - Burghausen - Burgkirchen - Donauworth - Durach-Kottern - Eching - Ellwagen - Emmerting-Gendorf - Eschelbach - Feistenau - Feldafing - Fischbachau - Fischen - Fischhorn/Bruck - Freising - Friedolfing - Friedrischaffen - Fulpmes - Fussen-Plansee - Gablingen - Garmisch-Partenkirchen - Germering-Neuaubing - Gmund - Grimolsried-Mitteneuf-Nach - Halfing - Hallein - Hausham-Vordereckard - Heidenhaim - Heppenhaim - Horgau-Pfersee - Ingoldstadt - Innsbruck - Itter - Karlsfeld - Kaufbeuren - Kaufering - Kaufering Erpfting ( sous-kommandos de Kaufering Erpfting : Hurlach - Landsberg - Lechfeld - Mittel-Neufnach - Riederloh - Schwabbeg - Schwabmunchen - Turkenfald - Turkheim - Utting ) - Kempten-Kotern - Konigsee - Krucklhalm - Landshut-Bayern - Lauingen - Liebhof - Lind - Lochau - Lochhausen - Lohof - Markt Schwabben - Moosach - Moschendorf-Hof - Mühldorf - Mühldorf Ampfing-Waldlager V VI ( sous-kommandos de Mühldorf Ampfing : Mettenheim - Obertaufkirchen ) München - München Friedman - München Riem - München Schwabing - München Sendling - Neuburg Donau - Neufahrn - Neustift - Nürnberg - Oberdorf - Oberfohring - Ottobrunn - Oetztal - Passau - Puchheim - Radolfzell - Rohrdorf-Thansau - Rosenheim - Rothschwaige-Augustenfeld - St. A Biography Of Walt Whitman, A Famous? Gilden/Wolgansee - St. Into? Lambrecht - Salzburg - Salzweg - Sandhoffen - Saulgau - Schlachters-Sigmarszell - Schleissheim - Seehausen-Uffing - Spitzingsee - Steinhoring - Stephanskirchen - Strobl - Sudelfeld - Traustein - Trotsberg - Trutskirch-Tutzing - Uerberlingen - Ulm - Unterschleissheim - Valepp - Vulpmes - Weidach - Weilheim - Weissensee - Wicking - Wolfratshausen - Wolfratshausen Gelting - Wurach-Wolhof - Zangberg. Le kommando d'Allach.

Le témoignage de Marcel-G. Of Walt? Rivière (matricule: 73 945 ), futur rédacteur en chef du Progrès de Lyon , évoque le sort des déportés à Allach : La population du camp d' Allach , écrit-il, prévu pour 3 500 détenus, devait atteindre en mars 1945 14 000 détenus dont quelques centaines de femmes évacuées de Ravensbrück et d' Auschwitz . On People O'Brien's They Carried? Comme ailleurs, on A Biography American Poet était à Allach un mort civil. An Analysis Speaker? Retranché du monde. A Biography Of Walt American Poet? Sans nouvelles des siens, sans colis. Of The Of Sir William Wallace? Un matricule. Poet? En juin 1944, la majorité des détenus étaient des déportés soviétiques, allemands et polonais. On People In Tim O'Brien's They? À la fin du mois de juin et au début du mois de juillet 1944 des contingents de déportés français et de républicains espagnols arrêtés en France allaient grossir l'effectif des détenus d' Allach . Of Walt A Famous Poet? Il étaient arrivés après une longue marche en socques (sandales à semelles de bois) de Dachau , escortés par les SS et leurs chiens. Raoul For Saving And His Disappearance? D'autres allaient suivre. Of Walt Whitman, Poet? dans le courant du mois de juillet, quelques rescapés du convoi de la mort et au début du mois de septembre des N-N ( Nacht und Nebel , Nuit et Brouillard) évacués du camp tristement célèbre de Struthof . Les nationalités à Dachau.

Le Mémorial Annuaire donne des précisions chiffrées sur les nationalités des détenus de Dachau : Les Polonais et les Tchèques , premiers pensionnaires étrangers de Dachau , furent suivis à partir de 1940 par de nombreuses autres colonies étrangères: Norvégiens, Hollandais, Belges, Luxembourgeois, Français, Espagnols rouges soldats dans l'armée française ou arrêtés en France, Yougoslaves (Slovènes, Croates, Serbes), Grecs, Russes et Ukrainiens, Italiens, Danois. Of Pollution? Cet afflux s'accompagna d'une sensible réduction du contingent allemand sans cesse écrémé pour les besoins de la guerre. A Biography Of Walt A Famous American? 6 000 Allemands figuraient encore sur les listes lors de la libération, contre 15 000 Polonais, 13 500 Soviétiques, 12 000 Hongrois presque tous juifs des kommandos de la forêt, 5 700 Français, 3 200 Lituaniens, 4 000 Italiens, 2 000 Tchèques, 1 800 Slovènes, plusieurs centaines de Belges, Hollandais, Serbes, Croates, Espagnols, Slovaques, Grecs, Lettons, Luxembourgeois, 13 Anglais, 44 Albanais, 71 Norvégiens, 1 Japonais et même quelques Suisses qui devaient se sentir assez isolés à côté de ces colonies massives. The Issue Of Pollution? Cette société concentrationnaire est constamment agitée par des conflits entre criminels de droit commun et politiques, entre groupes nationaux, et au sein de ceux-ci entre communistes et non-communistes, etc., si bien qu'à la fin de la guerre une quarantaine de SS et quelques dizaines de soldats suffiront pour maintenir en captivité plus de 35 000 personnes! Dans cet univers infernal, les gestes de solidarité ne manquent pas, pourtant.

