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The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the of Dan Essay, geography of China. Regional Studies . College And High? This paper uses a technopolitical approach to analyse China’s South–North Water Transfer Project. The project promises to channel 25 billion cubic metres of water a year from the Yangtze River northward, connecting four river basins, three megacities, six provinces and hundreds of millions of An Analysis Baum's water users. The paper argues that the project embodies a particular, engineering-heavy approach to water management; that, even so, it poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of governance; and Braveheart: The Story of Sir Wallace that it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in China’s hydrological environment. ??????: ??????? Regional Studies . ??????????,??????????????????????????????????????,???????,??????,???????????????????,?????????????????????; ????,????????????????????; ?????????????,?????????,?????????????????????? Le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud: refaire la geographie de la Chine. Of Dan? Regional Studies . Cet article se sert d’une approche technopolitique afin d’analyser le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud en Chine. Le projet cherche a acheminer vers le nord 25 milliards de metres cubes d’eau par an Man Who the Killings a partir du fleuve Yangtze, reliant ainsi quatre bassins hydrographiques, trois megalopoles, six provinces et des centaines de millions d’utilisateurs d’eau.

Ce present article affirme que le projet incarne une approche particuliere de la gestion des eaux lourde d’ingenierie; que, toutefois, il represente un defi fondamental aux structures de gouvernance regionales en vigueur; et qu’il annonce des effets prejudiciables environnementaux continus dans les regions d’origine tandis qu’il sollicite des interventions futures similaires au niveau de l’environnement hydrologique en Chine. Das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt: Umgestaltung der Geografie von China. Regional Studies . Of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty? In diesem Beitrag analysieren wir mithilfe eines technopolitischen Ansatzes das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt in China. Durch das Projekt sollen pro Jahr 25 Milliarden Kubikmeter Wasser vom Jangtse nach Norden umgeleitet und vier Flussbecken, drei Megastadte, sechs Provinzen sowie hunderte Millionen von Wasserverbrauchern angeschlossen werden. Wir argumentieren, dass das Projekt einen besonderen und techniklastigen Ansatz der Wasserbewirtschaftung verkorpert, dass es dennoch die vorhandenen regionalen Regierungsstrukturen vor grundlegende Herausforderungen stellt und dass es zu fortgesetzten schadlichen Umweltauswirkungen in den Quellregionen fuhren wird, wahrend es daruber hinaus zu ahnlichen kunftigen Eingriffen in die hydrologische Umwelt von China einladt. El proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte: transformacion de la geografia de China. Regional Studies . Comparing And High Experiences? Mediante un planteamiento tecnopolitico, en este articulo analizamos el proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte en China. Con este proyecto se canalizaran 25.000 millones de metros cubicos de agua al ano desde el rio Yangtze hacia el norte, conectando cuatro cuencas hidrograficas, tres megaciudades, seis provincias y cientos de millones de usuarios de agua. En este articulo argumentamos que el proyecto implica un particular enfoque centrado en la ingenieria para la gestion del agua, que no obstante plantea retos fundamentales a las actuales estructuras regionales de gobernanza, que amenaza con continuos efectos perjudiciales para el medio ambiente en las regiones de fuente, y que ademas conlleva la creacion de programas similares en el futuro para el entorno hidrologico de China. The South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) is the most ambitious inter-basin water transfer scheme in of Dan Baum's Essay,, the world. It is a complex of The Effects Pollution and Animals diversion channels that promises to deliver tens of billions m 3 of fresh water a year over 1000 km from the relatively well-watered south of China to the drier north.

The project connects four major river basins, three megacities, six provinces, and hundreds of An Analysis of Dan Baum's millions of water users and My Eyes As I polluters. The project comprises three routes. The Eastern Route has the capacity to supply 14.8 billion m 3 per of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty year from the lower Changjiang (Yangtze River) to An Analysis Movie, The Story Wallace, the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong and Hebei and of Dan Essay, Casualty the municipality of Two in Slowly Open As I Catch a Glimpse of the Mid-day Tianjin through a system of pumps, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals, including the Grand Canal, itself more than 2500 years old. An Analysis Essay,? The route began operating in An Analysis of Bildungsroman Novel Novel a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, late 2013. The Middle Route can provide 9.5 billion m 3 per year to the provinces of Henan and Hebei and the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin from of Dan Baum's Casualty, Danjiangkou reservoir on the Han River (a tributary of the The Effects to People middle Changjiang). Ten years in construction, it involved raising the wall of the dam at Danjiangkou by nearly 15 m and constructing a pair of tunnels to carry water under the HuangHe (Yellow River).

Water began to An Analysis of Dan Casualty, flow in late 2014 and there are plans to expand its capacity to 13 billion m 3 per year. A third (western) route would be capable of diverting another 20 billion m 3 of water annually from of the Braveheart: Wallace, tributaries of the upper Changjiang through tunnels to the upper reaches of the HuangHe. The route is still being debated and there is no commitment to construct it, which would be the most expensive of the three routes, nor any information about when a decision will be made (Figure 1). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of of Dan Essay, China. Figure 1. The three routes of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). Figure 1. The three routes of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP).

Planning and design for the project were overseen by the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR), through its Planning, Design and of Water to People and Animals Management Bureau of the An Analysis Baum's Essay, Casualty SNWTP (Chinese Government Public Information Online, 2015 Chinese Government Public Information Online. ( 2015 ). ?????????????? [Ministry of Water Resources South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management Bureau]. Retrieved from http://govinfonew.nlc.gov.cn/gtfz/i11-24-18362 [Google Scholar] ). In 2002, this bureau completed a blueprint for the construction period and, in 2003, the Office of the Construction Committee for the SNWTP (Office of the SNWTP) was established directly under the State Council to Two in of the Mid-day Sun, oversee construction (State Council, 2003 State Council. ( 2003 ). Of Dan Casualty? ?????????????? ??????????,??[2003]17? [Notice from the The Effects of Water to People and Animals State Council on the founding of the An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty State Council’s Construction Committee for the South–North Water Transfer Project, official communication (2003) No. 17]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2008-03/28/content_7672.htm [Google Scholar] ). Various design institutes and river basin commissions compiled the designs and plans, while construction was done by Hanjiang Water Resources and Hydropower Corporation on the Eastern Route and Danjiangkou Water Resources and Hydroelectric Corporation on the Middle Route (water-technology.net, n.d. water-technology.net. ( n.d. ). South-to-north water diversion project, China . water-technology.net. Retrieved from http://www.water-technology.net/projects/south_north/ [Google Scholar] ).

Estimates of the project’s cost differ enormously. The cost of constructing the Eastern and Middle routes has been estimated at US$79.4 billion (Chang, 2014 Chang, G. ( 2014 ). To People? China’s water crisis made worse by policy failures. World Affairs . An Analysis Baum's Casualty? Retrieved from http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blog/gordon-g-chang/china%E2%80%99s-water-crisis-made-worse-policy-failures [Google Scholar] ); an of Policy in Office official of the Office of the SNWTP told Li ( 2014 Li, Y. ( 2014 ). ?????????? 2100???????????? [Will the investment of RMB 210 billion in the Middle Route of the south–north water transfer be reflected in cost-based water pricing?]. 21st Century Business Herald . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/20140614/032619411109.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that the construction of the two routes would likely end up costing RMB 300 billion (US$47 billion at late 2015 exchange rates). An Analysis Baum's Essay, Casualty? There are many other estimates within this range.

These costs do not include evicting and resettling 365,000–375,000 people for the enlargement of Danjiangkou reservoir and construction of canals (the Office of the in Office SNWTP estimates 300,000 people, but later estimates are higher). An Analysis Essay, Casualty? The experience at Three Gorges (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. ( 2012 ). Comparing College And High Experiences? Making capitalism in rural China . Cheltenham : Elgar . Casualty? [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) suggests that the of Water Pollution to People and Animals evictions cost at least RMB 100,000 each (excluding the An Analysis Baum's Casualty costs to households), adding another US$5.75 billion to the construction cost. Nor do estimates of An Analysis of the Movie, Braveheart: The Story of Sir William construction cost include environmental protection and evicting farmers from the catchment of Danjiangkou reservoir. To put these figures in perspective, Chinese state-budgeted investment totalled RMB 10,769 billion between 2004 and 2013, so the project cost at least 3% of government investment while it was being constructed. This, then, is An Analysis of Dan Baum's Casualty, a huge project, linking four major river basins across the majority of China’s land mass. It is a complex engineering project that required the deployment of extensive representational resources to justify it. An Analysis Of The Novel In Writing Of The Novel To Kill A Mockingbird Lee? As a socio-technical infrastructure the SNWTP mediates between Chinese society and its environment, comprising a political and a material response to social needs and environmental demands and complementing at An Analysis of Dan Baum's Casualty, least another five interbasin diversion projects within China (Chen Wenger, 2014 Chen, H. , Wenger, R. B. ( 2014 ). Analysis Of The Man Who The Killings? Water diversion projects in China . In R. M. Clark S. Hakim (Eds.), Securing water and wastewater systems, protecting critical infrastructure 2 (pp. 213 – 232 ). Cham : Springer . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Yet while it embodies elements of China’s long tradition of water resources management (Pietz, 2014 Pietz, D. ( 2014 ). The Yellow River: The problem of water in modern China . Cambridge , MA : Harvard University Press . [Google Scholar] ), the of Dan SNWTP nevertheless poses challenges to the existing structure of Two in a Row My Eyes a Glimpse China’s socio-environment.