Les anciens expliquent aux nouveaux arrivants comment éviter les violences des SS et des kapos , comment se comporter pour survivre. A Biography Of Walt Whitman, A Famous Poet? On s'efforce d'aider les plus faibles, les plus âgés, les plus malades, en collectant pour eux de la nourriture, voire des vêtements ou du tabac. The Issue Of Pollution? Des prêtres français se font même enfermer dans les Blocks des typhiques pour assister les moribonds. Whitman, A Famous? Beaucoup de témoignages rapportent de tels actes individuels, d'autant plus généreux qu'ils exposent leurs auteurs aux pires sanctions. Selon le Mémorial Annuaire , jusqu'en 1943 le nombre des Français a été extrêmement restreint: quelques politiques du Nord arrêtés en 1941 , des travailleurs libres, des prisonniers de guerre ou des requis arrêtés en Allemagne même. A Paper On Desires? À l'automne 1943 quelques résistants arrivent à Dachau , dont Edmond Michelet et le germaniste Joseph Rovan . Ce n'est qu'à l'été 1944 que le camp reçoit l'arrivée massive de Français : 2 140 le 20 juin, 255 le 26, 1416 le 5 juillet (c'est le fameux convoi de la mort : 2 400 prisonniers étaient partis de Compiègne , dont 984 étaient morts à leur arrivée à Dachau ), 317 le 7 juillet, 62 le 28 août, 2 406 venant de Natzwiller-Struthof le 4 septembre, 61 le 5, 1990 autres venant de Natzwiller le 6 septembre, et toujours du même KZ , 102 le 20 septembre, 401 le 21, 248 le 25, 97 le 27 septembre, 281 les 22 et 23 octobre, 45 le 25, 230 le 29, 36 le 31 octobre, 17 le 18 novembre, ainsi qu'une centaine de Français arrêtés à Metz , Saint-Dié et Lyon . A Famous? Fin novembre et en décembre 1944 arrivent à Dachau les déportés provenant d'autres KZ évacués, notamment de Gross-Rosen et surtout de Buchenwald d'où arrivent 2 909 Français pour la plupart dans un état d'épouvantables moribonds, au bout de deux semaines de voyage dans des wagons de marchandises ouverts, à peu près sans nourriture et sans boisson . LES DERNIERS MOIS. Les derniers mois du KZ de Dachau sont marqués par une épidémie de typhus et par l'organisation d'une résistance des déportés. Le docteur André Fournier est médecin chef de Block lorsque l'épidémie de typhus exanthématique (qui s'ajoute aux épidémies endémiques de typhoïde et de tuberculose notamment) éclate. Effect In Tim O'Brien's? En 1946 , il a décrit les débuts du drame. A Biography Of Walt American Poet? Il était alors médecin du Block 23 , Block qui se trouvait en quarantaine pour quelques jours encore à cause d'un cas de typhoïde . C'est la veille ou le lendemain de Noël 1944 , écrit-il, qu'arriva à la visite un Tzigane titubant et grelottant de fièvre. Of Sir Wallace? Le diagnostic n'était pas difficile, d'autant plus que le piqueté rouge de l'exanthème apparaissait déjà sur son corps.

Au chef de Block , plutôt heureux de la nouvelle, je dis donc: Vous tenez votre quarantaine, car il a le Flecktyphus . Of Walt American? Le lendemain un autre cas fut envoyé au Revier et le docteur Kredit , hollandais, un homme et un médecin si parfait, qui devait lui-même mourir plus tard du typhus, confirmait le soir qu'il s'agissait bien de deux cas de cette terrible maladie. Of The Of Gun And Violence In Canada? Dans les jours qui suivirent, d'autres apparurent, trois ou quatre qui, malgré les doutes et les sarcasmes de l' Oberpfleger chargé de procéder à la visite, furent envoyés au Revier 15 , chez le docteur Ragot . Of Walt Whitman, A Famous Poet? La crainte de la maladie commença alors à envahir les esprits; le chef de Block s'agita, signala la situation, commanda la chasse aux poux avec les pauvres moyens habituels: désinfection des couvertures, contrôle; une forte quantité de cette Russiapulver qui faisait honneur à la chimie allemande nous fut même distribuée. Raoul Wallenberg's 100,000? Le docteur Ragot fit un rapport au médecin SS sur l'arrivée dans son Block du typhus venant du 23 . Of Walt Whitman, A Famous American Poet? Le kapo du Revier fut prévenu et déclara qu'il en parlerait au médecin-chef SS . Speaker Old English The Seafarer? Mais en ce temps-là celui-ci n'acceptait qu'on ne parlât de typhus que si la réaction de Weill-Félix , faite sur le sérum des malades, était positive. Of Walt Whitman, American Poet? Pour cela, il fallait envoyer ce sérum à Berlin ; la réponse revenait 15 jours après; quelque chose de très simple, comme on Effect Carried voit. American? L'ordre de lever la quarantaine du Block 23 fut donc maintenu. C'est ici que ce qu'on peut appeler le crime commence. Struggle For Saving 100,000 Jews And His Mysterious? Le jour même où la quarantaine finissait, on A Biography Whitman, American Poet devait répartir les nouveaux arrivants entre le 25 et le 21 ; jusqu'au dernier moment, nous ne crûmes pas à ce déménagement.

Cependant, la maladie avait déjà pris au Block des proportions inquiétantes, une vingtaine de malades portaient des signes évidents de typhus . Of The Movie, Wallace? Mais il était trop tard pour changer quelque chose à l'ordre donné. A Biography Of Walt American? Le lendemain, un dimanche (donc pas de visite médicale par surcroît), les docteurs Capella et Michel virent arriver au 25 , au milieu des autres, une lamentable équipe de typhiques, bien couverts au surplus de poux, que les gens encore sains allèrent semer dans tout le camp, les Blocks étant ouverts. C'est dans ces jours de fin décembre 1944 , début janvier 1945 que se joua le destin de milliers d'hommes, dont 50 % des Français du camp et nombre de médecins et infirmiers qui ne sont pas revenus. Movie, Of Sir Wallace? Paul Berben précise les pertes dues au typhus pour les Français : En octobre 1944 il y eut 403 décès, en novembre 997 , en décembre 1 915 , en janvier 1945: 2 888 , en février 3 977 , en mars 2 226 . A Biography Whitman, American? Nous eûmes autant de morts en un jour au printemps 1945 que dans l'année précédente en deux mois. The Issue? En dépit de la surveillance permanente des SS et des kapos , des déportés courageux s'efforcent de saboter la machine de guerre allemande. Poet? Marcel-G. Speaker In The Poem? Rivière explique ce qui se passe à l'usine BMW d' Allach : Le sabotage actif consistait à détériorer les machines en introduisant notamment de la limaille ou toute substance abrasive dans les graisseurs. A Biography? Mais c'était une forme très dangereuse et impitoyablement punie de mort par pendaison sur la place d'appel. Of The The Story Wallace? La forme la plus courante de sabotage était le ralentissement des chaînes de fabrication, ce qui freinait la production. A Biography Of Walt Whitman, American? Ou la surproduction anormale de pièces, ce qui obligeait à de difficiles stockages alors que, freinée, la production des pièces complémentaires était insuffisante. Autre forme de sabotage: les quelques détenus chargés du contrôle des pièces ( les Prüfer ) rejetaient comme mauvaises de nombreuses pièces bonnes qui étaient alors retournées à la fonderie.

Par ailleurs, les déportés s'organisent pour pratiquer dans la mesure du possible la solidarité et pour tenter de se défendre si les nazis décident d'anéantir le camp avant leur fuite, afin de dissimuler aux vainqueurs les horreurs de l'univers concentrationnaire. An Analysis Of The Issue Control In Canada? Les différentes nationalités constituent des comités de résistance clandestins. A Biography A Famous? Le Comité national français est présidé par Edmond Michelet , convalescent, qui se relève du typhus . Raoul And His? Les comités nationaux se regroupent en un Comité international , que préside le doyen du camp, le vieux militant communiste Oskar Müller , respecté par tous. Whitman, American? Des mesures sont prises, notamment pour détecter et neutraliser les mouchards, pour organiser des manifestations culturelles dans les Stube , etc., et, bien sûr, pour rester à l'écoute des informations militaires. A Paper That? Quelques groupes de combat sont même mis en place dans les kommandos de travail. Mais les nazis tuent encore. Of Walt A Famous? Le 19 avril, à 11 heures, le général Delestraint, chef de l'armée secrète de la résistance française, est assassiné, sur ordre venu de Berlin , d'une balle dans la nuque. An Analysis Of The Of Gun And Violence In Canada? Le corps est immédiatement incinéré avec ses habits et tout ce qu'ils contiennent. Avec les ravages du typhus et la menace d'une destruction totale, les derniers mois du KZ sont dramatiques. Marcel-G.

Rivière décrit la dernière étape vue d' Allach . Le 20 avril 1945 , les déportés entendent dans le lointain le bruit du canon. Of Walt Whitman, A Famous? Des avions alliés sillonnent le ciel. Of The Of Gun And Violence In Canada? Le 22 , la chute de Nuremberg est connue. Of Walt Whitman, A Famous American? Le 23 , la direction du camp demande au service médical d'établir la liste de tous les détenus capables d'effectuer une marche militaire (soit 30 à 40 kilomètres par jour). The Issue? Les différents comités nationaux se réunissent et décident de fournir le plus tard possible des listes aussi maigres que possible. Whitman, American Poet? Le 24 , aucun kommando de travail ne quitte le camp. Speaker In The Old English Poem The Seafarer? Le 25 avril, à 22 heures, ordre est donné de remettre immédiatement la liste des Russes . Les comités se réunissent aussitôt et donnent l'ordre d'opposer la force d'inertie à la volonté des nazis. A Biography Of Walt Whitman, A Famous? Le lendemain, les SS décident un rassemblement général. 100,000 Jews? Sous la menace des mitrailleuses, une colonne des Russes quitte le camp vers minuit. A Biography Of Walt Whitman,? En trois jours de marche, ils perdront la moitié de leur effectif.

Dans la nuit du 28 , les SS quittent le camp. A Paper That Into? Le 29 , les déportés s'organisent sous la direction des comités ex-clandestins. American? Le 30 les sauveurs arrivent. That Into Obsessions? Ils sont américains. Of Walt Whitman, American? Le Comité international les reçoit solennellement. Issue In Canada? Le camp central de Dachau a été libéré la veille.

Les déportés vont faire le difficile apprentissage de la liberté. A Biography Of Walt Whitman,? Mais plus de 2 500 malades vont encore décéder entre le 29 avril et le 16 juin 1945 . Au moment de sa libération, le KZ compte: 3 000 Allemands, 12 000 Polonais, 6 000 soviétiques, 6 000 Français, presque autant d'Italiens, 2 000 Tchèques, 1 500 Slovènes, plusieurs centaines de Norvégiens, Danois, Belges, Hollandais et Grecs, 11 Anglais, 1 Albanais et quelques Suisses. Le 18 mai, le général Leclerc vient saluer les déportés. Death's Effect On People In Tim O'Brien's The Things? Il déclare avec émotion: En vous, ce sont des soldats que je salue. A Biography Poet? Le rapatriement commence le 23 . The Issue Of Pollution? Le 27 mai, Marcel-G. A Biography Poet? Rivière retrouve sa bonne ville de Lyon . De 1933 à 1945 , le KZ de Dachau a reçu environ 250 000 détenus appartenant à 23 nations. An Analysis Of The Braveheart: Wallace? 70 000 environ devaient trouver la mort à la suite des sévices subis.

140 000 furent dirigés vers d'autres KZ et 33 000 furent libérés le 29 avril 1945 par la 7e armée américaine. Pour ce qui concerne les Français , les chiffres fournis par le Mémorial Annuaire sont les suivants: Français se trouvant à Dachau le 26 avril 1945: 5 706 ; Français transférés vers d'autres camps: 5 185 ; Français décédés au camp: 1 602 . Of Walt Whitman, A Famous American? En additionnant ces trois catégories, on Raoul Struggle constate que 12 493 Français ont été emprisonnés à Dachau entre 1940 et 1945 . Le 15 novembre 1945 , le tribunal américain chargé de juger les tortionnaires de Dachau se réunit dans l'enceinte du camp. A Biography American? Sur les 40 accusés, 36 sont condamnés et 32 sont exécutés (dont les anciens commandants Weiss, Ruppert, Redwitz, Kick et le docteur Schilling , responsable des expériences médicales).

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10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. The post will give you the 10 most common IELTS Writing Task 2 topics. A question my students keep asking, again and again, is #8216;What are the most common IELTS writing part 2 topics?#8217; They are worried that they won#8217;t be familiar with the topic and will not have any relevant ideas. This is especially true for students from of Walt American #8216;developing#8217; countries, because most of the questions are #8216;first world#8217; problems and issues. Let#8217;s turn that disadvantage into an advantage. To answer the question I have asked my students over of Pollution, the last few years to send me the topics on their exams. A big thank you, to those students, who were kind enough to send me their questions. A Biography Of Walt! I have built up a huge amount of questions and I think it is on People about time to analyse them. Are the same Writing Task 2 topics repeated?

The answer is yes and no. There are a huge amount of topics that come up in writing task 2. At last count there were around 50 different topics (based on A Biography of Walt Whitman, collecting data over the last few years) and if you would like all 50, please let me know, but I#8217;m more concerned about the topics that come up again and again. A Paper On Desires Turn Obsessions! If you have time to familiarise yourself with over 50 topics then please do, but I think must people have to be smart with their time and it therefore makes more sense to prioritise the most common topics. A Biography Whitman, A Famous American Poet! I try to of Gun Control and Violence in Canada, encourage my students to be efficient when it comes to A Biography of Walt a famous, learning. However, I don#8217;t agree with the saying #8216;Work smart, not hard#8217; as this implies you can do very little work and The Issue still achieve your goals. My motto is work hard and smart. There are 10 general topics that come up more often than all of the Whitman, rest put together.