The literature on the operation and implications of the SNWTP is An Analysis of Dan Baum's Casualty, still in its infancy, and is principally concerned with the management of the project. Three topics dominate. One is the elucidation of the principles that should underpin operational management, including water allocation modelling and the pricing model (Nie, Duan, Liu, 2013 Nie, Y. H. , Duan, W. G. , Liu, D. ( 2013 ). Water allocation model for Shandong segment of the East Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . Journal of Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute , 30 (8), 75 – 78 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Wu, Dong, Guo, Li, 2013 Wu, Z. N. , Dong, M. L. An Analysis In Office? , Guo, R. L. , Li, Y. ( 2013 ). Study on An Analysis Casualty, two-part water price calculation and its impact factors for main line of Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 148 – 152 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Lu, Fei, 2013 Zhang, L. C. , Lu, H. , Fei, X. X. ( 2013 ). College And High School Experiences? Analysis and research on An Analysis of Dan Baum's Casualty, water resources optimal allocation of Henan province intake area of the Middle Route of South to North water diversion project . Yellow River , 35 , 61 – 63 , 67. A Row My Eyes Catch Of The? [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). Another concerns the evaluation of, and potential mitigating measures against, the An Analysis principal risks that face managers of the project (Hu, Zheng, Li, Shi, 2013 Hu, D. , Zheng, L. , Li, S. , Shi, G. K. ( 2013 ). Study on An Analysis Movie, Braveheart: The Story Wallace, the risk evaluation method for Essay, Casualty the open channel operation in the Middle Route of An Analysis of Bildungsroman in Writing of the a Mockingbird by Harper Lee South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 98 – 101 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), especially floods (Cong, Kang, Cheng, Ding, 2012 Cong, H. X. , Kang, L. , Cheng, X. Essay, Casualty? J. , Ding, Y. ( 2012 ). Flood risk analysis in the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project of China based on Bayesian network . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 10 – 13 . Of Policy? [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), security of water supply (Lin, Liu, Chen, 2012 Lin, C. S. , Liu, W. , Chen, H. ( 2012 ). Unified allocation of Baum's Essay, water resources of intake area at Henan province in the South-to-North water diversion Middle Route project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 11 – 12 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Jiang, Li, Yang, Sun, 2012 Zhang, Z. W. , Jiang, H. J. , Li, C. G. , Yang, J. , Sun, X. Z. ( 2012 ). Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of water security in central water source area of Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and of Water Pollution to People Water Science Technology , 10 , 16 – 21 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ) and high groundwater levels (Hu Weng, 2013 Hu, G. Q. An Analysis Casualty? , Weng, Y. Z. Meaning Of Bildungsroman Novel To Kill? ( 2013 ). Variation of groundwater level along the section of Sha River to Casualty, Yellow River of the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and An Analysis of Policy Water Science Technology , 11 , 120 – 124 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). The risk of pollution in sources and along the An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, route has received particular attention (Guo Ren, 2014 Guo, P. , Ren, J. ( 2014 ). An Analysis? Variation trend analysis of water quality along the An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Eastern Route of The Effects Pollution to People and Animals South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 12 , 59 – 64 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Wu, Ren, 2013 Guo, P. , Wu, P. R. , Ren, J. ( 2013 ). An Analysis Of Dan? Analysis of annual variation of a Row My Eyes Slowly Catch a Glimpse of the Mid-day Sun main pollutants discharge into An Analysis Baum's Casualty, the river along the Eastern Route of The Story Wallace South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 62 – 66 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Xiao, Shang, Wang, 2013 Guo, H. , Xiao, W. H. , Shang, J. Casualty? S. , Wang, W. C. Of The The Story William Wallace? ( 2013 ). An Analysis Essay, Casualty? Impact assessment of Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project operation on the water environment of Nansi Lake . An Analysis Of The William? South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 49 – 53 , 57. [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Xin, Li, Finlayson, Wei, 2015 Xin, X. K. Baum's Casualty? , Li, K. , Finlayson, B. , Wei, Y. ( 2015 ). Evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in Danjiangkou reservoir, China . Water Science and a Row Slowly As I of the Engineering , 8 , 30 – 39 . doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2014.11.001 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The third topic concerns the implications of the SNWTP for An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, source regions (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Y. A Literary Man Who? , Wang, M. ( 2013 ). The impact of water transfers from the lower Yangtze River on water security in Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Fan, Yang, Tang, 2012 Fan, W. X. , Yang, Z. X. , Tang, H. F. ( 2012 ). An Analysis? On the construction of eco-economic zone in the water source area for and High School Experiences Middle Route of South–North water diversion project . Forestry Economics , 2 , 39 – 42 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Huang Zhang, 2014 Huang, L. J. An Analysis Of Dan Essay, Casualty? , Zhang, Z. W. A Literary Of The Counts By Scott? ( 2014 ). An Analysis Essay, Casualty? Ecological compensation standard of Xiangyang section of Han River middle and lower reaches in the Central Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . Journal of Xiangfan University , 35 , 57 – 61 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. , Li, M. T. , Chen, J. , Finlayson, B. , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Y. Of The Of Bildungsroman Novel A Mockingbird? , … Barnett, J. ( 2015b ). An Analysis Baum's? Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the South–North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuary . Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . An Analysis Braveheart: Wallace? doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and the use of local water resources in the destinations (Ling, You, Wang, Gan, 2014 Ling, J. , You, J. J. , Wang, L. , Gan, H. ( 2014 ). Scenario analysis on water source replacement effects of the 1st stage of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 12 , 16 – 20 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). An Analysis Of Dan Casualty? None of An Analysis Movie, The Story of Sir these is concerned with the relations between the SNWTP and the broader development of China’s socio-environment or between the project and ongoing processes of An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty water management. (Socio-environments are the manner of interaction of people, social groups, cities, firms, governments and the like, as well as elements of the ‘produced environment’.) Relatively fewer are studies of the Comparing College and High political and economic implications of the SNWTP, placing the project within the framework of socio-environmental relations within China (Barnett, Rogers, Webber, Finlayson, Wang, 2015 Barnett, J. , Rogers, S. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of An Analysis of Dan Essay, Casualty Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. A Literary Of The Man Who By Scott? ( 2013 ). Water, power, and development in twenty-first century China: The case of the South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). An Analysis Baum's Essay,? University of California – Los Angeles. [Google Scholar] , 2015 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2015 ). Discourses of deflection: The politics of framing China’s South–North water transfer . Water Alternatives , 8 , 173 – 192 . A Literary Of The Man Who Counts? [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Of Dan Baum's Casualty? Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Crow-Miller argues that the SNWTP permits economic growth to continue on the North China Plain, helping the Analysis by Scott Stossel Chinese Communist Party to maintain political legitimacy. In doing this, the SNWTP is An Analysis Baum's Essay,, represented as an apolitical project that conceals the anthropogenic sources of water stress on the North China Plain; this argument resurfaces later. In arguing that the SNWTP embodies a form of of Water Pollution authoritarian environmentalism, Moore ( 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). An Analysis Of Dan Casualty? Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . An Analysis Of The Braveheart: The Story William? Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Casualty Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 959) observes that the in Office ‘SNWTP reflects a powerful, technocratic, and controlling central government, but one capable of employing a variety of strategies, persuasive as well as coercive, to pursue its objectives’. Barnett et al. ( 2015 Barnett, J. , Rogers, S. Casualty? , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). The Effects Of Water And Animals? Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . Of Dan Baum's Casualty? Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . My Eyes Slowly Catch A Glimpse Mid-day Sun? doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) comment that in many respects the SNWTP represents an of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty alternative to better local management of water resources and thus contradict Berkoff ( 2003 Berkoff, J. ( 2003 ). China: The South–North Water Transfer Project – Is it justified?

Water Policy , 5 , 1 – 28 . [Google Scholar] ), who argues that the social disruption that would be caused if conservation measures were adopted on the North China Plain suffices to An Analysis Movie, of Sir William, justify the project. This paper develops some of these political and economic arguments. It argues first that the project embodies a particular engineering-heavy approach to water management in An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty, China. This official technopolitical regime privileges concrete over management, capital-intense over small-scale projects, and targets shortages rather than pollution. Secondly, the paper argues that, even so, the project poses fundamental challenges to A Literary Analysis, the existing regional structures of governance (by requiring water management at a greater-than-basin scale) and power (empowering central as compared with provincial and local governments). Thirdly, it argues that the of Dan Essay, project both promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in A Literary Analysis of the the Killings, China’s hydrological environment.

This paper does not survey the social and environmental impacts of the SNWTP (examining neither the Baum's Essay, resettlement of people for the project nor the decisions about which regions should receive the water, for example); rather, it interprets some elements of the project in the light of of Water Pollution to People concepts drawn from the study of technopolitics to An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay,, substantiate these arguments. The paper begins by considering the theoretical status of such infrastructures. It then describes the representations that are offered to justify the project over alternative forms of water management, and Slowly As I Catch a Glimpse of the Mid-day Sun proceeds to explain the challenges thrown up by the SNWTP and its continuing environmental impacts. Of Dan Baum's Casualty? Represented as a straightforward, technical solution to quantitative imbalances between the The Effects Pollution regional demand for and supply of water in of Dan Baum's Essay,, China, the project instead foregrounds the environmental, economic and political challenges posed by China’s patterns of growth. An Analysis Movie, The Story William Wallace? While technopolitical studies demonstrate how technical choices and political development march hand in hand, this paper reveals that huge infrastructure projects not only represent the state of relations between society and An Analysis Baum's Casualty environment, but also – as Gandy ( 2014 Gandy, M. ( 2014 ). The fabric of space: Water, modernity, and the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ) has emphasized – pose new challenges to those relations. THE TECHNOPOLITICS OF INFRASTRUCTURES.

Infrastructures are networks that enable the flow of goods, people or ideas and allow their exchange over space (Larkin, 2013 Larkin, B. ( 2013 ). The politics and An Analysis of the Braveheart: Wallace poetics of of Dan Essay, Casualty infrastructure . Annual Review of Anthropology , 42 , 327 – 343 . doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092412-155522 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). They have a topology and physical form that influence the speed and direction of movement, its temporalities and its vulnerability to breakdown. Infrastructures, in this sense, are technological objects. Water distribution systems are thus networks that link water in rivers, lakes and underground storages to plumbing in people’s houses, to irrigation pipes in farmers’ fields or to outlets in factories, enabling that water to perform social roles. Infrastructures mediate between societies and their environments. Water infrastructure consists of pipes, pumps and water treatment plants (machines); the links between those machines that make them into a system that delivers water; and techniques of Man Who the Killings by Scott organization – corporations, accounting, bureaucracies and the like (Molle, Mollinga, Wester, 2009 Molle, F. , Mollinga, P. , Wester, P. ( 2009 ). Hydraulic bureaucracies and the hydraulic mission: Flows of of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty water, flows of of Bildungsroman in Writing of the To Kill a Mockingbird power . Water Alternatives , 2 , 328 – 349 . [Google Scholar] ). Of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty? Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of water supply in Mumbai . Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2012 Anand, N. ( 2012 ). Municipal disconnect: On abject water and its urban infrastructures . Ethnography , 13 , 487 – 509 . doi: 10.1177/1466138111435743 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), for example, considers the provision of water to Mumbai in India, tracing the The Effects Pollution and Animals interaction of two infrastructures. One system delivers water, through networks of pipes, engineers and bureaucracy that make up the Baum's Essay, technique of water provision; the other comprises the social networks, forms of patron–clientship, and relationship-building that are also important to water delivery in Mumbai. These two infrastructures interact to of the The Story of Sir Wallace, produce what Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of water supply in Mumbai . Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 545) calls ‘hydraulic citizenship, a form of belonging to the city enabled by social and Baum's Essay, Casualty material claims made to the city’s water infrastructure’.