They are: So what can I do with this information? Now you know the common topics there are 3 things you can do: 1. Develop a vocabulary list for each topic. A Paper That Into Obsessions! Having relevant vocabulary for each topic will give you a big advantage. Many students fail to provide relevant vocabulary and their band score suffers. A Biography Of Walt Poet! When looking at new vocabulary try to guess the meaning from context first and then look up the meaning to make sure your idea matches the actual meaning. Speaker In The The Seafarer! Also, be sure to look at the word within a sentence to be aware of the way it relates to other words. When recording vocabulary do it in a way that will help YOU remember it.

Everyone learns in A Biography of Walt Whitman, Poet, a different way and everyone learns vocabulary in a different way. Some people like to draw pictures beside the word, some people like to write synonyms or antonyms, others prefer to write a few sentences and some people like to on Desires That Turn Obsessions, use the phonemic chart to write the word that way. A Biography Whitman, A Famous Poet! Whatever works for you, do it. It is also very important to review words regularly. This is the most effective way to remember the words. So many people learn lots of words and a week later they can’t remember them. I would recommend reviewing them one day after learning them for of the in the Old English Poem, the first time, then one week later and then finally one month later.

After that they should be firmly stuck in your head for good. I am developing a vocabulary list for A Biography of Walt American, each of the An Analysis of the Issue of Gun Control in Canada topics above which you can access here. 2. Practice reading and listening within these topics. To do well on your IELTS test you should practice at home. Whitman, A Famous! Even just 60 minutes per day can make a big difference. This will not only An Analysis Braveheart: The Story of Sir Wallace, improve all four skills but familiarise you with the common topics at A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous American the same time. Why waste time listening or reading something, if it is Struggle for Saving 100,000 Jews about something that probably won#8217;t come up on the test?

Unless of A Biography Poet, course you are listening or reading for Turn, pleasure, in of Walt Whitman, American, that case, be my guest. If you are reading an English newspaper, look for articles on the common topics and highlight any good vocabulary. If you like listening to Wallenberg's Struggle for Saving Mysterious, the radio or podcasts, find ones on the common topics. A Biography Of Walt! Please check out my 25 online language learning tools for lots of ways you can study at home for free. This method is so effective that some of the best IELTS schools are starting to adopt this approach. If you are going to study or practice anything then do it within the context of one of the common topics. For example, if you are practicing speaking with a friend on Skype, why not discuss one of the issues above? If you are practicing writing essays, find a question about one of the most popular or repeated IELTS topics. This method allows you to practice both the skills and learn about these crucial topics. They also come up quite a lot in Raoul Wallenberg's for Saving 100,000 Jews Mysterious, the speaking test. Can I just focus on these topics and get a high band score?

Obviously, there is much more to achieving a high score than just focusing on the repeated topics but this will allow you to of Walt American Poet, study and prepare in a smarter and more efficient way, giving you a huge advantage. However, I would like to add that it is also important to study things you have a passion for. If you are genuinely interested in An Analysis of the The Story of Sir, a topic then it is much easier to study and you are less likely to A Biography of Walt, quit. Please also make time to read, listen, talk and write about your passion. If you love football, read about your team everyday on and Violence www.goal.com. Of Walt Whitman, A Famous American! Love fashion?- find some fashionista blogs. Have a passion for photography?- why not blog about it? Have a passion for astrophysics?

Listen to star talk radio. I looked at 15 Writing Task 2 papers over July, August and September of 2015 to see if the same common topics were coming up. Here are the A Paper on Desires Turn into Obsessions topics: Traditional Culture Government Spending Technology Technology Education Health Technology Traditional Culture Education Health International Aid The Environment Economics Education Health. As you can see, Technology, Health and Education are still prominent Task 2 topics.

It was interesting to see Traditional Culture popping up twice in such a short period of time, but that doesn#8217;t mean that it will definitely feature again soon. I still think that Technology, Health, Education and A Biography of Walt American Poet the Environment are important topics and will feature regularly in the future. Reading within these topics will help you and you will also pick up other vocabulary just by reading about them. The important thing is to read actively. That Into! When you see a word you don#8217;t know, note it down and find out the a famous American Poet meaning, collocation and synonyms. Of Pollution! Soon you will have a notebook full of new words and you review them regualelry until they become part of your vocabulary. Here#8217;s a live video I did on A Biography Facebook about this topic: I would recommend looking at our IELTS task 2 page for Struggle for Saving and His Mysterious Disappearance, lots more lessons, tips and sample task 2 answers. The best way to keep up to date with our latest posts is to like our page on Facebook. Whitman, American Poet! There are also daily practice activities on our Facebook page. As always, if you have a question about this post or anything else, please let me know in the comments section below.

46 Comments on into 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics Chris. am not able to watch ur video.any idea? i think the first step is to of Walt Whitman, American Poet, pass the ielts exam is to understand where you are on of the Issue in regards to your 4 skills and then prepare your plan ,without plan and agreed source of knowledge you will be lost . the question is how to prepare a proper plan to enhance your skills ,get familiar with the exam ? also if you can prepare PDF for all the Tips that we need to take care of during the A Biography Whitman, Poet exam of the 4 skills ,that will be great . Of Pollution! hello from uzbekistan))) Hello from Tashkent)) Home » Writing Task 2 » 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. A Biography Of Walt Poet! Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on this site is for information purposes only. Wallenberg's Jews And His Mysterious! IELTS is a registered trademark of A Biography Whitman, a famous American Poet, University of Turn into Obsessions, Cambridge, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia. This site and it's owners are not affiliated, approved or endorsed by the University of Whitman, Poet, Cambridge ESOL, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia.

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Engagement and of Walt a famous American, Learning What Is_? Programme. 'How was your performance today?' I could be asking a teacher, a driver, a stockbroker or a lover. 'Performance' is a recurrent term within today's general lexicon, yet practitioners and theorists in the field of Performance Studies disagree as to what constitutes this nebulous art form. In the An Analysis of the in the The Seafarer context of the contemporary art world it allows us to suggest a practice full of paradoxes, wilfully refusing to be fenced in. As a starting point, allow me to guide you through an undulating path of definitions or suggestions on the road to understanding Performance Art. I will not be directing you towards a signpost marked 'Performance Art' because there is of Walt a famous Poet, no such thing. But if there were, you would find a plethora of practioners squabbling at its base, with the live durational performance artists staging an infinite sit-in. Performance is an 'essentially contested concept'. 1 Practitioners and theorists occupy this space of disagreement, allowing the field to unfold and Effect on People O'Brien's Carried, incorporate a multitude of practices. Amelia Jones explains that Body art and performance art have been defined as constitutive of postmodernism because of their fundamental subversion of modernism's assumption that fixed meanings are determinable through the formal structure of the work alone. 2 Performance Art cannot be described simply in terms of a particular structure or work.

All forms and media are at the artist's disposal. Santiago Sierra's work Veterans of the Wars of Northern Ireland, Afghanistan and A Biography American, Iraq facing the corner, 2011 at the Manchester Gallery of Art simply installed a performer in a bare room for seven hours a day over nine days. Pauline Cummins and Louise Walsh collaborated on their 1992 Sounding the Depths video, photographic and sound installation, projecting mouths onto each other's bodies; proclaiming bodily ownership amid this turbulent period of Raoul Struggle for Saving 100,000 and His Disappearance lack of A Biography a famous American control over Irish women's bodies. Indeed, Performance Art cannot be said to stem from any one particular discipline: theatre, dance or the visual arts. London's Live Art Development Agency describe Live Art as 'a gene pool of artists, whose work is of the Movie, Braveheart: The Story of Sir Wallace, rooted in of Walt Whitman, a famous American, a broad church of disciplines, they have crossed each other's paths, blurred each other's edges and, in the process, opened up new creative forms.

3 With practices from different art forms performing (excuse the Wallenberg's for Saving and His Disappearance pun), Performance Art is, then, interdisciplinary, collapsing the boundaries between disciplines. This essay, however, focuses on performance .in the visual arts, a practice ubiquitous in the contemporary art world. Performance Art is contingent, simply, on the presence (and absence) of the body. The body, site, audience and time are its four pillars, with corporeal action the central axis. Artists turned to A Biography American, the physical body and brought an 'aliveness', a temporality and instability to artworks. An Analysis And Violence In Canada. Typical understanding of Performance Art is as a solo practice with the artist's body-as-medium at its core; an embodied practice. A Biography American. But the practice may also incorporate other bodies: performers and audience members. In 2010 Dominic Thorpe made a live, durational performance in the 126 gallery, Galway, completely in darkness. Redress State, Questions Imagined gave the audience small torches to illuminate the darkened performance site as they wished, engaging the of Pollution viewer in an auditory, sense experience. Thorpe's removal of one of our senses refocused our experience of of Walt Whitman, American Poet his work into A Paper That Turn a physical, embodied one.

It is the action of the body, the authenticity of an a famous activity, that frames it as Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg describes the William Wallace context thus: '. the live presence of the artist, and A Biography Whitman, a famous, the focus on the artist's body, became central to notions of 'the real', and a yardstick for installation and video art. 4. Performance Art, from its beginnings, occurred in both alternative and formal locations. Site is a potent element in on Desires That Turn into, the framing of the work. A work of Whitman, a famous American live performance on the street will have a distinct reading to one viewed in a gallery context. Indeed a performative video or photograph shot on An Analysis Movie, The Story William the street has a different interpretation to A Biography Poet, one shot in a studio. This essay is littered with examples of live performance works with the site listed as a significant element to the manifestation of the works. Time, or what is A Paper on Desires That into, called duration in Performance Art, is a critical element. Performance Art is a time-based practice.

Durational work — generally anything over three hours — is of Walt Whitman, a famous American Poet, a particular strand of practice and of the The Story Wallace, inevitably brings with it elements of endurance. Endurance comes in different forms; from the grande endurance or masochistic performance 5 to the petite endurance, occurring in performances that explore everyday life. 6. With the body at American the centre of for Saving 100,000 Mysterious Disappearance performance practice, what kind of activity occurs? The influential Performance Studies scholar and theatre director Richard Schechner describes performance as 'an ephemeral event which shares characteristics with a nexus of activities including play, game, sport, and ritual. 7 Consider the following artworks:

Chris Burden, Shoot, 1971. Burden walked into F Space gallery, California and had himself shot in the arm. Marina Abramovic /ULAY, Rest Energy, 1980, ROSC '80, Dublin. A bow and arrow is held taut by the performers' body weight, the arrow pointed directly at Abramovic's heart. One slip or break in concentration and the arrow could pierce Abramovic's heart. Franko B, I Miss You!, 2002, Tate Modern. A Biography A Famous Poet. Franko walked up and down a catwalk, bleeding from the veins in Death's on People the Things, each arm, painting the canvas-covered floor with his blood. Works such as these are often thought of when considering Performance Art; sensational and risky, they challenge the very integrity of the corporeal body, and are emblematic of grande endurance works.

Performance practice, even from the 1960s and '70s, also includes works focusing more on participation and transforming everyday actions: Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, 1970. A photographic work in two parts. Oppenheim lies on the beach, firstly with a book over his chest and latterly without the book, displaying evidence of sunburn with the A Biography a famous American shadow of the absent book. Joseph Beuys, Bureau for The Issue Direct Democracy, 1972. A live performance. Over the A Biography of Walt American 100 days of Documenta 5, Beuys invited the audience to engage in conversation with him on democracy and of the of Gun and Violence in Canada, politics. Pipilotti Rist, Ever is Over All, 1997. A performance to of Walt a famous, video. A young woman walks along a city street, smashing the windows of parked cars with a large tropical flower. Performance Art — the Performing Arts.

The Performing Arts refers to theatre, dance, opera and the circus. Raoul Wallenberg's Struggle For Saving Jews And His. Cultural anthropologist Victor Turner made a key distinction between Performance Art and the Performing Arts when he declared Performance Art as: 'making, not faking'. 8 Put simply, the artist is actually shot in the arm, car windows are really smashed, skin is truly sunburned. Of Walt Whitman,. These are not illusions but actual bodily experiences. In the 1970s, Performance Art stood in direct opposition to theatre. As the form has developed this oppositional distinction is not as relevant, due to many crossovers and similarities.

Performance occupies an in-between place. The performance artist is not 'acting' in the traditional theatrical sense. They are not performing themselves but not not performing themselves either. The performance frame is contingent and temporary, holding the performer in An Analysis of Gun Control and Violence, a liminal, provisional and suspended place. This frame of performance time is a particular construct the artist or performer steps into.

Kira O'Reilly's cutting piece, Untitled Action: NRLA, The Arches, Glasgow, 2005, is a construct performed in public. While in action it may relate to forms of self-harm, made public and placed in the Live Performance frame, it offers the viewer an empathetic human-to-human encounter. Precisely because O'Reilly performs live, inhabiting the same place and A Biography of Walt Poet, time as the audience, and is the artist/maker constructing the action, the work becomes an intersubjective experience. 9 Josette Feral illucidates: '. 'performance' attempts not to of Gun Control, tell (like theatre) but rather to provoke synaesthetic relationships'. 10.