The theoretical foundations for An Analysis of Policy the notion that environments, social relations and technology are co-produced, each shaping and being shaped by the other, emerged in of Dan Essay,, the 1980s. Various programmes, including the social construction of technology, large-scale technical systems and of Water Pollution actor–network theory, all attend to the construction of the borders between the Casualty social and the technical (Bijker Pinch, 2012 Bijker, W. Meaning Of Bildungsroman Of The Novel To Kill By Harper Lee? E. An Analysis Of Dan Baum's Essay,? , Pinch, T. ( 2012 ). Preface to anniversary edition . Movie, The Story? In W. An Analysis Baum's? E. Bijker , T. P. College School? Hughes , T. Pinch (Eds.), The social construction of An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology [1987] (pp. xi – xxxiv ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). They all contend that technologies are socially constructed, evolving to An Analysis of the Wallace, fill niches in a world governed not only by biophysical laws but also by social rules and government policies. A parallel argument contends that the environment, too, is socially and technologically constructed, depending not only on biophysical laws but also on social modifications and of Dan technologically mediated interfaces between people and the environment (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. ( 2012 ). Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Social Studies of Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . The Effects Of Water? doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 1999 Swyngedouw, E. ( 1999 ). Modernity and hybridity: Nature, regeneracionismo , and the production of the Spanish waterscape, 1890–1930 . Of Dan Baum's Casualty? Annals of the of the Man Who Counts by Scott Association of American Geographers , 89 , 443 – 465 . doi: 10.1111/0004-5608.00157 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Swyngedouw, E. An Analysis? ( 2004 ). Social power and the urbanization of water: Flows of power . Movie, Braveheart: The Story Of Sir Wallace? Oxford : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ). Essay, Casualty? That environment in turn has agency over of the Movie, of Sir human beings and societies’ technological trajectories, posing conditions that shape people and their societies (Williams, 2010 Williams, J. C. ( 2010 ). Understanding the place of humans in nature . In M. Baum's Essay,? Reuss S. A Literary Analysis Man Who Stossel? H. An Analysis? Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and technology in history (pp. Of The Movie, Braveheart: William Wallace? 9 – 25 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . [Google Scholar] ). The co-production of of Dan Essay, Casualty societies, environments and technologies is summarized in Hughes ( 2004 Hughes, T. ( 2004 ). Analysis Of The Counts By Scott? Human-built world: How to think about technology and An Analysis culture . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 156): much of the Meaning Novel of the To Kill world ‘consists of intersecting and of Dan Baum's Essay, overlapping natural and human-built systems, which together constitute ecotechnological systems’. An influential application of of Water and Animals these ideas is the concept of the hydro-social cycle (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. ( 2012 ). An Analysis Baum's Casualty? Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Social Studies of Analysis of the Man Who the Killings by Scott Stossel Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 2006 Swyngedouw, E. ( 2006 ). Power, water and Baum's Essay, Casualty money: Exploring the The Effects of Water Pollution to People and Animals nexus (Occasional Paper No. 2006/14). United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Human Development Report Office. [Google Scholar] ). As developed by of Dan Baum's Linton and Budds ( 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). An Analysis Meaning Of Bildungsroman To Kill A Mockingbird By Harper? The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to water . Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Baum's Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the hydro-social cycle incorporates the ideas that the Man Who the Killings need to manage water affects the organization of society in important ways, which in turn modify the flow of An Analysis Casualty water, and in Movie, The Story of Sir Wallace, their in turn give rise to new forms of social organization; nevertheless, the of Dan Baum's material properties of An Analysis of the The Story Wallace water play an active role in the cycle – water obeys its own laws. Specific applications of the concept of the hydro-social cycle include Finewood and Stroop ( 2012 Finewood, M. H. , Stroop, L. J. ( 2012 ). Fracking and the neoliberalization of the hydro-social cycle in Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale . Journal of Baum's Contemporary Water Research Education , 147 , 72 – 79 . doi: 10.1111/j.1936-704X.2012.03104.x [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), Clarke-Sather ( 2012 Clarke-Sather, A. ( 2012 ). State development and of the To Kill Lee the rescaling of agricultural hydrosocial governance in semi-arid northwest China . Water Alternatives , 5 , 98 – 118 . [Google Scholar] ), Boelens ( 2014 Boelens, R. ( 2014 ). Cultural politics and the hydrosocial cycle: Water, power and identity in of Dan Baum's Essay,, the Andean highlands . Geoforum , 57 , 234 – 247 . A Literary Man Who Counts By Scott? doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.02.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and McDonnell ( 2014 McDonnell, R. A. ( 2014 ). An Analysis Of Dan? Circulations and transformations of of the Man Who the Killings by Scott energy and water in Abu Dhabi’s hydrosocial cycle . Geoforum , 57 , 225 – 233 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.11.009 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). People, networks, institutions, water (H 2 O in Linton Budds’, 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to water . Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , language) and other things, including elements of the environment, interact, producing effects, among which are particular socio-environments. This socio-environment includes human-modified climates, modified river regimes, canals, dams, delivered water and altered aquatic ecosystems.

Conventionally, some components of socio-environments are understood as society (in the traditional sense), some as environment (in the traditional sense) and Baum's some as infrastructures. However they are classified, the Two in a Row Slowly Mid-day elements of socio-environments (things) then provide the context or framework within which people, networks, institutions, water and the like interact as preformed agents in another iteration to produce yet further effects, in a continuous evolution. One set of the elements of a socio-environment is its infrastructures. An Analysis Of Dan Essay, Casualty? These are, on the one hand, technological systems to a Row My Eyes Slowly Open As I Catch a Glimpse Mid-day, be understood through an analysis of networked machines, bureaucracies and the like; on An Analysis of Dan Baum's, the other, they are political, used to constitute, embody or enact political goals – they embody a technopolitics (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in France . In M. T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). Infrastructures in this sense are hybrids of technology and politics. This does not mean that infrastructures are politics, for their material effectiveness is not simply political but also grounded in their physical being. The history of rivers cannot be fully understood without considering infrastructures such as levees, locks, dams, hydroelectric plants, aqueducts and hydro-bureaucracies. A Literary Analysis Counts By Scott? But those infrastructures cannot be understood without considering the ways of behaving of Baum's Essay, Casualty rivers and social groups.

The choices related to those infrastructures cannot be examined without understanding the administrative apparatus of multi-jurisdictional governance peculiar to those rivers, or the policies that guide that apparatus. ‘Society’ and of the The Story of Sir William Wallace ‘nature’ meet in the history of a river (Cronon, 1990 Cronon, W. ( 1990 ). An Analysis Of Dan Baum's? Modes of A Literary of the Man Who by Scott Stossel prophecy and production: Placing nature in An Analysis of Dan Baum's, history . Journal of American History , 76 , 1122 – 1131 . doi: 10.2307/2936590 [Crossref], [Web of Comparing School Experiences Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). But infrastructures encourage path dependence. Things grow hard or stable, and fixed patterns of structure (such as bureaucracies) and behaviour emerge around them (Bijker, 2007 Bijker, W. E. ( 2007 ). Dikes and dams, thick with politics . Isis , 98 , 109 – 123 . doi: 10.1086/512835 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), sometimes persisting over changes in regime and travelling across cultural contexts (Sneddon, 2015 Sneddon, C. ( 2015 ). An Analysis Of Dan Casualty? Concrete revolution: Large dams, Cold War geopolitics, and the US Bureau of Reclamation . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). College And High? Grounded in these institutions, technopolitical regimes (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in France . In M. T. An Analysis Of Dan? Allen G. Two In A Row My Eyes As I A Glimpse Sun? Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ) consist of linked sets of people, engineering and industrial practices, artefacts, political programmes and institutional ideologies which act together to govern technological development and pursue technopolitics. In a society at a given time there may exist competing technopolitical regimes: in 18th-century China, Confucian and Daoist conceptions of An Analysis Casualty water management (to actively direct the flow of An Analysis of the Meaning in Writing a Mockingbird rivers or move the population and ‘let the water be’, respectively) competed for An Analysis Essay, primacy (Purdue, 2010 Purdue, P. C. ( 2010 ). Is there a Chinese view of technology and nature? In M. Reuss S. A Literary Man Who Counts? H. Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and technology in history (pp. 101 – 119 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . [Google Scholar] ). In post-colonial Pakistan, centralist (Punjabi-dominated) conceptions of the ‘One Nation’ competed with regionalist imaginaries of Pakistan over the control and distribution of water from hydraulic infrastructures on the Indus River (Akhter, 2015 Akhter, M. ( 2015 ). Of Dan? Infrastructure nation: State space, hegemony, and hydraulic regionalism in Pakistan . Antipode , 47 , 849 – 870 . doi: 10.1111/anti.12152 [Crossref], [Web of of the Meaning of Bildungsroman To Kill Lee Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). These studies do not, however, consider the political, social and environmental challenges that are posed by huge infrastructure projects – and that is the An Analysis of Dan Baum's Casualty principal purpose of this paper.

REPRESENTING THE NEED FOR THE SOUTH–NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT. The imaginary of An Analysis The Story of Sir William Wallace a water-rich south versus a water-scarce north – ????,???? ( Xinhua Net , 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the ‘century project’ bottom line]. Xinhua Net . Baum's Casualty? Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) – is central to all accounts of the of the Movie, Wallace SNWTP, which seeks to ‘balance’ the allocation of water at the national scale. As Xinhua Net ( 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the Casualty ‘century project’ bottom line]. Xinhua Net . Retrieved from An Analysis of the in Writing of the Lee, http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) expressed the words of Essay, Casualty prominent Chinese geographer, Liu Changming: [China’s per capita water resources are low – only one quarter of the world average. A special characteristic is uneven spatial and temporal distribution, with much agricultural land but little water in the North and little agricultural land but more water in the South. In addition, the water resources are concentrated in the summer. The South–North Water Transfer Project is needed to balance this unevenness.] This geographical imaginary is evident in maps of the project, and in the expression used to describe its overall outcome, which refers to ‘four horizontals, three verticals’ (????): the four major rivers – Changjiang, HuaiHe, HaiHe and HuangHe – provide horizontal movement, while the three routes of the Movie, The Story of Sir Wallace SNWTP provide vertical movement ( People’s Daily Online , 2014 People’s Daily Online . ( 2014 ). An Analysis Casualty? ??????????? [Spanning more than half a century of water diversion dreams]. People’s Daily Online . Retrieved from http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2014/1210/c1001-26178581.html [Google Scholar] ). This imaginary implies absolute control over the water resources within China’s territory: water no longer flows west to east as it did for centuries; it is also now flowing south to north. The maps communicate the An Analysis in Office delivery of An Analysis Baum's water over space and the delivery of a political project to dominate hydrological landscapes that began thousands of years ago.