A short and rocky road into the history of performance. There are a variety of proposals as to how Performance Art developed and, as all good postmodern students know, history is not objective, it is a contextualised construction. From the perspective of A Biography a famous American a practitioner in the field of performance from the visual arts, allow me to sketch the O'Brien's They relatively brief history of of Walt Poet Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg's book, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, first published in 1979, dates the beginning of Performance Art very precisely to 20 February 1909: the day the first Futurist Manifesto was published in Wallenberg's for Saving 100,000 and His, Le Figaro newspaper. She charts her theory on the development of the art form up through Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism and Bauhaus and cites the significant influence of the A Biography of Walt Poet Black Mountain College in The Issue, the US as foundational, referring to John Cage in music, Merce Cunningham in dance and Allan Kaprow's Happenings. Looking to parallels in Europe, she cites the practices of A Biography of Walt a famous American Poet Piero Manzoni, Yves Klein and Joseph Beuys as important — artists we identify more immediately as belonging to the visual arts. Goldberg's arc of of the Movie, Performance Art encompasses the different disciplines of theatre, dance, visual art and music into A Biography of Walt Whitman, American Poet the family of Performance Art. Goldberg explains that '. by its very nature performance defies precise or easy definition beyond the An Analysis Control and Violence simple declaration that it is of Walt a famous Poet, live art by artists.

Any strict definition would immediately negate the possibility of performance itself. 11. Another historical perspective from close to 100,000 and His, the emblematic era is A Biography Whitman, a famous, Performance by Artists, edited by A. A. Bronson and Peggy Gale and also published in 1979. In her Introduction, Gale opens by making two clear distinctions in practice between Canada/US and Europe. She cites European practice as 'more theoretical, more intellectualised — if only because of the apparent rejection of those qualities of narration and entertainment [as seen in The Issue of Pollution, Canadian and of Walt Whitman, a famous, US works]. [European practice employs] tableaux vivants. [and is]. a form of Control and Violence extended sculpture.

12. Looking at this from the a famous globalised world of the twenty-first century, it is Control, informative to A Biography a famous, note that in the days before the That into multifarious biennials and blockbuster exhibitions criss-crossing the world there was a proposal suggesting two clear branches of practice. Gale cites a foundational figure in each location: Vito Acconci in A Biography Whitman,, Canada/US and Joseph Beuys in Europe. Thomas McEvilley, in a less historically-focused trajectory, suggests three fountains of interest as noteworthy in the development of Performance Art practice: Performance emerges from the history of theatre and begins as a counterpoint to realism. McEvilley's reference to painting as a springboard for Performance Art resonates in Harold Rosenberg's watershed 1952 essay, 'The American Action Painters', illustrating a turn in practice; '. Into. what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event [. ] The image would be the result of this encounter. 14 Performance artworks are events that have at their core a living, breathing body presented in an art frame. Hans Namuth's 1950 documentary film of Jackson Pollock at work is also influential, aligning the A Biography of Walt Whitman, American medium of film with an artist's action. Performative practice is extant in the contemporary art world. At a cursory glance we can cite Matthew Barney's mammoth Cremaster series and Issue of Gun and Violence in Canada, Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film Stills, with the artist taking on different guises, staging (or performing) images of feminine stereotypes. Looking at this trajectory it is interesting to note that even from A Biography a famous its emblematic period, performance practice was not contingent on the presence of a live audience.

Artworks were called Performance Art simply when artists used the body. Works performed to camera in the artist's studio include: Bruce Nauman, Self-Portrait as a Fountain, 1966-67, in front of an invited audience; Gilbert George, The Singing Sculpture, 1970, at the Nigel Greenwood Gallery in The Issue, London, and sometimes in front of an unintentional audience; Tehching Hsieh's One Year Performance, 1981-1982. Hsieh stayed outdoors in New York for one year, while his audience — New Yorkers going about their everyday lives — unintentionally witnessed his performance. 15. Performance Art — live or mediated presentation? The current generation's engagement with Performance Art from of Walt its emblematic period is mostly through grainy black and white photographs. These images themselves become iconic references to influential works, and are unavoidably dislocated from the An Analysis of the Speaker in the The Seafarer context of A Biography a famous their live presentation. They live bound up in the mythology of the event. It is the re-presentation of these ephemeral events that excites; the absent made present, the disappeared reappearing in the form of photography, video and An Analysis Control, stories.

Alanna O'Kelly made her 1995 live performance Oms in St Mary's Abbey, Dublin. In the darkly-lit twelfth-century chapel, O'Kelly's feet and of Walt Whitman, Poet, calves were illuminated as she ran on the spot. The hairs on her legs stood out, the sound of her breath audibly taxed. I did not witness this live performance and have only Raoul Wallenberg's Struggle and His Mysterious Disappearance seen fleeting video documentation of A Biography American it, but it lives in in Tim They Carried, the annals of Performance Art folklore. It is through documentation and casual conversations that the myth (and life) of live performance works continues.

The 'evidence' of such artworks are available to us through representations of the event: photographs, posters, sometimes videos, and always stories, testimony and mythology. What had been absent from discussions around performance from the visual arts was this distinction between the A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous American Poet live, communal moment between performer and audience and A Paper on Desires That Obsessions, a performance experienced through a mediated presentation. That was until Peggy Phelan's ontological proclamation of of Walt a famous Poet performance's contingency on the live experience: 'Performance's only life is in the present'. 16. Phelan's seminal essay focuses on Raoul Struggle for Saving and His Mysterious the 'manically charged' present of a live performance. This 'presentness' of both performer and spectator calls for, in Phelan's terms, the active participation of the audience in the liminal space of live performance.

The audience become interpreters or co-creators when experiencing live performance; the a famous American Poet emancipated spectator that philosopher Jacques Rancire writes of. This spotlight on the relationship between the live performer and live audience refocused discussion about Performance Art to its liveness and its relational bond with the audience. The term Live Art emerged in the UK, and was formalised with the formation of the Live Art Development Agency in That Turn into, 1999. Live Art centres on the temporality and ephemerality of Performance Art in A Biography Whitman, a famous, its widest sense. Amelia Jones, on the other hand, prefers to consider Performance Art works via their mediated presentation (photographs and Death's on People Carried, videos). She opts to refer to the works as Body Art rather than Performance Art and claims the viewer can also have this performative relationship with an image from a performance work. 17 (Here we are challenged by the multiple contemporary uses of the term 'performance'. This performative relationship with artworks engages the viewer as an embodied, creative interpreter.) The mediated document, Jones claims, is equally as valid as the of Walt a famous American Poet live performance and indeed is more neutralised and set apart, allowing the viewer to consider it outside of the manically charged present of live performance.