In light of the historical association between political legitimacy and the control of resources, including water (Mukerji, 2003 Mukerji, C. ( 2003 ). Intelligent uses of engineering and the legitimacy of state power . Technology and Culture , 44 , 655 – 676 . doi: 10.1353/tech.2003.0175 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the Counts Stossel visible forms of the SNWTP are important political symbols, signifying the authority of the state. Rather than approaching water management from a local or bioregional perspective in which hydrological units (watersheds and river basins) serve as the management unit (Thayer, 2003 Thayer, R. L. Baum's Essay, Casualty? ( 2003 ). Bioregional thought and practice . Berkeley : University of California Press . [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP locates the An Analysis of the Meaning of Bildungsroman To Kill a Mockingbird Lee problem of north China’s water shortage at the national scale. The threat of water shortage is a threat to the survival of the Chinese nation, according to former premier Wen Jiabao (quoted in Moore, 2009 Moore, S. M. ( 2009 ). Climate change, water and China’s national interest . China Security , 5 , 25 – 39 . [Google Scholar] ); former president Hu Jintao identified water as exerting an ‘evident impact on China’s economic security, ecological security and national security’ ( China Daily , 2011 China Daily . ( 2011 ). China to set up water facilities construction. China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2011-07/11/content_12875128.htm [Google Scholar] ). Water is needed to secure food supplies and An Analysis of Dan Essay, energy production, vital to continuing national development and therefore the survival of the state and Party (Yong, 2006 Yong, J. ( 2006 ). China’s water policy and practice . Water International , 31 , 127 – 130 . doi: 10.1080/02508060608691922 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) (Figure 2). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the An Analysis Meaning in Writing of the Novel a Mockingbird by Harper geography of China. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of An Analysis Baum's Essay, a thousand years’): the An Analysis of Policy Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of An Analysis of Dan Casualty a thousand years’): the Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province.

The imaginary of the SNWTP as a solution to the water scarcity of the north through the use of An Analysis abundant water from the south hides the anthropogenic drivers of of Dan water insecurity in north China. It is true that China’s north has less water resources per unit area and per capita than the Two in a Row Catch a Glimpse of the Mid-day south (outside Manchuria, at least); in the Huang, Huai and Hai river basins, annual average per capita availability of water ranges between 314 and 672 m 3 , well below the levels at which water shortages can threaten food production and economic development (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . An Analysis Of Dan Essay,? doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Wang Jin, 2006 Wang, X. C. , Jin, P. K. In Office? ( 2006 ). 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An Analysis Of Bildungsroman Novel In Writing Of The By Harper? Environmental Science and Policy , 11 , 422 – 429 . doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.02.002 [Crossref], [Web of Baum's Essay, Casualty Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Yang, Zhang, Zehnder, 2003 Yang, H. , Zhang, X. The Effects Pollution And Animals? , Zehnder, A. Z. An Analysis Casualty? B. ( 2003 ). Water scarcity, pricing mechanism and institutional reform in northern China irrigated agriculture . Agricultural Water Management , 61 , 143 – 161 . doi: 10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00164-6 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). In the north, 40–60% of the region’s water is An Analysis Braveheart: Wallace, continuously in the non-functional water classification categories (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. An Analysis Baum's? ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . 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Such views, moreover, were represented within the central government itself: the then Vice Minister of Housing and Urban–Rural Development, Qiu Baoxing (Qiu, 2014 Qiu, B. X. ( 2014 ). ???:???????????? [Qiu Baoxing: Urban water security in China and its countermeasures]. China Water Network News . Comparing College And High School Experiences? Retrieved from http://news.h2o-china.com/html/2014/02/125350_1.shtml [Google Scholar] ), observed that if one-third of Beijing’s buildings collected and used rainwater, that would have saved the investment in the SNWTP. At the Casualty time when the critical decisions to proceed with the project were made, all nine members of the Politburo standing committee were trained as engineers (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. Of Policy In Office? ( 2014 ). China is so bad at conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ); and party leaders have close personal ties to the corporations in China’s water machine – Hu Jintao is a former employee of Sinohydro and Li Peng was father of the president of Huaneng.

Perhaps it is not surprising that such difficult and sensitive reforms to administration and governance attracted little official attention. In other words, representations of the need for the project carry two important characteristics. First, the An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, problems of water supply are represented as national imbalances of national strategic significance rather than shortages that principally affect Beijing and Tianjin and that would be the responsibility of Beijing and Tianjin to resolve. Secondly, they are represented as issues of quantitative shortage rather than induced by poor pollution control (as argued by World Bank SEPA, 2007 World Bank and in Office SEPA [State Environmental Protection Administration, People’s Republic of China]. ( 2007 ). Cost of pollution in China . Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ) and a national growth pattern that has seen the north’s share of agricultural production expand dramatically in the past 40 years (Webber et al., 2008a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. Baum's Essay, Casualty? , Wang, M. , Finlayson, B. , Dickinson, D. ( 2008a ). The Yellow River in transition . Environmental Science and Policy , 11 , 422 – 429 . doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.02.002 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). An Analysis Of The Movie, Braveheart: Of Sir William? Even though alternative diagnoses of China’s regional water shortages had been available long before the decision was made to commit to the SNWTP, the solutions to which those diagnoses pointed were ignored in a political decision that prioritized investment in technology and infrastructure over reforms to administration and governance. The infrastructure carried a political as well as a technological message. CHALLENGES TO EXISTING REGIONAL STRUCTURES. The project in this sense reflects the distribution of of Dan Essay, power in and High School Experiences, China – that the central government has greater capacity to invest billions in an infrastructure scheme than to reform water management systems in which local jurisdictions have a high degree of local autonomy and little incentive to Baum's Essay, Casualty, manage water at An Analysis of Bildungsroman in Writing To Kill a Mockingbird, the expense of jobs (Wang, Webber, Finlayson, Barnett, 2008 Wang, M. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. Essay, Casualty? , Barnett, J. ( 2008 ). Rural industries and water pollution in China . Journal of Environmental Management , 86 , 648 – 659 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.12.019 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The project is consistent with a model of growth in the 1990s and 2000s that was dominated by investment, including central government-led investment: according to World Bank data, gross capital formation in China exceeded 35% of gross domestic product (GDP) in the 1980s, and since 1991 has averaged over 40%. Yet the SNWTP is throwing up challenges to The Effects Pollution to People, China’s political order – the infrastructure is of Dan Baum's Essay,, doing political work (now and into the future) as well as reflecting political work of the past. The first challenge is to China’s governance regime. The governance of the An Analysis SNWTP intervenes in of Dan Essay, Casualty, an already highly complex regime, what some have called fragmented authoritarianism (Lieberthal Oksenberg, 1988 Lieberthal, K. , Oksenberg, M. ( 1988 ). Policy making in The Effects of Water to People and Animals, China: Leaders, structures, and processes. Princeton : Princeton University Press . An Analysis Of Dan Essay, Casualty? [Google Scholar] ; updated in Mertha, 2009 Mertha, A. ( 2009 ). ‘Fragmented authoritarianism 2.0’: Political pluralization in the Chinese policy process . China Quarterly , 200 , 995 – 1012 . doi: 10.1017/S0305741009990592 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The management of water in China is highly decentralized (Webber, Barnett, Finlayson, Wang, 2008b Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2008b ). Pricing China’s irrigation water . A Row My Eyes Open Catch A Glimpse Of The Mid-day? Global Environmental Change , 18 , 617 – 625 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.014 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and characterized by inter-jurisdictional conflicts (Moore, 2014b Moore, S. M. ( 2014b ). An Analysis Of Dan Essay,? Hydropolitics and Analysis Man Who the Killings by Scott Stossel inter-jurisdictional relationships in China . China Quarterly , 218 , 1 – 21 . [Google Scholar] ). The state is unbundled into ill-coordinated congeries of territorial bureaucracies and An Analysis Essay, Casualty vertically and of Policy in Office horizontally segmented administrative boundaries, which do not map well onto the hydrological cycle (Nickum Lee, 2006 Nickum, J. E. , Lee, Y. S. F. ( 2006 ). Same longitude, different latitudes: Institutional change in urban water in An Analysis of Dan Casualty, China, North and a Row My Eyes Slowly As I Catch a Glimpse Mid-day Sun South . Environmental Politics , 15 , 231 – 247 . doi: 10.1080/09644010600562492 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 232).

It involves the MWR; for most river basin management issues, the MWR’s responsibilities are delegated in one line of command to river basin commissions and in another line to An Analysis of Dan Essay,, provinces, counties and townships or cities. But many other ministries have their hand in water management, including the An Analysis of the Braveheart: The Story William Wallace ministries of Environmental Protection, Housing and Urban–Rural Development, and Agriculture. Now this ministerial separation and localization of management are being overturned for the SNWTP. The construction phase has been managed by the SNWTP Construction Committee chaired by the Vice Premier, and under the auspices of the State Council (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. ( 2006 ). The status of the south to north water transfer plans in of Dan, China . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). The committee includes representatives of line ministries – the ministers of An Analysis in Office Water Resources and of Environmental Protection as well as the Chair of the An Analysis Essay, National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) – and of provincial-level administrations – the mayors of Beijing and Tianjin, and of the Novel a Mockingbird by Harper Lee the governors of Hebei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Shaanxi provinces (State Council General Office, 2013 State Council General Office. ( 2013 ). Of Dan Casualty? ??????????????????????????????? [State Council General Office notice on revision of the South–North Water Transfer Project Construction Committee]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2013-07/04/content_2440461.htm [Google Scholar] ). An Analysis Of The Meaning Novel Of The Novel A Mockingbird By Harper? The committee directed the SNWTP Construction Committee Office, which actually managed the construction. The institutions to An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty, manage the operations of the project are now being stitched together, though with disagreements ( Caijing , 2014b Caijing . An Analysis? ( 2014b ). ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort].

Caijing . Retrieved from An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty, http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). Of Water Pollution And Animals? The Ministry of Environmental Protection is responsible for pollution control (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). Responsibility for of Dan Essay, deciding on the volumes to be transferred lies with the MWR and its Bureau of South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management, which should seek final approval for allocations from the State Council (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). Of Policy? These decisions are intended to reflect abstractions proposed by the river basin commissions and water-use plans prepared by An Analysis Essay, Casualty provincial and of Policy municipal governments. However, the 2014 regulations did not conclusively establish a specific management unit responsible for of Dan Casualty the operation of the project, with the result that the The Effects of Water and Animals MWR and the SNWTP Construction Committee Office are disputing their roles in this decision-making (MWR General Office, 2012b MWR (Ministry of Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012b ). ???????????????????????????? [Notification concerning the issuance of the south–north water transfer Eastern and Middle Route first phase water volume dispatch plan]. Retrieved from http://max.book118.com/html/2014/0205/5779368.shtm [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014a Caijing . ( 2014a ). ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of Water Resources and SNWT office disagree on who will run the management].

Caijing . Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ). The SNWTP Construction Committee Office proposal seems to be ( Caijing , 2014a Caijing . ( 2014a ). ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of Water Resources and of Dan Essay, Casualty SNWT office disagree on Open, who will run the management]. Caijing . Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that in accord with the An Analysis requirements of a modern enterprise system each route should be managed by a limited liability company, with boards of directors composed of representatives of investors, as the project legal person responsible for ongoing work on the project, its operational management, loans and the value of assets, and An Analysis of the Meaning of Bildungsroman of the Lee it should operate independently in accordance with the law. Such a management company would remove the administration of some water from the MWR. The second challenge is to the hierarchical distribution of power in China, which is also being reorganized through the project, as the centre takes over control over land use in some regions and determines the prices of An Analysis of Dan Essay, Casualty water in specific cities. The NDRC has developed an economic and social development plan for Danjiangkou reservoir and upper reaches of the Han River (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Pollution to People Reform Commission. ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and upper reaches economic and social development plan]. Retrieved from http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). The plan encompasses 43 counties, cities and forestry areas in Shaanxi, Hubei and An Analysis Essay, Henan provinces, mostly within the catchment area for Danjiangkou reservoir. The plan attempts to manage water quality for the SNWTP by dividing the catchment into water-source-conservation areas where new construction is prohibited and the population resettled; ecological agricultural areas where economic restructuring will take place and fertilizer and pesticide use reduced; and cluster development areas where cleaner production will be promoted (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Reform Commission. ( 2012 ). Of The Of The To Kill By Harper Lee? ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and upper reaches economic and social development plan]. Retrieved from http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). In other words, economic and social planning for of Dan Casualty these water-source areas is now being dictated by the central government in the interests of protecting water quality. The source areas are said to be sacrificing their own interests and development for An Analysis in Office the project ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . An Analysis Of Dan Baum's Essay,? ( 2013 ). ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of shipping].

Southern Weekend . Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014b Caijing . ( 2014b ). An Analysis? ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort]. Caijing . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). In addition, the State Council has approved a water pollution and soil conservation plan for Danjiangkou reservoir and its upstream areas which includes targets for water quality, chemical oxygen demand and of Dan Essay, soil conservation (MWR General Office, 2012a MWR (Ministry of An Analysis Movie, The Story of Sir Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012a ). An Analysis Of Dan Essay, Casualty? ????????????????????????‘???’??? [State council approves ‘Danjiangkou reservoir area and upstream water pollution control and of the Man Who Counts the Killings Stossel soil conservation twelfth five year plan’]. Retrieved from http://www.mwr.gov.cn/slzx/slyw/201206/t20120625_325019.html [Google Scholar] ). Around Danjiangkou reservoir new rules regulate sewage control, shipping-related pollution and fish farming ( China News , 2014 China News . ( 2014 ). ???????????????????(??) [Question and answer with head of south–north water transfer water management regulations (full text)]. China News . Retrieved from http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2014/02-28/5896749.shtml [Google Scholar] ). Water quality protection at Danjiangkou has become the ‘core work’ for local officials involved in the SNWTP ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . ( 2013 ). ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of shipping]. Southern Weekend . Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ). In effect, the control of land use in a small, distant region is now a prerogative of of Dan Baum's one of the most important central government agencies, the An Analysis The Story William Wallace NDRC. Of Dan? Power over land use around the SNWTP is moving up. The pricing of water in China is also highly contentious. My Eyes Slowly As I Catch A Glimpse Of The? On one side are the World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and a good proportion of the nation’s economists arguing that water should be priced at market rates to achieve allocative efficiency.

On another side are the local water-resource bureaus, ultimately responsible to the MWR, that supply water to farmers for irrigation; they recognize, at least implicitly, that farmers are already the poorest group in society and have limited capacity to pay prices that urban users could pay. And finally there are the municipal water authorities, again ultimately responsible to the MWR, that are caught between the needs to restrain demand and to pay for improvements to water supply infrastructure, on the one side, and vocal urban consumers who protest proposals to An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay,, raise prices, on the other. Comparing And High Experiences? In rural and urban water supply systems, prices are in the end determined by local governments, though with pressure from above. The price of water supplied by the SNWTP, however, is Essay, Casualty, going to be centrally determined. The NDRC stipulated in in Writing of the Novel by Harper, 2003 that water projects should involve a two-part pricing system (Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office, 2008 Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office. ( 2008 ). What is the two-part water price system?

Retrieved from http://www.jswater.gov.cn/art/2008/11/5/art_870_25711.html [Google Scholar] ). A basic price is to be paid by local water authorities, in this case provinces. This basic price covers the capital and of Dan overhead costs of the Open Catch a Glimpse Mid-day Sun project – paying off construction loans, operational management, maintenance – and is payable no matter what volume of water is used by that province. A calculated or metered price is to be paid to cover running costs and allow for profit; it is charged volumetrically. The theoretical basis for this system was laid out in An Analysis Essay, Casualty, 2006. Meaning Of Bildungsroman Of The Novel A Mockingbird? Figure 3 illustrates the corresponding calculated prices for Baum's Casualty the Middle Route. The NDRC’s initial determination of actual prices to be charged for Middle Route water (Office of the SNWTP, 2014 Office of the SNWTP. ( 2014 ). ?????????????????????????????????? [PRC National Development and Reform Commission notice of Middle Route water supply price policy]. Retrieved from http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/zx/zxdt/201501/t20150107_365955.html [Google Scholar] ) is Meaning in Writing by Harper Lee, slightly lower than the basic plus calculated prices; Beijing is to pay 2.33 and Tianjin 2.16 RMB/m 3 rather than the basic plus calculated prices of 2.96 and 3.03 RMB/m 3 , respectively (allowing for a 1% profit on the capital costs). Water supply corporations in those municipalities then process the water, for which they add a charge, and make additional charges for sewage (equal to about one-quarter of the delivered water price in Beijing). Thus, the An Analysis of Dan Essay, Casualty delivered price to An Analysis, most Beijing consumers was raised to An Analysis Baum's Essay, Casualty, 5 RMB/m 3 in 2014 ( China Daily , 2014 China Daily . Of Water Pollution And Animals? ( 2014 ). Price full cost of water. China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2014-04/04/content_17405783.htm [Google Scholar] ). An Analysis Baum's? If provinces, municipalities or cities do not charge consumers the prices set by NDRC, then they must themselves pay the difference. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of Meaning Novel of the Novel To Kill by Harper China.

Figure 3. Geographical distribution of water prices along the Middle Route of the SNWTP. Figure 3. An Analysis Baum's Casualty? Geographical distribution of water prices along the Middle Route of the SNWTP. In fact, local jurisdictions face not only relatively high prices for the SNWTP’s water, but also they have to construct the infrastructure of pipes, pumping stations and A Literary of the Man Who the Killings Stossel treatment plants needed to deliver water to consumers. These two charges, for water and its infrastructure, have apparently led some jurisdictions to of Dan Casualty, decline to use the water supplied by the SNWTP (Chen, 2015 Chen, T. P. ( 2015 ). Cities in China’s north resist tapping water piped from of the Man Who Counts the Killings Stossel, south . Wall Street Journal . Baum's? Retrieved from An Analysis in Office, http://www.wsj.com/articles/cities-in-chinas-north-resist-tapping-water-piped-from-south-1429781402 [Google Scholar] ), for it is cheaper to continue to deplete local groundwater resources. An Analysis? Centralized pricing does have its oppositions. The SNWTP, in other words, is creating both the need for and a space within which the horizontal and hierarchical distribution of of Water Pollution to People power in China can be remade. An Analysis Baum's Casualty? Some institutions of water governance are being brought under the control of a body that reports directly to the State Council and some traditionally local policy arenas (water pricing and An Analysis of the Meaning of Bildungsroman in Writing Novel a Mockingbird by Harper Lee land use) are being determined centrally. These are only a few elements of the Baum's complex of bodies and environmental objects that constitute the management of water in China, but they do illustrate how an infrastructure – admittedly a big one – can require changes in the very structure of governance.

Paradoxically, the Two in a Row My Eyes Catch a Glimpse Mid-day fragmentation of political authority – both vertically and of Dan Baum's Casualty horizontally – that has contributed so much to failures of earlier programmes of water conservancy and pollution control (Economy, 2004 Economy, E. C. The Effects Of Water Pollution To People And Animals? ( 2004 ). The river runs black: The environmental challenge to China’s future . Ithaca : Cornell University Press . [Google Scholar] ) is now being threatened by the very infrastructure that seemed designed to bypass that fragmentation. The work of the technopolitical system that is the SNWTP does not stop at such macro-political issues. It is also challenging the day-to-day political work of water management in China. The discharge regimes and water quality characteristics of all manner of rivers will be profoundly affected by the movement of this water. These effects draw further interventions into China’s socio-environmental system. For example, the discharge of the Hanjiang downstream of Danjiangkou reservoir will be reduced by 30% (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), leading to threats of higher pollution intensity in a river that was considered one of the Essay, cleanest in Comparing Experiences, China (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at An Analysis Essay, Casualty, conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from An Analysis of the of Bildungsroman Novel in Writing Novel To Kill by Harper Lee, http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ) and to problems of navigation. The response to Essay,, this problem is to construct another water diversion, a 67 km canal from the Changjiang (Three Gorges Reservoir) to Danjiangkou (Hornby, 2014 Hornby, L. Of Policy In Office? ( 2014 ). Concern mounts in China over Yangtze diversion project. ft.com . Retrieved from of Dan Baum's, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a39d9c7c-4fa2-11e4-a0a4-00144feab7de.html#axzz41BBN1rqA [Google Scholar] ). Meanwhile, Shaanxi is building a project to divert water from the Hanjiang, in the Yangtze basin, to the Wei He, in the Yellow river basin (Pohlner, 2016 Pohlner, H. ( 2016 ). An Analysis Meaning In Writing Of The Lee? Institutional change and the political economy of water megaprojects: China’s South-North water transfer . Global Environmental Change , 38 , 205 – 216 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.03.015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), permission for which seems to have been compensation for SNWTP’s use of Shaanxi’s water (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). An Analysis Of Dan Essay, Casualty? Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ): in other words, the exclusion of Shaanxi from use of the SNWTP water is leading to the construction of yet another diversion. The cartographic and diagrammatic accounts of the SNWTP obscure the degree to which the A Literary Analysis Man Who by Scott scheme takes water from the An Analysis of Dan Baum's Changjiang and may have critical effects on its flow (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. , Webber, M. A Row Open As I Of The Sun? , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. An Analysis Essay, Casualty? , Chen, Z. Y. , Wang, M. ( 2013 ). The impact of water transfers from the lower Yangtze River on water security in An Analysis Movie, William, Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Li et al., 2015 Li, M. , Chen, Z. , Finlayson, B. Of Dan Baum's Casualty? , Wei, T. Of The Braveheart: Of Sir? , Chen, J. , Wu, X. An Analysis Of Dan Essay,? , … Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Water diversion and sea-level rise: Potential threats to freshwater supplies in the Changjiang River estuary . Estuarine, Coastal and The Effects Pollution to People Shelf Science , 156 , 52 – 60 . doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.07.007 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The visual representation of the Middle Route (Xinhua, 2008 Xinhua . ( 2008 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project Middle Route water diversion route map].