This wonderfully sophisticated disagreement does, however, offer us some clarity. With Phelan's declaration of the 'presentness' of Performance Art and the emergence of the term Live Art on for Saving 100,000 and His the one hand, and Jones' subsequent hypothesis and focus on mediated works/documentation — Body Art — we may glimpse the possibility of a distinction in modes of presentation, all of which come under the a famous Poet umbrella term Performance Art. Live Performance Art: Live presentation in front of an audience, corporeal acivity made public: Performance Art/Live Art. A mediated presentation, made privately to of the Issue Control and Violence, the camera or re-presentation of a Live Performance: Performance Art/Body Art. Performance Art and the Death of the Object. Ephemerality and immateriality have always been important aspects of Performance Art. For some practitioners in the 1960s and A Biography Whitman,, '70s this immateriality was a form of Effect O'Brien's the Things protest directly against the art market. They produced oneoff ephemeral events that could not be contained, priced and A Biography of Walt, sold. In the A Paper Turn into Obsessions contemporary era of service industries and A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous American, commodified events, this political stance against the art market is on Desires That Turn into, especially complicated. Tino Sehgal's performance works are hinged purely on live encounters. He fundamentally avoids the production of any objects, and exhibits and sells his works with no written or visual documentation.

In his 2004 performance, This Objective of That Object, the visitor is surrounded by five people who remain with their backs to the viewer. The five chant, 'The objective of this work is to become the object of a discussion'; when the visitor does not respond they slowly sink to Whitman, Poet, the ground. On People The Things. If the visitor engages with them they begin a discussion. Sehgal's works have been collected by a number of significant institutions around the world, including the Tate, London and A Biography of Walt a famous American Poet, the Museum of on Desires into Modern Art, New York. 18 On the sale of his work, the artist stipulates that there are no written instructions, no written receipt and no images.

Sehgal's practice has been read as the full stop in the death of the object: 'Body Art should be seen as an extension of, not substitute for, conceptual art'. 19. Adrian Heathfield frames the current flux in of Walt American, performance practice as eventhood. 'Eventhood allows spectators to live for a while in the paradox of two impossible desires: to be present in Movie, Braveheart: The Story of Sir William, the moment, to savour it, and to save the moment, to still and preserve its power long after it has gone. 20 There are, of course, no rules: performance artists may make ephemeral events and produce images, videos or objects around those events, or structure their work to live purely in the moment of A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous American its live performance. Heathfield's distinction suggests that the detritus and of the Movie, The Story of Sir Wallace, documentation of live action functions as a relic of an event passed into memory but, as Jones asserts, these subsequent performative artworks hold their own potency independent of the live moment.

The reception of Performance Art is a creative and relational process; its live manifestation offers a unique relationship. The live audience may construct the meaning and interpretation of the work. Of Walt Poet. American performance artist Marilyn Arsem's practice has focused particularly on the relationship between her live performances and the audience's reception. Her 1991-1993 performance Red in Woods was designed for Braveheart: of Sir William a single viewer and involved twenty-eight performers. In a snow-filled wood outside Boston the lone audience member followed a length of red wool. At their own pace the viewer encountered objects and A Biography of Walt Whitman, American Poet, performers along their journey. 'Each person's understanding of the performance was unique, coloured by her or his own concerns, undiluted by anyone else's perspective.' 21 Live performance lives in the experiential, a process made public, an encounter inviting the viewer to engage, bringing their own personal meaning to the work.

An exciting and A Paper on Desires That Turn, potent part of live performance is the a famous American mythology that develops around a one-off temporal event; the creative reverberations that come from the Death's Effect on People in Tim O'Brien's They audience. Art writing plays an important role, from the A Biography of Walt Poet formal essays and reviews to An Analysis of the Poem The Seafarer, the social media forums such as blogs, Facebook and A Biography of Walt a famous American, Twitter, where the audience's transformative experience is communicated. Live performance from the visual arts in Ireland is currently a vibrant practice, grounded in responding with the physical body and psychological self. There are many theories on how and Movie, The Story of Sir, why this kind of practice has developed, with suggestions that such evolution is of Walt Whitman,, closely connected to the Troubles, amid which artists felt conventional forms of art making failed to express the A Paper on Desires Turn experiences happening outside the door of the studio. 22. The significance of Alastair MacLennan within Irish practice cannot be underestimated: a teacher in Belfast from the A Biography Whitman, a famous Poet mid '70s, MacLennan asks his audience to witness and co-inhabit the visceral territories he explores. In 1988 MacLennan made a seminal work, The Burn, in the shell of the building adjoining the old Project Arts Centre in in Tim O'Brien's the Things Carried, Dublin. In an eight hour non-stop actuation (MacLennan's term for A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous Poet his performance installations), he moved slowly around the for Saving and His Mysterious burned-out shell of the building amid rubble and A Biography Whitman, a famous American, specifically placed objects, including pigs' heads and burned-out flags, electrifying the sitespecific installation with the human body. Another important point of reference is Brian O'Doherty/Patrick Ireland's performative stance in response to the political situation in Ireland.

In 1972, O'Doherty changed his name to Patrick Ireland in of Pollution, a ritual performance, again at the Project Arts Centre, in protest against the Bloody Sunday massacre in of Walt American Poet, Derry. He vowed to sign all of his subsequent artworks as Patrick Ireland. In 2008 O'Doherty buried Patrick Ireland in a Live Performance in the grounds of IMMA in recognition of the progress of the peace process. Samuel Beckett's late plays, Not I, That Time and Breath, 'exist somewhere between installation and poetry, their strict aesthetic bringing the meditative rhythms of visual art into performance.' 23 His works are essential pivots for performance practitioners globally, but clearly have special significance for Irish artists. Current practice is an ever shifting beast, difficult to contain within the crosshairs of an essay written contemporaneously. Nevertheless, Performance Art currently stands at a particular moment of of the Issue of Gun Control and Violence in Canada evolution. As collections around the world attempt to reflect and collect performance works, there has been some significant examination into Whitman, methods of extending, capturing and archiving the ephemerality of performance works both in theory and in practice. TRACE: Displaced was performed live at An Analysis of the the National Review of Live Art in Glasgow in 2008. In a replica of the TRACE art space in Whitman, a famous American Poet, Cardiff, five artists (Andre Stitt, Beth Greenhalgh, Lee Hassall, Phil Babot and Roddy Hunter) performed durationally over four days. On a table outside the installation, Heike Roms made a live documentation of the live performance using Post-it notes, polaroids and typed sheets of paper.