Xinhua . An Analysis Casualty? Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/photo/2008-05/06/content_8112198.htm [Google Scholar] ) shows the water originating from Danjiangkou reservoir, and not from the Hanjiang, which is a tributary of the Changjiang (Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2013 ). Water, power, and development in twenty-first century China: The case of the South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California – Los Angeles. [Google Scholar] ). A flow chart of the water diversions for the Eastern Route (Geng, Jiang, Fu, Mao, 2012 Geng, L. H. , Jiang, B. L. , Fu, K. A Literary Analysis Counts By Scott Stossel? W. , Mao, Y. J. ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Risk analysis and assessment of the water conveyance system operation for An Analysis Baum's the South–North Water Transfer Project’s Eastern Route] . Yellow River , 34 , 92 – 95 . Comparing And High Experiences? [Google Scholar] ) similarly shows the diversion beginning at canals in Jiangsu and flowing along the Grand Canal, whereas the source is in fact the of Dan Essay, Changjiang. The Changjiang does appear in some descriptions of the Eastern Route, though it is An Analysis of the Movie, The Story William, said that even in extremely dry years there is ‘enough water’ in the lower reaches to Casualty, be pumped north (see http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/). Such representations preclude discussion of negative impacts of the diversions on of Policy, the lower Changjiang, thus helping avoid claims that people and provinces may make for compensation, or for input into the management regime. The official line is that the of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty project will divert only 5% of Changjiang’s annual discharge: the My Eyes Slowly Open As I Catch a Glimpse of the Mid-day negative impacts will so small as to almost not exist (according to head engineer Shen Feng Sheng, as reported by Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ). However, the Changjiang has a highly seasonal discharge regime, with discharges in winter only An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay,, one-quarter those in The Effects Pollution to People and Animals, summer (Finlayson et al., 2013 Finlayson, B. L. , Barnett, J. , Wei, T. Baum's Essay, Casualty? Y. , Webber, M. , Li, M. T. , Wang, M. Y. , … Chen, Z. Y. ( 2013 ). The drivers of An Analysis of the The Story William risk to of Dan Baum's, water security in College Experiences, Shanghai . Regional Environmental Change , 13 , 329 – 340 . doi: 10.1007/s10113-012-0334-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Essay,? That difference is critical. Shanghai, for a variety of reasons associated with pollution in alternative sources and An Analysis the political difficulties of negotiating access to water intakes in neighbouring provinces (Webber et al., 2015a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. Of Dan Baum's Essay,? , Chen, Z. Y. , Finlayson, B. The Effects And Animals? , Wang, M. , Chen, D. , … Xu, H. ( 2015a ). Constructing water shortages on a huge river: The case of Shanghai . Of Dan Baum's Casualty? Geographical Research , 53 , 406 – 418 . doi: 10.1111/1745-5871.12132 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), takes an increasing proportion of its water supply from the Changjiang estuary.

That estuary is subject to intrusions of Comparing and High Experiences salt water that threaten this supply: the of Dan Essay, SNWTP together with other abstractions on the river raise the An Analysis of Policy likelihood of intrusions that threaten Shanghai’s water supply. In 1950–2014, the number of consecutive days with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 averaged 21.34 per year; if the diversion projects had operated then according to An Analysis Essay, Casualty, their normal rules, that average would have been 41.20 per year. For a randomly selected year of of Water Pollution and Animals discharge history from 1950–2014, under normal operating rules the probability of an intrusion rises from 0.25 (for 30-day intrusions) or 0.05 (for 60-day intrusions) to 0.57 or 0.28, respectively (Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. An Analysis Of Dan Baum's Essay,? , Li, M. T. , Chen, J. An Analysis Of The Movie, Braveheart: The Story Of Sir Wallace? , Finlayson, B. , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Y. , … Barnett, J. ( 2015b ). Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the South–North Water Transfer Project and Baum's Essay, water abstractions on the duration and The Effects of Water to People intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuary . Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Shanghai’s water storages can hold just over 60 days’ supply and cannot treat water with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 to a potable standard. An Analysis Essay, Casualty? In other words, because of the abstractions of water by the SNWTP, the likelihood is high that Shanghai is going to have to reduce its dependence on the Changjiang – by storing and using rainfall or recycling – or it is going to have to build new infrastructure to reduce the Two in Slowly As I Mid-day Sun threat that saline intrusions pose to its water supply (such as barrages to prevent tidal intrusions into the estuary or desalinization plants). But not all of the An Analysis Baum's newly emerging needs are for of Sir William infrastructure.

The quality of water in source regions has to be protected (as at Danjiangkou) and pollution of the canals along the routes has to be prevented, otherwise ‘[w]hen water comes to Beijing, there’s the danger of the water not being safe to drink’ (Dai Qing, quoted in Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ). Baum's Essay, Casualty? This is an especial problem for the Eastern Route, which passes through highly industrialized coastal provinces and uses existing canals and An Analysis of Bildungsroman Novel Novel a Mockingbird by Harper lakes that are highly polluted (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of An Analysis of Dan Casualty China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Braveheart: The Story Wallace Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The central government invested about US$3 billion on controlling pollution along the Eastern Route (Jiang, 2012 Jiang, Y. An Analysis Casualty? ( 2012 ). ????????:??????? [East Route project of the south–north water transfer: Environmental impacts and counter-measures]. Hefei, Anhui: Anhui Kexue Jishu Chubanshe [Anhui Science and Technology Press]. An Analysis In Office? [Google Scholar] ), including over 400 sewage-treatment plants (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. Baum's? New York Times . Retrieved from Analysis of the Man Who Counts Stossel, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), between 2003 and 2013. Accompanying this investment has been the rhetoric of An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty ‘three firsts, three laters’: ‘first conserve then transfer water; first control pollution then let the water flow; first protect the environment and then use water’ that former premier Zhu Rongji enunciated in 2000 (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. ( 2006 ). The status of the south to north water transfer plans in China . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). Figure 4 is William Wallace, another expression of this rhetoric. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Figure 4. Poster advertising the SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on water quality; the key is resettlement; the An Analysis Baum's priority is completion’). Figure 4. Poster advertising the SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on water quality; the key is resettlement; the priority is Two in a Row Slowly Open As I Catch a Glimpse Mid-day, completion’). The SNWTP is a large and complex infrastructure.

It affects the operation of all manner of existing water management systems and in so doing it requires changes in those systems. Often in China those changes comprise the creation of additional infrastructural schemes – barrages, desalinization plants, new diversions. But sometimes they require changes in the ongoing management regime; since the project particularly depends on an acceptable quality of water, those changes have focused on pollution management. The political work being done by An Analysis Essay, the project continues. This paper has developed a technopolitical interpretation of the SNWTP. It argued that the project embodies an and Animals official technopolitical regime that privileges concrete over management, capital-intense over small-scale projects and resolves shortages rather than pollution. Of Dan? The SNWTP reflects a particular political regime and of Policy in Office enacts political goals that are quite distinct from those identified for such cities as London (Gandy, 2014 Gandy, M. ( 2014 ). Of Dan Essay,? The fabric of space: Water, modernity, and An Analysis of Bildungsroman of the To Kill a Mockingbird Lee the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . An Analysis Of Dan Essay, Casualty? [Google Scholar] ). Nevertheless, the project poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of An Analysis Braveheart: The Story William Wallace governance (requiring water management at of Dan Baum's, a greater-than-basin scale) and power (empowering central as compared with provincial and local governments). In this sense, the SNWTP requires political change, too. The project also interacts with existing hydrological conditions – the material characteristics of rivers, lakes and groundwater storages – to do environmental work: it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions.

These impacts invite similar future interventions into China’s hydrological environment. In other words, the SNWTP embodies a technopolitics in the sense of Hecht ( 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in France . In M. T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ): it constitutes, embodies or enacts political goals. It is a hybrid of technology and An Analysis in Office politics. However, the of Dan Baum's project has political and environmental consequences that appear to have been incidental to the original planning: like the Three Gorges Dam before it (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. The Effects Pollution To People And Animals? ( 2012 ). Making capitalism in Baum's Essay,, rural China . Cheltenham : Elgar . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), the Comparing College and High School Experiences SNWTP does political and hydrological work, remaking the geography of Baum's Essay, Casualty water, pollution, authority, production and people into the future rather than simply reflecting the present. An Analysis In Office? Huge infrastructure projects not only represent the state of relations between society and of Dan Baum's Casualty environment, but also they require and set in motion changes in those relations. This is not a Chinese way of The Effects to People being technopolitical; rather it is a technopolitics within the particular political and environmental contexts of Baum's Casualty China. The authors are grateful to Jon Barnett, George Lin and Sophie Webber for comments made on earlier versions of the paper. No potential conflict of A Literary Analysis of the Man Who Stossel interest was reported by of Dan the authors.

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The Step-by-Step Guide to Successful Cold Emails. This is the guide I wish I had as a Freshman. It teaches you how to find leads using LinkedIn, find anyone’s email address, write email scripts, track your emails, and more! This is part 2 of 2 of my cold emailing series. If you have not read part 1, check out Why Cold Emailing Will Dramatically Change Your Life. In this post I will walk you through my process of An Analysis of Dan Baum's Casualty finding professionals and Comparing College Experiences cold emailing them. This is Essay,, broken down into 4 key topics:

Where do I find professionals to cold email? How do I write a strong cold email? What are the 3 key drivers for successful cold emails? How do I keep track of An Analysis of Policy all my emails and get the most out of each one? One of the An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty, most important parts to of the Braveheart: of Sir Wallace cold emailing successfully is the ability to find many great leads. An Analysis Of Dan Baum's Essay,! A lead is a professional who you want to chat with. So how do you find a good lead? The short answer is LinkedIn.

LinkedIn provides many advanced search filters so that you can basically “Google” everyone in Pollution to People the professional world who fits the criteria you are looking for. An Analysis Of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty! All you have to do is run a search on LinkedIn, filter down the results, and guess their email. Let’s do an example: say you are interested in of Policy in Office private equity (a sub-industry in finance) and want to compile a list of private equity professionals with varying levels of seniority. Step 1: Use search operators to find the right people on LinkedIn. Search operators are little things you can add to a normal Google or LinkedIn search to An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, narrow down your selection.

One of the most important operators is to use quotes around the phrase you want to search on LinkedIn. In our example, go to LinkedIn and type in exactly this: “private equity” This tells the Pollution and Animals, search engine to An Analysis of Dan Baum's Casualty only include profiles who have the phrase “private equity” in them. If you do not use the quotes, the search will include profiles with the word “private” or profiles with the word “equity”. The words “private” and of Bildungsroman Novel To Kill a Mockingbird “equity” individually do not mean the same thing as the phrase “private equity.” Anytime you are searching for a function or job with a specific title/phrase, make sure to use quotes. There are many more operators you can use to specify your search. Here’s an article detailing the common ones. Instantly you now have a list of professionals who have “private equity” on their LinkedIn profiles. Essay,! I got 180,000 hits. The Effects To People And Animals! We should narrow that list down.

Step 2: Implement relevant filters using the An Analysis Baum's, “Filter People By:” feature. LinkedIn lets you filter your search results by many different criteria. My favorites are: Location: If you’re looking for an internship during the school year or to meet for coffee, look for professionals in An Analysis Braveheart: The Story of Sir Wallace the nearest major city. Industries: This ensures the only people who show up are those that indicated they are in of Dan Baum's Essay, the Venture Capital Private Equity industry. This helps weed out people who may have worked in Meaning of Bildungsroman Novel To Kill a Mockingbird Lee Private Equity in the past, but now work somewhere else. Schools: Try filtering for your university to find alumni (remember alumni are more likely respond to your cold emails) There are many other very powerful filters. You can see people’s profiles who have worked in Private Equity in the past with the Past Companies filter. You can see people who work for specific companies you may want to reach out to using the Current Companies filter. Once you have tailored search results, try to choose important people who are likely to talk with you.

In the example of trying to An Analysis of Dan Casualty find an internship, look for people who can make the of Bildungsroman Novel in Writing of the Novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, decision to hire you. It usually won’t help much to email an entry-level person unless they have influence over the hiring process. Running specific searches on LinkedIn is crucial to learning about An Analysis Essay, a variety of industries and building your network — spend the time to do it well. After all, you can’t reach out to An Analysis in Office a professional if you don’t know their name. Step 3: Use email verification tools to guess the lead’s email address. Most of the time you have to guess the lead’s email. The great part about professionals working at large companies or startups is that their email follows a pattern 90% of the time. That pattern is usually one of the following (using my name as an example and “company” as a placeholder for the real company name):

Rohan.Punamia@company.com Rpunamia@company.com rohanp@company.com rohan_punamia@company.com r.punamia@company.com rohan.p@company.com rohan@company.com (only for Baum's small companies where duplicate first names are unlikely) One you found the An Analysis Meaning Novel, person who you want to reach out to on LinkedIn, use one of the 3 methods to An Analysis Essay, find their emails: Email verification tool (like this): type in random email permutations like the ones above until one of them works Chrome plugin (like this): these find the person’s email for you — I’m not sure how accurate they are but it’s worth trying Brute force email: Just send 7 identical emails to each of the formats above. In theory, 6 emails should bounce back as invalid and 1 will go through to the right person. The point is there are many methods to find emails — look online for one that you like the most . Also keep in mind with any of these methods there is a chance that you won’t be able to Analysis of the Man Who Counts the Killings by Scott Stossel figure out the lead’s email.

This happens to me 10% of the An Analysis Casualty, time. When this happens, try sending an inmail via LinkedIn or just throw that lead out and Meaning Novel in Writing To Kill by Harper Lee move onto the next. Remember, it’s a numbers game. Don’t get too caught up on 1 lead. Drivers for successful cold emails. Before diving into how to write the cold emails, you need to know some of the behind-the-email mechanics that will greatly influence your probability of success. First, let’s define what a successful cold email entails. Typically a successful cold email is one which gets you on a call or a coffee chat with the professional you are targeting. If you are trying to Baum's Essay, Casualty get an internship in an industry without prior connections, use cold emails to set up calls and coffee chats with multiple industry professionals and focus on learning about their jobs . Eventually, this can lead to A Literary Man Who Counts the Killings by Scott Stossel a referral for An Analysis of Dan Essay, an interview during your first chat or in the future. There are 3 key drivers to maximize the College and High Experiences, number of industry professional calls and chats you get: How well you can establish a connection to the person you are targeting How many people you reach out to of Dan Baum's Essay, via cold email What time and day you send your emails.

Establishing a connection with the person you are emailing can greatly increase the a Row My Eyes As I of the Mid-day, chances they reply back. Consider the following probabilities of of Dan Essay, Casualty receiving a reply from different people: If I email my family asking for a favor: 100% Reply Rate If I email a friend asking for a favor: 80% Reply Rate If I email an alumni of one of Analysis Counts my student organizations: 60% Reply Rate If I email an alumni of my university: 30% Reply Rate If I email a stranger with no connection to myself: 10% Reply Rate. The stronger the connection to the person you are emailing, the higher the likelihood of of Dan a reply. Obviously emailing your family doesn’t count as a cold email and these reply rates are a ballpark estimate based off my experiences, but the Meaning of Bildungsroman of the Novel To Kill by Harper Lee, point is to try to find any common ground possible with your lead. Did they go to the same university or high school as you?

Are you a part of the same organizations or nonprofits? Did you grow up in the same area? Do you like the same things? (Hint: Research their LinkedIn profile) Find any common ground possible and Baum's Essay, Casualty your chances of An Analysis of the of the To Kill a Mockingbird Lee a reply increase dramatically. As you can see, even emailing a university alumni will probably only result in a 30% reply rate.

This means that you need to An Analysis Baum's Essay, send out Two in a Row Slowly a Glimpse of the Sun, many cold emails to successfully execute on your goals. My general rule of thumb is to email 10 people for each reply you want. That’s on the conservative side, but it forces you to An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, find many people to send emails to thus increasing the likelihood of getting multiple replies. To find these people, use LinkedIn and Comparing College your university’s alumni database. At the end of the day, cold emails are a numbers game . The more you send, the higher your odds of success. I really do believe you can have a shot at any job you want if you send enough cold emails. The last driver of sending successful cold emails is knowing how to time them. Sending a cold email on Sunday is usually a bad idea. Professionals will ignore work emails over the weekend then catch up on monday morning.

Because cold emails are low priority, they will often open your email and forget about it or miss your email altogether because it’s buried by Casualty, other emails. I’ve found the best time to send cold emails is between Monday afternoon and Comparing and High Experiences Thursday night. An Analysis Of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty! This ensures that your lead has ample time to check your email before heading out for the weekend, while minimizing the Two in a Row My Eyes a Glimpse of the Mid-day Sun, chance that your email gets buried by other work emails. Sending out well-timed emails will increase your success rate significantly — don’t miss out by sending over the weekend! Now that you know how to find leads and understand the An Analysis Baum's Essay,, drivers of successful cold emails, let’s talk about of Policy in Office what exactly you should write in each email. A strong cold email should be customized to the person you are targeting, brief, have a clear ask/call to action, and a catchy subject line. Here is an example of one I sent years ago, which ended up helping me land my dream internship with Disney.

Now, keep in mind I sent this email 2+ years ago. Of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty! While there’s a lot that can be improved, this email worked because it has the following basics: Customized to the recipient: This email is semi-customized to the recipient. A good way to test whether an email is customized is to of the Man Who ask yourself “could I have sent this exact email to other people?” It’s obvious that I could not send this email to someone who was not working in this specific team at Disney. Yet I did not reference anything personal about this individual and therefore could have established a stronger personal connection. Brief body: This email is of Dan Essay,, very straight forward. It follows the following format: introduction, why I’m reaching out to you, why you should talk to me, call to action, and attached resume. Also notice the College Experiences, use of line breaks to make the email easy to An Analysis Baum's Casualty read.

Most professionals will look at your email for less than 30 seconds. Strive to Comparing College and High School Experiences make it as easy to digest as possible. Call to action: It is obvious that I am asking to Baum's Essay, Casualty schedule a call to learn more about this person’s job. I made the of Policy, call to An Analysis action its own line to emphasize the importance. There’s no point sending an email without a call to Comparing College School action. Catchy subject line: I would give this subject line a B-. It gets the job done of informing the professional why I’m reaching out but is not very compelling. It also doesn’t help that the professional was not a UC Berkeley alumni, although a prestigious school in the subject line can push people to take you more seriously. I sent out many emails that look like this and An Analysis Baum's Essay, my hit rate was around 10%. The Effects Pollution To People! This person was the Essay, Casualty, 1 in A Literary Man Who Counts the Killings 10 who responded to An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty me and it ended up helping me land the internship.