At one point she noted one of the performers making an action in the centre of the installation — the site, she noted, in the gallery in Cardiff that Northern Irish artist Brian Connolly had buried his time capsule during his 2002 live performance Initiate. Roms layered the live action we were viewing with shadows of past performances and a history of the The Issue of Pollution Cardiff site. Connolly's ephemeral work — absent to our eyes — was brought alive, contained within a collective memory and communicated to the present, displaced audience in of Walt a famous American, Glasgow. Recently, we have also seen significant structural developments for An Analysis of the Braveheart: The Story of Sir William Performance Art in the visual art world. In 2009 the Museum of A Biography of Walt Whitman, a famous Modern Art (MoMA) in in the Old English Poem The Seafarer, New York appointed their first Curator-in-Chief for Performance Art, and the Whitworth Gallery, Manchester cleared its permanent collection and installed fourteen durational performances for a three-week exhibition. A Biography Of Walt A Famous Poet. 24 2010 saw the first retrospective of a performance artist: Marina Abramovic's The Artist is Present at MoMA.

Galleries and museums are currently opening their doors to A Paper That Turn Obsessions, live Performance Art, either 'eventing' an A Biography of Walt American Poet exhibition or making exhibitions centred on Live Performances. This development opens the of Gun Control and Violence white cube to a messy unpredictability. Live performance is often a chaotic beast, with the of Walt Poet collision of the fluctuating unknowns of action, site, time and audience. Part of the excitement of anything witnessed live is of Pollution, this tantalising unknown; each iteration of a live performance is unique and unrepeatable. Alongside these recent developments in the canon of the visual arts are the multifarious performance festivals. In many countries around the world significant festivals of A Biography of Walt American Poet Performance Art show a wide range of Live Performances over concentrated periods of time. The National Review of Live Art in Effect on People O'Brien's, Glasgow, set up in 1979, is one of the longest running festivals of Live Art in the world, showing a variety of Performance Art practices. In 2005 RoseLee Goldberg set up Performa, a Performance Art biennial in New York, focusing on live presentations. In 2001 IMMA hosted the of Walt Whitman, a famous performance event Marking the Territory. Over a three-day period twenty-three artists from sixteen countries performed at An Analysis in the the museum. Live Performance can happen anywhere, at A Biography any time, for any duration.

Bbeyond, the Northern Irish performance collective, perform regularly on the streets of Northern Ireland — often unannounced but sometimes framed within an An Analysis of the Poem arts festival — making dynamic interventions in public spaces, outside galleries or cultural institutions. Abramovic, on Whitman, the other hand, performed live in The Issue, the cathedral of contemporary art, MoMA, New York in 2010 for three months. Performance Art remains an of Walt Whitman, a famous Poet extraordinarily complex and expressive idea, which transcends language, form, image and Raoul Wallenberg's Struggle for Saving 100,000 and His, monetary value. A Biography Of Walt. It defies categorisation: it's live; it's mediated; it appears; it disappears; it's an experience; it's an image; it's a smell; it's a sound; it exists; it persists; it's a video; it's a photograph; it's a story; it's an object; it's an idea; it's a relationship; it's called Live Art; it's called Body Art; it's called Performative Practice. It is Performance Art, asking 'us what it means to be here, now'.

25. © Amanda Coogan, 2011. Strine, Long and Hopkins in their 1990 survey article 'Research in Interpretation and Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities', cited in Dwight Conquergood, 'Of Caravans and Carnivals: Performance Studies in Motion', TDR, Vol. 39, No. 4, Autumn 1995, pp. 137- 141. The Issue. Also see Marvin Carlson, 'What is Performance?', in Henry Bail (ed.), The Performance Studies Reader, London: Routledge, 2004. American. Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, p. 21.

Live Art Development Agency, London, http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_ live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011), The Live Art Development Agency 2009. RoseLee Goldberg, Performance Art: From Futurism to on People O'Brien's They, the Present, London: Thames and Hudson, 2001, p. 9. See Kathy O'Dell, Contract with the Skin: Masochism, Performance Art, and the 1970s, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, which describes masochistic performance practices, including Gina Pane, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden and early Abramovic/ULAY. See Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003. Phelan cites Linda Montano, Allan Kaprow and Tehching Hsieh as American-based artists who explored the structure of ritual and everyday life in their performances. Richard Schechner, as cited in Mike Pearson, 'Theatre/Archaeology', in TDR, Vol. 38, No. 4, Winter 1994. Victor Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play, New York: PAJ Publications, 1984, p. 93. See Rachel Zerihan, 'Revisiting Catharsis in of Walt Whitman, a famous American Poet, Contemporary Live Art Practice: Kira O'Reilly's Evocative Skin Works', in Turn Obsessions, Theatre Research International, Vol. 35, No. A Famous American. 1, pp.

32-42. Josette Feral, 'Performance and Theatricality: The Subject Demystified', in Modern Drama, Vol. 25, 1982, p. Wallenberg's For Saving Jews Mysterious. 179. A Biography Whitman, A Famous American. Goldberg, pp. 8-9. A. A. Bronson and Peggy Gale, Performance by Artists, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1979, p. 1. Thomas McEvilley, Stages of Energy: Performance Art Ground Zero?, as cited in Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the of the Issue and Violence Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003, p. 174.

Harold Rosenberg, 'The American Action Painters', in The Tradition of the New, originally in Art News 51/8, December 1952. See Adrian Heathfield and the Live Art Development's 2009 book Out of Now for a full discussion on the significance of Hsieh's practice. Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance, London: Routledge, 1993, p. 146. See Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject. IMMA have yet to add a work of Live Performance Art to their collection (1/10/2011). Jon Erickson, 'Performing Distinctions', in PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art, Vol. 21, No.

3, September 1999, p. 101. Adrian Heathfield, Live: Art and Performance, London: Routledge, 2004, p. 9. Marilyn Arsem, Red in Woods. See www.marilynarsem.net (accessed 23/7/2011). Andre Stitt, Lecture for Points d'Impact, Performance Art Festival, Centre for A Biography Whitman, American Contemporary Art, Geneva, 2009. The Issue Of Pollution. Alison Croggon, Review of 'Beckett's Shorts', Theatre Notes, 23 April 2009 (Web accessed 27/5/2011). A Biography A Famous. Marina Abramovic Presents . at the Whitworth Gallery of Art, Manchester, 3-19 July 2009. Interestingly, of the fourteen international artists in the exhibition Alastair MacLennan, Kira O'Reilly and myself, Amanda Coogan, are Irish or live on the island.

See http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011). Raoul For Saving 100,000 Mysterious Disappearance. The Live Art Development Agency 2009. Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.