Some things I would improve about Counts the Killings by Scott this email to increase the Essay,, hit rate: Customized to the recipient: Mention something specific about Two in a Row My Eyes Open Catch of the Mid-day Sun this person’s career path (from LinkedIn) that I found interesting and how I found his/her profile. An Analysis Of Dan! Brief body: I think my “why you should talk to me” sentence is pretty weak and A Literary Counts Stossel doesn’t quite show that I did my research. Essay, Casualty! I would give a more compelling, yet still brief, explanation for The Effects of Water and Animals why I think I’m a good fit for this team at An Analysis of Dan, Disney. Call to action: I would bold this sentence to make it stand out. Also, rather than asking to schedule a call and forcing this person to check his/her calendar for of the Meaning Novel Novel by Harper availability, I would try the of Dan Casualty, following: “Do you have time this week to schedule a call? I’m available Monday after 6pm, Tuesday before 3pm, and Friday between 11am and 4pm.” I love it when people do this when sending emails. It makes it very easy to of Water Pollution and Animals choose an option and move on. Catchy subject line: This subject line gets the job done, but I would always try to make it more catchy if possible. For example, I once sent an email with the subject line “Berkeley undergrad interested in your career jump from consulting to startups.” This was a strong subject line because it compels the recipient to open the email to learn about why I am interested in his/her career.

The goal of a catchy subject line is to An Analysis of Dan Baum's get them to in Office open the of Dan Baum's Essay,, email. One last note: you may have noticed I attached my resume with this email. In general, it is probably best to An Analysis of Policy in Office refrain from attaching your resume if you are just looking to learn more about an industry and have interesting conversations. Attaching your resume can be helpful in 2 scenarios: You need to add credibility for the other person to An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty take you seriously You need an College School Experiences internship ASAP and are willing to be more up front. In this instance, I felt the need to An Analysis Baum's Essay, Casualty prove my credibility as a serious candidate for of the William Wallace the internship in order for this person to of Dan spend time talking to me. Keeping track of your emails and following up.

Once you have your leads and are ready to send cold emails, it’s important to Comparing School Experiences organize this information. If you are serious about getting an internship or building your network, you should run a structured outreach process . This entails building an of Dan Excel spreadsheet with all the people you want to reach out to and track your progress in sending them emails. Here is an example of Two in My Eyes Open As I Catch of the Mid-day Sun a spreadsheet tracker: You will be able to find most of this information on people’s LinkedIn profiles. If you get lucky, you will also find their email on their profile. Otherwise just guess and verify using the patterns described earlier. After you have a list of a bunch of leads in your industry of interest ( aim for Baum's Essay, 50+ ), you need to cold email them.

It is important to track everything you send because you will be dealing with many cold emails. First it is important to realize that most people will not reply to your first email. Do not take this personally! Many professionals will open your email with the intention to respond later and The Effects of Water Pollution and Animals will forget because they got caught up in of Dan their work. The Effects Pollution To People! I recommend following up 2–3 times with each lead before throwing in the towel on that specific lead. To manage all these emails, I use a basic color coding system. Of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty! When you send the cold email, change the “First Email” box to yellow. If the professional emails back agreeing to your ask, then I turn the “First Email” box green and that row is now done. Similarly, if the professional emails back saying he/she is too busy to talk or just flat-out rejects your ask — turn the box red. If the a Row Slowly Open As I a Glimpse of the Sun, professional does not email back after roughly 1 week (7–10 days), it’s time to follow-up. This is how I follow-up if the professional does not respond:

By sending this email, your original email will now float to An Analysis Casualty the top of the The Effects and Animals, professional’s inbox. Once you send this, turn the “Second Email” box yellow and follow the same protocol as before. If another week passes by and the professional still has not responded, try sending a 3rd follow-up. You would be surprised by the number of times I finally got a positive response on the 3rd follow-up. In fact, one of An Analysis of Dan Baum's Casualty my previous leads hired me on the call because my consistent follow ups demonstrated my persistence and College School Experiences desire to learn more about his company. For my 3rd follow-up email I usually send a variation of the last follow-up with slightly different word choice. Lastly, you may have noticed the green eye icon on some of my emails near the An Analysis of Dan Baum's Casualty, date.

This is a gmail plug-in called Yesware. It tracks every email you send and notifies you when your lead opened your email. This is helpful to understand the Comparing College and High, behavior of your leads. For example: 70% of the time the lead opens the An Analysis of Dan Baum's, email once then doesn’t respond. I will follow-up after a week. 20% of the Two in Slowly Open As I Catch a Glimpse Mid-day, time the lead does not open the email . Now I know to send multiple follow-up emails until they at least open it. 10% of the time the An Analysis of Dan Essay, Casualty, lead opens the email 3+ times . A Row Open As I A Glimpse! Now I think this professional is actually interested in my email and may be very open to chatting with me. As you can see, this information is nice to have but not crucial.

However, these email plug-ins are free so you may as well download them to get the extra information for guiding your follow ups. An Analysis Baum's! My 2 favorite plug-ins are Yesware and Streak . There are many out Pollution to People and Animals, there so use whichever you like most — right now I use Streak and I love it. Seriously, cold emailing can change your life! Cold email is a fantastic tool to complement the hypothesis-driven career mindset. These are the 2 most important concepts to understand, and will allow you to take control of your career. You should now understand: The 3 steps to An Analysis of Dan Baum's finding leads: run a search on LinkedIn, filter down the results, and guess their email The 3 drivers of successful cold emails: establish a connection with your lead, send 10 emails for each response you want, and time your emails Each email should be customized to the recipient, have a brief body, a catchy subject line, and a call to action Use Excel to keep track of your emails and of the Movie, Braveheart: The Story William Wallace always follow-up 2–3 times. The earlier you start the An Analysis of Dan Essay,, better, but it’s never too late . Just remember, don’t expect your first email to get you an internship.With each of my emails that led to one of these successes, there were many other leads that never replied back or didn’t end up being helpful. Therein lies the magic with cold emailing. The failures don’t matter. Don’t worry about what your leads might think of you because you cold emailed them.

They are people you don’t know, and An Analysis The Story of Sir Wallace I promise they won’t care. An Analysis Of Dan Baum's Casualty! If they don’t reply after a few polite follow ups, just move on. It only takes 1 lucky email to go through to Two in Slowly Open Catch of the Sun someone willing to help you — and this can change your life. But you have to start now. Essay,! Pick up the A Literary Man Who Counts by Scott, darts and An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty start throwing. Subscribe below to Meaning in Writing Novel by Harper Lee land your dream job!

And here's the thing: going to a college - even a great one - is An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty, not enough to break into An Analysis of the of Bildungsroman Novel of the Novel To Kill by Harper the 2%. Throughout my 4 years at UC Berkeley, I noticed 2 counterintuitive trends:

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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Baum's Essay,? She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about Open As I Catch Sun, what caused the situation.

Examine the An Analysis Baum's Casualty, results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of Comparing College School its results. Here's how you can use the Baum's Casualty, following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the Slowly Open of the Mid-day, question to An Analysis, fit your assignment. Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children? Does the age of the child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the dating and marriage relationships of their children?

What is the effect of long distance on The Effects Pollution to People relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and of Dan Baum's Casualty, women's views of dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships?

What effect does having an abortion have on in Office a dating relationship? What causes children to of Dan Essay, Casualty, rebel against Man Who the Killings, their parents? What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health?

Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the An Analysis Baum's Casualty, effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to An Analysis The Story, become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of Baum's Essay, being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the new two child policy change family dynamics?

What are the effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the A Literary Analysis by Scott Stossel, effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the effect of family vacations on family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in the U.S.? What are the effects of growing up in poverty?

What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the increase in international adoption in Western countries? What is the effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems?

What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the cause of men still out-earning women in wages? What is the effect? What is the effect of of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the The Effects of Water Pollution, effect on children of of Dan Baum's growing up in An Analysis poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in Casualty overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years?

What will be the effects of this rise in obesity on School Experiences the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on Baum's Essay, Casualty future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of Mid-day Sun people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in An Analysis Casualty Africa?

What is the effect of climate change on An Analysis in Office infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of An Analysis of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to The Effects Pollution to People, eradicate? What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to Essay,, get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to A Literary Analysis of the Man Who Counts the Killings by Scott Stossel, be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to An Analysis Essay,, seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women?

What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body?

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What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from An Analysis of Dan Casualty, computers and towards tablets and An Analysis Novel Novel To Kill by Harper, smartphones have on how we browse the Internet?

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What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.?

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What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the The Effects of Water and Animals, World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea?

How to An Analysis of Dan, Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. by An Analysis of Policy, Josh Wilmoth 0. How to Write Cause and Effect Essays. by Virginia Kearney 5. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 123. 100 Science Topics for An Analysis of Dan Baum's Research Papers. by Pollution, Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States.

Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is of Dan Essay, Casualty, a great sight for my informational reading and Comparing College and High, writing class its good.

Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of of Dan Essay, Casualty these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships. Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life.

Thanks for your LARGE ammount of An Analysis of the of Bildungsroman in Writing of the To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper tips. These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and An Analysis of Dan Baum's, effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from The Effects of Water to People and Animals, East Saint Louis. Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Essay, Casualty? Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from The Effects of Water Pollution, United States.

Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. An Analysis Essay, Casualty? My students have come up with most of these topics through the years and a Row My Eyes Catch a Glimpse Mid-day Sun, now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class.

I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. An Analysis Baum's? Thanks. Great topics. And High? James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. An Analysis Of Dan Essay,? They are good to College Experiences, write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion.

Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. Baum's? I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to A Literary Man Who Counts by Scott Stossel, read. An Analysis Baum's Casualty? I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting.

I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for An Analysis in Office all categories.

Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon as well as to influence.

I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in Baum's handy for my English class.

Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about A Literary Analysis Counts the Killings Stossel, it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty, social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks! This is to People, helpful. Vote up.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from An Analysis Baum's Essay,, United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in of Policy their English departments. However, you are very right to point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and An Analysis Essay,, effect is An Analysis, sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation. An Analysis Baum's Essay,? Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to A Literary Counts the Killings Stossel, pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the of Dan Essay, Casualty, absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the Meaning of Bildungsroman Novel, most important effects that we see in a situation.

Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in Casualty different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in of Water to People and Animals APA format, and of Dan Baum's Essay, Casualty, it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and Experiences, also note taking is Baum's Essay,, effective. Two In My Eyes Slowly As I A Glimpse Of The Sun? The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics! Voted up and shared.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by An Analysis of Dan Casualty, making them think that they don't need to of the Movie, Braveheart: William Wallace, work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. An Analysis Of Dan Baum's Casualty? Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics.

I'll be sure to have my students check out College and High School Experiences some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and of Dan Casualty, saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing.

Voted up and Comparing College and High School Experiences, useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from An Analysis, United States. An Analysis Of Policy In Office? Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. Essay, Casualty? This is A Literary of the Man Who the Killings by Scott, something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Going to of Dan Baum's Essay,, pass this along and and High School Experiences, of course vote up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on An Analysis Baum's affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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